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is, I might have been, and their combination will furnish, “I might have been loved,” the part required. The union, therefore, of the verb to be, and the perfect participle, form the passive verb; whilst the union of to be with the present participle, forms an active verb in the progressive form.

For the formation of the passive verb, it is absolutely essential to know the perfect participle thereof; and as this is, in many instances, different in the irregular verb from the past tense, it is necessary that the student of the English language should make himself acquainted with the perfect participles of such irregular verbs as are in frequent use. To say, "The exercise was began,” is improper, began being the past tense of the verb to begin. The verb to be is never united with the past tense, but only with the perfect participle, which, in the case of the verb to begin, is begun; the expression, therefore, should be, “ The exercise was begun.” Very many gross blunders in speaking and writing are continually made, from either a total ignorance or neglect of this principle. A list of the conjugation of irregular verbs is subjoined.

A regular verb is one that forms its past tense and past participle by adding d or ed to the present; as Love, loved, loved.

An irregular verb is one that does not form both its past tense and past participle by adding d or ed to the present; as,

was

arose

Present.

Past.
Abide

abode
Am
Arise
Awake

awoke Bear, to bring forth bore, bare Bear, to carry

bore, bare Beat

beat Begin

began Bend

bent Bereave

bereft ech

besought Bid (for-)

bad, băde
bound

Past Participle.
abode
been
arisen
awaked
born
borne
beaten or beat
begun
bent
bereft
besought
bidden
bound

Bind (un)

Present.

Past. Bite

bit Bleed

bled Blow

blew Break

broke Breed

bred Bring

brought Build (re-)

built Burst

burst Buy

bought Cast

cast Catch

caught Chide

chid Choose

chose
Cleave, to adhere clave
Cleave, to split clove or cleft
Cling

clung Clothe

clothed Come (be)

came Cost

cost Crow

crew Creep

crept Cut

cut Dare, to venture durst Dare, to challenge dared Deal

dealt Dig

dug or digged Do (mis-, un-)

did Draw (with-) drew Drink

drank Drive

drove Dwell

dwelt or dwelled Eat

eat or ate Fall

fell Feed

fed Feel

felt Fight

fought Find

found Flee

fled flung flew

Past Participle. bitten, bit bled blown broken bred brought built burst bought cast caught chidden or chid chosen cleaved cloven or cleft clung clad come cost crowed crept cut dared dared dealt dug or digged done drawn drunk or drunken driven dwelt or dwelled eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown

Fling Fly

given

graved ground

· Present.

Past.

Past Participle. Forsake forsook

forsaken Freeze froze

frozen Get got

gotten or got Gild

gilt or gilded gilt or gilded Gird

girt or girded girt or girded Give

gave Go went

gone Grave

graven or graved Grind

ground Grow grew

grown Hang, to execute hanged

hanged Hang, to suspend hung

hung Have had

had Hear heard

heard Heave

heaved or hove heaved Help helped

helped Hew hewed

hewn or hewed Hide hid

hidden or hid Hit hit

hit Hold hela

held Hurt hurt

hurt Keep kept

kept Kneel knelt

knelt Knit

knit or knitted knit or knitted Know knew

known Lade laded

laden Lay laid

laid Lead led

led Learn

learned or learnt learned or learnt Leave left

left Lend lent

lent Let let

let Lie, to lie down lay

lain or lien Lift

lifted or lift lifted or lift Light

lighted or lit lighted or lit Load loaded

loaden or loaded Lose lost

lost Make made

made Mean

meant or meaned meant or meaned

put

rose

Present.
Meet
Melt
Mow
Pay
Pen, to shut up
Put
Quit
Rap
Read
Rend
Rid
Ride
Ring
Rise
Rive
Rot
Run
Saw
Say
See
Seek
Seethe
Sell
Send
Set
Shake
Shape
Shave
Shear
Shed
Shew or show
Shine
Shoe
Shoot
Shred
Shrink
Shrive
Shut
Sing

Past.

Perfect Participle. met

met melted

melted or molten mowed

mown or mowed paid

paid
pent

pent
put
quit or quitted quit or quitted
rapped

rapped or rapt
read

read rent

rent rid

rid rode or rid

ridden or rid rung or rang rung

risen rived

riven rotted

rotted or rotten ran

run sawed

sawn or sawed said

said saw

seen sought

sought seethed

sodden sold

sold sent

sent set

set shook

shaken shaped

shaped or shapen shaved

shaved or shaven sheared or shore shorn shed

shed shewed or showed shewn or shown shone or shined shone or shined shod

shod shot

shot shred

shred shrunk or shrank shrunk shrived or shrove shrived or shriven

shut sung or sang sung

shut

Present.
Sink
Sit
Slay
Sleep
Slide
Sling
Slink
Slit
Smite
Sow
Speak
Speed
Spend
Spill
Spin
Spit
Split
Spread (be)
Spring
Stand (with-)
Steal
Stick
Sting
Stink
Ştride, (be-)
Strike
String
Strive
Strew, (be-)
Strow
Swear
Sweat
Sweep
Swell
Swim
Swing
Take (be-)
Teach
Tear
Tell

Past.

Perfect Participle. sunk or sank sunk or sunken sat or sate

sitten or sat slew

slain slept

slept
slid

slidden
slang or slung slung
slank or slunk slunk
slit or slitted slit or slitted
smote

smitten
sowed

Sown spoke or spake spoken sped

spilt

sped spent

spent

spilt span or spun spun spat or spit spitten or spit split

split spread

spread sprang or sprung sprung stood

stood stole

stolen stuck

stuck stung

stung stank or stunk stunk strode or strid stridden struck

struck, stricken strang or strung strung strove

striven strewed

strewed, or strowed

strown, strowed swore or sware sworn sweat

sweat swept

swept swelled

swollen swam or swum swum swang or swung swung took

taken taught

taught tore

torn told

told

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