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the application of much and many ; also between the several comparatives and superlatives of old. What is the difference between the expressions, “ The friend and counsellor," and “ The friend and the counsellor ?" (See Observation 10.) Give examples of what and which being used as adjectives. Explain this. What difference is observable, and when, between the application of these and those ? Give examples. When is the comparative and when the superlative properly used ? Is this rule always observed ? Give examples of its violation.
ON THE ADVERB.
The adverb, as its name implies, (ad=to or near, and verbum = the verb,) is used as the limiting word of the verb; that is, it shews the extent to which the verb is applied. In the expression, “The sun shines brightly,” brightly is an adverb, as shewing the manner in which the act of shining takes place, and it is said to qualify the verb shines. The adverb, moreover, modifies the adjective, and also another adverb. The expression, “A man strictly religious,” is much stronger than “A man religious.” It is the word strictly which gives the extra strength to the former, and it is the word religious which is qualified or modified by it ;-religious is an adjective: hence the rule“ The adverb sometimes qualifies the adjective." By the same reasoning, in the expression, “She writes very correctly," we find that very, an adverb, qualifies correctly, another adverb; hence--"The adverb qualities another
It has been said that the ad of the word adverb, signifies to or near; the propriety of the name adverb, as applied to this class, appears from the consideration of each, as the signification of ad in the name ; for first, the adverb generally is placed in immediate contact with the qualified word, as in the above examples ; or it may be considered as the complement of the qualified word, that is, a word superadded thereto, in order to render the expression more complete. Some adverbs admit of comparison, as, soon, sooner, soonest.
In this formation of the degrees they resemble adjectives. Sometimes the comparative and superlative degrees of an adjective are used as adverbs; as “He fought better the second than he did the first time,”—where better, usually called an adverh, qualifying the verb fought, is evidently an adjective, qualifying some noun understood, i. e. in a better manner. Sometimes, also, for a reason similar to that which obtains in the comparison of adjectives, the adverb is compared by the prefixing of more and most; as, “The eloquence of Demosthenes was most powerfully exerted towards inducing the Greeks to resist the encroachments of Philip.” The same explanation applies to most in this, as to better in the previous sentence.
It is one of the characteristics of the noun, pronoun, verb, and adjective, that they can form either the subject, copula (or connecting link), or the predicate of a proposition. It is one of the characteristics of the adverb, in common with the remaining classes of words, that it cannot do so. It does not form any of the essential parts of a sentence, but enters into a proposition, in combination with other words, for the purpose, as before said, of modifying them.
It has been already stated that, in the construction of language, men appear anxious to gain time by shortening expressions ;—from this cause probably resulted the introduction of the adverb into language, the idea expressed by it being always expressible by a combination of words; thus, therefore = for this reason ; whereby = by which means; whence
= from what place, or for which reason, &c. &c. By observing closely the use of the adverb, as a word modifying the parts of speech before mentioned, it will be seen that, by a combination of several words in a sentence, the same purpose is served ; now-a-days, at length, after-wards, hence-forward, no-less, mean-time, not-at-all, never-the-less, &c. &c. &c., serve as examples. Such expressions are called adverbial phrases.
In the expression, “ He lost but five 'hundred and ten pounds,” but is an adverb equivalent to only, qualifying the numeral adjective five hundred. In the expression, “ You read, but not with diligence," but is a conjunction, (to be treated of hereafter); hence it is seen that but may apparently belong to different classes, according to its functions in a sentence. The same may be shewn of other particles in numberless instances ; hence arises the impossibility of giving a complete list of adverbs. Nor is it necessary to give such. By observing accurately the use of a word in a sentence or clause of a sentence, it will readily be discovered whether a particle belongs or not to this class. Adverbs may be subdivided on a variety of principles ; the following subdivision thereof will serve every practical purpose :
1. Adverbs expressive of manner, as brightly, honestly, how, badly, well, happily, &c. &c.
The great bulk of adverbs of this class ends in ly, being formed from adjectives by the addition of this syllable thereto, which is therefore generally called the adverbial termination. Should the adjective end in y, preceded by a consonant, the y is changed into i before the addition of ly, as ready, readily ; happy, happily; steady, steadily.
2. Adverbs of time, as firstly, lastly, now, then, heretofore, when, &c. &c.
3. Adverbs of place, as where, whereat, there, thence, here, whither, hither, hence, thereabouts.
4. Adverbs of quantity, as largely, less, intensely, more, vehemently. (The greater part of this class, however, may be included under adverbs of manner.)
5. Adverbs of number, as once, twice, thrice.
6. Compound adverbs, belonging to one or other of the foregoing classes, as by-no-means, in-the-mean-time, mostdecidedly-not, some-what, to-be-sure.
7. Adverbs of causation, i. e., adverbs used in drawing conclusions, as hence, thence, wherefore, therefore, then.
8. Negative adverbs, as no.
9. Adverbs expressive of agency or instrumentality, as hereby, whereby, thereby.
Certain of the foregoing adverbs have different significations, and are arranged under different subdivisions, according to the peculiar signification they have in each sentence. The following adverbs, with their equivalent prepositional phrases, are especially worthy of attention.
Here = in this place.
Henceforward = from this time, There = in that place.
Thence = from that place. Where? = in what place ? Thence = from that time. Where ? = in which place? Thence = for that reason. Hither = to this place.
Thenceforward = from that time. Hitherto = to this time.
Whence? = from what place? Hitherward = towards this place. Whence? = for what reason ? Thither = to that place. Whereby = by which means. Thitherward=towards that place. Whereby ? = by what means ? Whither ? = to what place? Hereby = by these means. Whither? = to which place? Thereby by such means. Hence = from this place.
Wherefore ? = for what purpose ? Hence = from this time.
Wherefore = for which reason. Hence = for this reason.
Many of the foregoing adverbs are frequently used improperly. On reference to the foregoing list, it will be seen that the equivalent of here is—in this place : the expression, “ Come here," therefore, which means, literally interpreted, “ Come in this place,” should be, “Come hither.” In like manner, “Where did he go ?” should be, “ Whither did he go ?” “Go there,” should be, “ Go thither,” &c. &c. Such expressions as these, incorrect though they be, by use become stereotyped, and almost ineradicable, in the language. On this head, Professor Latham has the following remark :-“It is a common practice of language to depart from the original expression of each particular idea, and to interchange the signs by which they are expressed, so that a word originally expressive of simple position, or rest in a place, may be used instead of the word expressive of direction, or motion between two places.”
The adjective does not always qualify, but sometimes limits the signification or application of its noun; so likewise the adverb does not always qualify, but sometimes limits the application of the word with which it is grammatically connected; this is peculiarly true with regard to adverbs of the class given in the foregoing list. The position of the adverb, as well as other limiting particles, should be cautiously attended to, the same words being frequently found to convey perfectly different ideas by a different arrangement in respect to their order. “He lost only five hundred men, ,” “He only lost five hundred men;" here we have the same words, and yet nothing can be more distinct than the ideas conveyed properly by each. In the first expression, the men lost are limited in number to five hundred by the adverb only :—that is, it is denied that the loss amounted to more than five hundred. In the second, what is limited is not the number of men lost, but the act of losing, in contradistinction to any other that might have been predicated of the subject he. Tried by this standard, the following sentence from Chesterfield's Letters to his Son, will be found incorrect, —-"As to the modes of good breeding, they vary according to persons, places, and circumstances, and are only to be acquired by observation and experience ;"—the sense requiring, "and are to be acquired only by observation and experience ;" that is, by these alone.
QUESTIONS ON THE ADVERB.
Derive the name adverb. Give a list of adverbs. What classes of words do adverbs qualify? Give examples. Shew the propriety of the name adverb from a twofold consideration. Some adverbs admit of inflection ; give a list of such. Give an example of adjectives used as adverbs, and explain the principle thereof. State a characteristic of adverbs in common with the parts of speech not yet discussed, as contradistinguished from the other classes of words. From what probably arose the use of adverbs ? What are compound adverbs ? Give a list of such. Whence arises a difficulty of giving a complete list of adverbs ? Illustrate your answer by examples. How have adverbs been subdivided? What class of adverbs usually ends in y? Form adverbs from the adjectives—needy, wily, steady, lazy. What is the peculiarity of such formation, and the probable reason thereof ? Give a list of adverbs which have a variety of significations. Correct the expressions, – “Where did he go ?” “He went there yesterday ;" "He will come here to-morrow. What is Latham's remark on the origin of such expressions ? Give examples of the same adverbs conveying different ideas according to their arrangement, in order to prove the importance of observing the proper place of the adverb. Point out the adverbs,