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ber of a Christian church, than a corpse is to be a dination. They also had their office of lay eldermember of a corporation. I disliked, also, some of ship. They were commonly stricter about the qualithe Presbyterians, that they were not tender enough fication of church membership than scripture, reason, to dissenting brethren; but too much against liberty, or the practice of the universal church would allow, as others were too much for it; and thought by votes not taking a man's bare profession as credible, and as and numbers to do that which love and reason should sufficient evidence of his title to church communion, have done.' Baxter's candour here is the more ma- unless either by a holy life, or the particular narranifest, as his connections and opinions were, at that tion of the passages of a work of grace, he satisfied period, more identified with the Presbyterians than the pastors and all the church that he was truly holy; any of the other parties. His enlightened views of whereas, every man's profession is the valid reason the distinction between civil and ecclesiastical power, of the thing professed in his heart, unless it be disand the absurdity of coercion in matters of conscience, proved by him who questions it, by proving him guilty are also strongly and distinctly expressed, though in of heresies, or impiety, or sins inconsistent with it.' some other parts of his writings these things are not There are several other things alleged of the Indeso happily expressed. Though he was the friend of pendents, against which Baxter expressed his disapliberty, yet he seemed at times to be afraid of too probation, some of which might or might not be cormuch of it.
rect. Their principles were unpopular—they were Baxter was less friendly to the Independents than much in the minority—they were deemed ultras in to some other of the sects then prevalent. As some religion—some misapprehended, and others misreof the most powerful minds which figured on the po- presented, their sentiments a good deal of his inlitical arena during the commonwealth, were consid- formation had been obtained by hearsay—and Baxered, either from religious or political predilections, ter, with all his candour and straightforward honesty, to lean to this minor party, he very possibly was was sometimes credulous and rash in his cor.clusions. suspicious of their moderation, if, as a party, they Both in spirit and sentiment he approached nearer came into power. Many of them, also, were pre- to this despised sect than he was himself aware of. pared to go further than Baxter in curing acknow- | The above is only a brief specimen of the general ledged corruptions, pruning away human inventions outline which Baxter has drawn of the celebrated from the worship of God, and carrying forward the Assembly at Westminster. Of its general fairness principles of reformation. He had possibly some no party have much cause of complaint. His imjealousy, that some, in their dislike to ecclesiastical pression of the men who composed it was certainly tyranny, and others, in their zeal for a purer and favourable. For solid learning, fervent piety, zeal better order of things, might run either too fast or for the interests of religion, and concern for the good too far, and injure the peace of the church, and the of their country, there has seldom, if ever, been such tranquillity of the commonwealth; yet the opinions an Assembly of great and good men. There were he expresses of this minor section of the Assembly portions of alloy among all parties; but with all these is alike honourable to the candour of the writer, and deductions, there was a vast preponderance of excelthe character of the man. He says, “ Most of the lence. It was a period of great excitement. The Independents were zealous, and very many learned, best men in the nation felt that much was at stake. discreet, and godly men, fit to be very serviceable in Their civil privileges, and religious liberties, had been the church. In the search of scripture and anti- but recently torn from the fangs of kingcraft and ecquity, I found that in the beginning a governed church, clesiastical tyranny-a determined appeal had been and a stated worshipping church, were all one, and made to the sword—the elements of society were not two several things; and that though there might put in a state of fusion—the social, civil, and ecclebe other bye meetings in places like our chapels, or siastical systems underwent an ordeal—the errors private houses, for such as age or persecution hin- and misrule of centuries had to be cleared awaydered to come to the solemn meetings, yet churches the science of government was but imperfectly there were, no bigger, in respect of number, than learned---but piety and patriotism guided their footour parishes now. These were societies of Chris- steps in the midst of the paths of judgment, amid tians, united in personal communion, and not only sects and schisms, which intimidated the weak, and for communion by meetings of officers and delegates alarmned the selfish. in synods, as many churches in associations; but Much more was expected from the sessions of the I saw if once we go beyond the bounds of personal, Assembly than it was in their power, or that of any as the end of particular churches, in the definition, other, to achieve. The idol of uniformity was ó cast we may make a church of a nation, or of ten nations, down, but not destroyed. A portion of the old or what we please, which will have none of the na- leaven' still lurked in the minds of some of these ture and ends of the primitive particular churches. good men. It is very little that large Assemblies I saw also a commendable care of serious holiness have been able to accomplish in composing religious and discipline in most of the Independent churches; differences; and when they have called in the civil and I found that some Episcopal men, as bishop sword to enforce their decisions, they have done inUsher himself, did hold, that every bishop was inde- finitely more mischief than ever they did good-oripendent as to synods; and that synods were not pro- ginated more controversies than ever they have comper governors of particular bishops, but only for their posed-made more hypocrites by terror, than cordial concord.'
believers by love and given birth to more sects and He however adds: “But in the Independent way schisms than they have found it politic to extirpate, I disliked many things. They made too light of or- or possible to convert.
During the interregnum, or period of the com- | They are better to be without any, than have you monwealth, the minds of many good men were di- to preach to them. It is not to be wondered at that vided upon the propriety of past proceedings to the such rude cavalier treatment should have for ever late king, and the present principles of government, severed him from the church of England; and alas well as upon religious subjects and matters of ec- though he neither lusted after her honours nor emoluclesiastical regimen. Baxter had no more friendly ments for he afterwards refused from Lord Chanfeelings to what he deemed usurpation on the part cellor Clarendon the bishopric of Hereford-yet he of the Protector, than to the despotism and reckless lingered for a season after her altars, and was an ocstretches of arbitrary power in his predecessor, as casional conformist. The two following years of his if a legitimate king had a divine right to oppress life he spent chiefly in London. He was looked upon his subjects, and establish iniquity by law. He as a friend to monarchy, and was chosen to preach signed, or entered the submission' to Cromwell and before the Parliament in April 1660, which was the the Parliament; but his predilections were in favour day preceding that on which they voted the king's of monarchy. He had little personal attachment to return. By his years, his intelligence, his standing, Cromwell
, and no great partiality for several measures and weight of character, he gave an impulse to the of his government, though, like many others, he returning tide of loyalty to the banished prince of found the most exceptionable of these preferable to the house of Stuart. He soon afterwards preached the state of things subsequent to the Restoration. a thanksgiving sermon at St. Paul's, for General He does not appear to have had much confidence in Monk's success. After the Restoration he became the Protector; nor does the Protector appear to have one of the king's chaplains in ordinary, and preached reposed much confidence in him. Through the in- before him once. But Baxter was not a courtly fluence of Lord Broghill and the Earl of Warwick, man. He had too much conscience and principle to he was once brought to preach before him. He get far into the confidence of such a king, or ever chose for his text i Cor. i. 10, and expatiated upon to become popular in a profane court. He, however, the divisions and distractions of the church, showing was appointed one of the commissioners at the Sahow mischievous it was for politicians to maintain voy, took part in the conferences, and drew up the such divisions for their own ends, that they might reformed liturgy. He was exceedingly anxious for fish in troubled waters. Sometime afterwards Crom- a comprehension between the church of England and well had a long private interview with him, during the nonconformists. He laboured late and early for which he gave expression to some sentiments which it. He used all his influence and arguments with could not be palatable to Oliver. It was a part of the most unyielding of each party, and with the king his policy to gain and attach influential and talented himself; but it proved labour in vain. They were men by patience and moderation, and probably passed heterogeneous materials—they could not be amalover what was unpalatable to himself in forbearance gamated. Baxter's motives were pure, his intenand dignified silence. At all events, Baxter does not tions were upright; but the ardour of his zeal surappear to have been a favourite or confidential per- passed the soundness of his judgment, in imagining son at the Protector's court. Whatever was objec- that such discordant elements could cordially coalesce. tionable in the Lord Protector's private character or Some of his nonconforming brethren, much inferior public administration, it must be allowed that he had to him in talent, saw the impracticability of such a a difficult part to act. The agitated jarring materials scheme. The king himself never bonestly wished, of which the commonwealth was composed, required nor intended it. Sheldon,and several of the bishops, a master mind 'to ride in the whirlwind and rule the were equally hostile to any alteration in the liturgy, storm.' His discrimination, decision, and the liberal or any concessions to the nonconformists. The policy, which he in general pursued, reflect honour whole ended very like a farce; and the king seemed upon his memory, after the heat of party feeling had determined to dragoon his subjects into conformity subsided. This, Baxter was candid enough to con- to the church, or compel them to leave the kingdom. fess. The commonwealth men who had lived under The first fruits of the Restoration were bittter disthe first Charles, and during the administration of appointment and grief; the full harvest filled up the the second Charles, were furnished with ample ma- draina with the Act of Uniformity, which, like the terials for painful contrast between what preceded, prophet's roll, was filled with lamentation, mournand what succeeded, the portion of civil liberty and ing, and woe. religious freedom enjoyed by all parties under the All Baxter's attempts towards a comprehension alleged fanaticism and republican usurpation of Oliver having proved abortive, being precluded from labourCromwell.
ing near his former flock, and having no stated charge, The Restoration banished Baxter from his beloved he preached occasionally in and about London. In flock at Kidderminster for ever; but the happy ef- order to obtain this liberty, he procured a license fects of his labours lingered there for more than a from bishop Sheldon, for which he had to subscribe century. The Restoration issued in the expulsion a promise not to preach any thing against the docof the faithful pastor, and the restoration of the old trine and ceremonies of the church.' He occasionvicar. Gladly would he have remained among them ally assisted Dr Bates at St Dunstan's, and preached as his curate; but this, bishop Morley would by no sometimes at Blackfriar's. His principles, character, means tolerate, nor allow him, under the wing of the and deserved celebrity, both as a preacher and writer, church of England, to labour in any part of his dio- might have been deemed a sufficient passport for him cese. When he requested liberty to labour in a into any pulpit in Great Britain; but Baxter, now in village that had no endowment, Morley replied, the maturity of his intellectual and moral vigour, after more than sixteen years' faithful service, and ried a Miss Charlton, a pious young lady of his naunexampled success in winning souls to Christ, and tive county, not much more than a month after the in feeding and ruling the Lord's flock, must be re- Act of Uniformity came into operation. It occa.. strained as a suspected heretic 'newly landed from sioned a considerable deal of speculation for a time, Rome or Spain, and gagged by pledges to a bishop, as did that of Luther the German reformer. This as if he were a fierce fiery novice who plotted the arose chiefly from two circumstances. While engaged overthrow of church and state ! Could any thing in his pastoral labours at Kidderminster, his whole be more preposterous ? Great guilt must fall some- soul was absorbed in his work, and he, perhaps, where, for either restraining or interdicting such a seldom thought of such an act. He considered the man from preaching the gospel freely, when thou- marriage relation as lawful and honourable,' though sands were “perishing for lack of knowledge. He in his own case he for a long time deemed it inexpreached a farewell sermon at Blackfriar's in May, pedient. His remarks upon ministers who saw and 1662. He afterwards retired to Acton in Middle- acted differently from him, were too free. This afsex, where he usually went to the church one part forded some ground for retaliation when he married of the Lord's day, and spent the remainder of it with himself, at the age of forty-seven, a young lady only his family, and any of his poor neighbours who chose in her twenty-third year. The disparity of years to come unto him. The vexations and annoyances between Baxter and the ject of his choice, furto which he was subjected during the rigid reign of nished some materials for idle speculation and priterror, subsequent to the passing and enforcing the vate gossip. He says himself, that the news of it Act of Uniformity, were neither few nor small. Like rung about every where, partly as a wonder, and most of his brethren, he drank deeply into the bit- partly as a crime; and that the king's marriage was ter cup of persecution. By mulcts, fines, successive scarcely more talked of than his.' Subsequent to imprisonments, spoliation, and loss of goods, he suf- the death of Miss Charlton's father, she and her mofered much in body, in mind, and in substance. One ther came to 'reside in Kidderminster before Baxter of his imprisonments lasted upwards of two years. left it. · Her mother seems to have been a pious Yet all these he bore with the equanimity and meek- woman. ‘She was a blessing among many of the ness of a Christian. Even then his active mind was poor weavers in Kidderminster, and preferred their meditating on executing something for the glory of society above all the vanities of the world.' The God, the good of the church, or the benefit of his preaching of Baxter appears to have been blessed to species
Miss Charlton when about eighteen years of age. She T'he Act of Uniformity, which was passed in May, was one of the many fruits of his efficient ministry. 1662, took effect on Bartholomew's day, the 24th She had cause to love him as her spiritual father, August following. It naturally awakened painful counsellor, and friend. They seem to have enjoyed a associations in the minds of many of the best men larger portion of connubial comfort than is common who ministered at the Episcopal altars. It reminded where there is such a disparity in years between the them of the French massacre which occurred on the husband and the wise, and when her family and forsame day, when upwards of forty thousand Protest tune had raised her a grade above her husband in ants perished by the hands of the Roman Catholics. society. Decided piety was the basis and bond of That barbarous and sanguinary act formed an arbi- their union. It kindled and kept alive between them trary and gloomy sequel in England to its prototype reciprocal affection. Her deep-toned devotion, sound of Catholic cruelty and French fury. If the one re- discretion, talents, and industry for family managesembled the reckless havoc of Robespierre, the other, ment, her services too, and well-timed sympathies equally intolerant in its character, under forms of an with her husband in his various chequered fortunes, unrighteous law, was calculated to wear out the proved her to be a fit companion in life to Richard saints of the Most High: This atrocious deed, Baxter. She was an eminent blessing to him in chiefly concocted by Hyde and Sheldon, and passed his advanced years. They lived together as heirs .by the British Parliament, led to the ejection of two of the grace of life, and their prayers were not hinthousand of the most conscientious ministers of the dered' by internal discord. Like · Zacharias and Church of England, and entailed countless calamities Elisabeth, they were both righteous before God, and intolerable grievances upon thousands of the walking in all the commandments and ordinances of most useful and inoffensive subjects that ever trod the Lord blameless, as far as the temper of those the British soil. Of these, Baxter, while he survived, turbulent times would admit. More than once they had an ample share. He seldom preached in public were called, for the sake of a good conscience, to but he was surrounded with spies. Rarely could he take joyfully the spoiling of their goods, knowing in commend the principles of the common salvation to themselves that they had in heaven a better and more the consciences of his auditors, or condemn the com- enduring substance. It does not appear that they mon vices of fallen humanity, without being taxed had any family. His • Breviate of the Life of Mrs with sedition, heresy, and schism. Little relaxation Baxter' is highly creditable to the piety and domeswas to be expected, and less was realised, while such tic character of both. This small volume, which a libertine as Charles II. and his infatuated brother, forms a concise outline of the religious character of and successor, swayed the British sceptre. It was Mrs Baxter and her mother Mrs Charlton, is not the revolution of 1688 that brought them effectual the least valuable of the author's minor producrelief.
tions, and affords an admirable specimen of the An event of considerable importance occurred stamina and strength of female piety among the nonabout this time in the history of Baxter. He mar- ! conformists of old England. In every respect she was a suitable 'help meet for him' during nineteen ciple, and had faith and fortitude to keep a good conof the most trying and eventful years of his life. science. To be compelled, right or wrong, to worShe soothed his sorrows—tenderly sympathized with ship at the Episcopal altars, when Ichabod was legihis bodily sufferingssoftened some of the as- bly inscribed upon thousands of her pulpits—to swear perities of his natural temper-supplemented and eternal and unalterable allegiance to her semi-popish balanced some of his minor defects shaded his in- service-book--swallow in silence, like the slaves of firmities-afforded him every facility to pursue his the Grand Turk, the doctrine of passive obedience proper labour--and displayed a moral courage in and non-resistance and pledge themselves, with the taking up the cross, and cheerfulness in bearing it, solemnity of an oath, never to endeavour any alterevery way worthy of the wife of Richard Baxter. ation in the then existing condition of the church and She frequently followed him to jail, and contributed state—such oaths, promises, and pledges, they justly to render his cell a little Bethel, where they fre- considered as a distinct assumption of the popish quently had more Christian visitors than in the calm principle of infallibility, and on their part as a derecurrent of every-day life. He says himself, My liction of the great principle of Christian liberty, an poor wife made nothing of prisons, distrainings, re- invasion on the unalienable rights of conscience, proaches, and such crosses; but her burden was and an abject abandonment of their civil duties to most inward, from her own tenderness, and next from their country and posterity as Englishmen. It is not those whom she over loved.'
to be wondered that there were then many thousands Baxter drank deeply into the cup of calamity from in Britain who would not bow the knee to this isnage the period of the Restoration, till the Revolution af- of Baal, nor, to escape the gloom of a dungeon, worforded hiin enlargement at the eleventh hour.' ship this golden image' which the king, the intolerThrough nineteen years of that dark, dreary, perilous ant part of the prelates, and a servile Parliament, had period, Mrs Baxter's domestic services and society been pleased to set up. Baxter was a person of much were an incalculable blessing to him. He, with hun- too tender a conscience to take such an oath. He condreds more of faithful devoted miņisters of Christ, sulted some of his legal friends upon its inplications could for a length of time only preach publicly by -submitted some queries as to its bearing, to which stealth. Their peaceful and useful labours were he received lengthened replies; but to his mind they viewed by the jealous eye of the church as schism, proved unsatisfactory. He drew up certain stricand by the jaundiced eye of the state as sedition. tures unou “the Act,' with a distinct avowal of loyThe Act of Uniformity was soon followed by the alty to the king, subjection to government where Oxford, or Five Mile Act, the principle of which was their enactments did not interfere with obedience to more fitted for the meridian of Rome or of Spain in Christ, and special reasons for not taking the oath. the palmy days of the inquisition, or for the abject These he showed to some of his friends, whom he slaves of an oriental despot, than to the souls and considered better versed in legal matters than himcircumstances of free born Englishmen in the middle self. They dissuaded hiin from giving publicity to of the seventeenth century, who had previously tasted them, as they would, in all probability, only make some of the sweets of civil and religious liberty un- bad worse; and that the only remedy which he and der the Commonwealth. The oath ran in the fol- his brethren like-minded had, was to bear all with lowing terms: ‘I, A. B., do swear, that it is not law- silence and patience. ful, upon any pretence whatsoever, to take up arms While these intolerant and arbitrary principles against the king; and that I do abhor that traitorous were carried into effect with relentless rigour, Divine position of taking arms by his authority, against his Providence saw meet to visit the metropolis and some person, or against those who are commissioned by parts of the country with severe judgments. The him in pursuance of such commission; and that I plague raged in London and its vicinity in the most will not at any time endeavour any alteration of the fearful and appalling manner. It commenced at Acgovernment, either in church or state.'
ton, where Baxter resided, in the end of July, 1665, These sanguinary enactments were designed to and continued till the month of March following. silence every faithful minister of Christ without the Being absent from his family for a time, on his repale of the Church of England, and were calculated turn he found the churchyard in the neighbourhood to grieve every humane and honest-minded man of his dwelling • ploughed like a field with graves,' within it. Sheldon, the archbishop of Canterbury, and many of his neighbours numbered with the dead; Seth, the bishop of Salisbury, and chancellor Hyde, but by the protection of a kind providence, he found the accredited directors and keepers of the king's his own family safe, and his habitation uninfected. conscience, obtained the credit of framing and car- | He made the Lord his refuge, and the Most High rying through Parliament those despotic principles his habitation, therefore ó no evil befel him,' nor did which were long a deep disgrace to the statute book the plague, in an infected atmosphere, come near of Great Britain. Many, or most of the noncon- his dwelling. The court, and a large portion of the formist flocks •fainted' for the lack of wholesome pas- conforming clergy, fled, and left their suffering feltures; the waters of the sanctuary had been poisoned, low-citizens and Hocks to the ravages of the pestiand agitated from the bottom by the breath of in- lence that walketh in darkness, and the destruction tolerance; and the poor people, hungering and thirst- that wasted at noon-day. Their own shepherds ing for the bread and the water of life, were scat- pitied them not. The moral heroism, however, distered abroad as sheep that had no shepherd.' Spoli- | played by not a few of the silenced ministers on that ation and distraint spread in every corner of the mournful and perilous occasion, reflects immortal country where the people possessed á vestige of prin- I honour upon their memories. The names of Vin.
cent, Chester, Janeway, Turner, and many others, a thing, can have a right apprehension of the dreadwere conspicuous in those labours of love. While fuluess of it.' * the judgments of Heaven were consuming the people These sweeping judgments, and disastrous disby hundreds and thousands, these intrepid men fear- pensations, were, to some extent, over-ruled for good. lessly stood between the living and the dead,' and By pestilence and fire the Lord pleaded the cause of 'preached the unsearchable riches of Christ,' that his oppressed people, and, under the pressure of pubthere was still balm in Gilead, and a Physician lic calamity, for a short time set before the silenced there' capable, in the prospect and the agonies of ministers an open door. The inost of the parish death, of healing the hurt of the daughter of the churches were burned to ashes, or reduced to a pile people.' He sent his word and healed them, and of rubbish. The • hireling' part of the clergy fled, delivered them from their destructions. Othat because they were hirelings, and cared not for the men would praise the Lord for his goodness, for his flock,' and for a season simply suspended their hoswonderful works to the children of men ! Baxter tility. The nonconformist ministers now resolved and his generous partner in life had too much Chris- more than ever to preach to the houseless, homeless tian principle in their hearts, and too much of the multitudes' who had escaped' the ravages of the milk of human kindness in their bosoms, to shun the flames with the skin of their teeth,' till they were post of danger and duty in the day of peril, and re- imprisoned. Their bowels yearned over the multimain as idle spectators of such heart-rending scenes tudes who fainted and were scattered abroad as sheep of human woe. It has been calculated that upwards having no shepherd. Several of them, whose names of 100,000 of the population, on that occasion, fell are familiar to the annals of nonconformity, opened victims to that dreadful scourge. But when the their houses, fitted up rooms, some of them erected Lord's hand is lifted up, many of the most guilty are plain temporary chapels, and booths, &c., to accommothe most blind and obdurate, and will not see; but date the people, who, stripped of their all, many of they shall see, and be ashamed for their envy at the them were anxious to hear the gospel, and seemed people; yea, the fire of thine enemies shall devour disposed to seek indemnification in the unsearchthem.'
able riches of Christ. The people had none other The plague had not long subsided till the great to hear, save in a few churches, that could hold no fire' broke out in London, on the 2d September, considerable part of them; so that to forbid them to 1666, the ravages of which, for three days and three hear the nonconformists, was all one as to forbid nights, within and without the walls of the city, them all public worship-to forbid them to seek heaspread universal consternation among the people, and ven when they had lost almost all that they had on entailed untold calamities upon thousands of home- earth—to take from them their spiritual comforts less, houseless inhabitants. Our author, in his Life after all their outward comforts were gone. They and Times, gives copious and minute details of these thought this a species of cruelty so barbarous, as to unexampled scenes of devastation and consequent be unbeseeming any man who would not own himwretchedness. Thus,' he says, “was the best, and self to be a devil.' Baxter further adds: “But all one of the fairest, cities of the world turned into this little moved the ruling prelates, saying that shame ashes and ruins in three days' space, with many scores restrained them from imprisoning the preachers so of churches, and the wealth and necessaries of the hotly and forwardly as before. The Independents inhabitants. It was a sight which might have given also set up their meetings more openly than forany man a lively sense of the vanity of the world, merly. Mr Griffiths, Mr Brooks, Mr Caryl, Mr and of all its wealth and glory, and of the future Barker, Dr Owen, Mr Philip Nye, and Dr Goodconflagration, to see the flames mount upward to win, who were their leaders, came to the city; so wards heaven, and proceed so furiously without re- that many of the citizens went to those meetings straint—to see the streets filled with people, so as- called private, more than went to the public parish tonished, that many had scarcely sense left them to churches. This was only a brief breathing time to lament their own calamity—to see the fields filled those excellent men who had been restrained by gagwith heaps of goods, costly furniture, and household ging statutes, and intolerant enactments, from speakstuff, while sumptuous buildings, warehouses, and ing to the people. The pressure of these public furnished shops, and libraries, &c., were all on flames, judgments was no sooner alleviated, than the king and none durst come near to secure any thing—to returned to his guilty pleasures, and the exercise of see the king and nobles ride about the streets, be- arbitrary power, which formed his native element, holding all these desolations, and none could afford and the High Churchmen to their intolerance and them relief—to see the air, so far as it could be be- cruelty. Though you should bray a fool in a morheld, so filled with the smoke, that the sun shined tar, with a pestle, among wheat, yet will he not be through it with a colour like blood; yea, even when wise, nor will his folly depart from him. The deit was setting in the west, it so appeared to them that gree of connivance shown to the nonconformists and dwelt on the west side of the city. But the dole- their meetings about that period, arose out of casual fulest sight of all was afterwards to see what a ruin- circumstances, not from any alteration of the laws, ous confused place the city was, by chimneys and or respect to their property, their persons, or their steeples standing, only standing, in the midst of cel-principles. The attempts at a comprehension, and lars and heaps of rubbish, so that it was hard to know their failure, discovered the spirit by which the domiwhere the streets had been, and dangerous, for a nant party were actuated; and the Act of Indemlong time, to pass through the ruins because of the nity' seemed more designed for the benefit of the vaults and fire in them. No man that seeth not such
* Life, part i. pp. 98--100.