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was to do honour to the Russian name, and to explore such unfrequented regions? Urey Lisiansky, the Captain, appears to be a man of plain common sense,-with clear perceptions of the difference between high and low, hot and cold, moist and dry, and such like points of learning-but, more than this, he neither pretends to nor possesses ;-a sufficient range, perhaps, for the track between Birmingham and Bristol, but hardly capacity of mind enough for the gratification of public curiosity in a voyage round the world. However, a voyage round the world is never without interest; and plain sense and simplicity always deserve indulgence. A book too written by a Russian, is a trophy of one of the most splendid victories which man has gained over physical difficulties. That human beings should write, where it seems almost impossible for them to live-that any man's stomach in Russia should be full enough to write, or that his fingers should be warm enough-that he should be sufficiently protected from black and white bears to publish a book,-is indeed one of the highest proofs of human industry and perseverance.

Of the Marquesas Islands, at which he made some stay, Mr Lisiansky has gathered the following particulars, some of which remind us, in a small degree, of our European manners and customs. It seems that the kings of these islands are almost always at war with each other; that they have large domains, and enjoy a fourth part of all the produce of the lands; but carry on war without consulting their people. Such are the privileges of their kings. Their priests are not without their share of importance. When a priest dies, three men must be put to death; one of whom (we presume the plumpest of the three) is kept for the visitors, and eaten in the way of steak or cutlet. The men are very jealous of their women-except when they can gain any iron by prostituting them; in which case their wives and daughters are at the service of any strangers.

In rich families,' (we almost feel ourselves at London or Paris), every woman has two husbands; of whom one may be called the assistant husband. This last, when the other is at home, is nothing more than the head servant of the house; but, in case of absence, exercises all the rights of matrimony, and is also obliged to attend his lady wherever she goes. It happens sometimes, that the subordinate partner is chosen after marriage; but in general two men present themselves to the same woman, who, if she approves their addresses, appoints one for the real husband, and the other as his auxiliary: the auxiliary is generally poor, but handsome and well-made.' p. 83.

The houses of these savages are clean (we doubt)-and they will not allow their women to eat pork; from no idea of its being unsuitable to the delicacy of that sex, but because the men are very

fond of pig meat, and choose to keep it all to themselves. The men go quite, the women almost, naked.

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The food of these islanders' (says Mr Lisiansky), consists chiefly of fish, swine, cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananas, bread-fruit, tarro-root, and sugar cane. The last is rather a scarce article; as also is pork, which seldom makes its appearance but on occasions of festivity. Both sexes eat their meals together, except when public dinners are given in the dining-rooms, where women dare not appear, for reasons which I have before assigned.

In case of a bad harvest, the poor suffer dreadfully, as they never lay up a sufficient stock of provisions to prevent the horrors of famine. A few years ago, numbers of them were obliged to roam a mong the mountains in search of what they could find, leaving their wives and children at home dying with hunger. Roberts told me, that in the bay of Tayohaia only, four hundred perished on this occasion. In these times of dearth, every one was in danger, he said, of losing his life; not only for want of nourishment, but from the violence of one stronger than himself, who may seize and devour him.

Considering the mild temper of the inhabitants of this island, it is difficult to believe that they are cannibals. Roberts, however, assured me, that the bodies of the prisoners taken in war were eaten, all but the skulls, which were preserved for trophies. We purchased several of these skulls, paying a knife for each: but neither their wearing them as trophies, nor offering them for sale, proves cannibalism like other savages, they may cut off the heads of their vanquished enemies, without the idea occurring to them of eating their flesh.

The Marquesans carry on war both by sea and land. Their arms consist of heavy clubs, spears, and an instrument in the form of a small oar. The clubs are four feet nine inches long, with a broad and flat upper end, which is generally carved with different figures. The length of the oar is six feet, and the spears are, from eleven to thirteen feet. Besides these formidable weapons, the islanders are expert in throwing stones from slings made of the fibres of the cocoa-nut. Though not deficient in courage, they never fight openly. They are very much afraid of fire-arms, the destructive power of which they learned some time since from an American ship, from which a shot was fired that killed one of the royal family, whilst he was swimming about with a great many others of his countrymen. The circumstance was this: One of the islanders threw a a bread fruit on board, which struck the captain, who was walking on the quarter-deck. The sentinel, seeing this, instantly discharged his musket, and, missing the guilty person, unfortunately shot a brother of the king. This has produced such an effect, that the sight alone of fire arms is sufficient to keep the whole island in awe.

The simplicity of this people is astonishing. Their actions seem the result of instinct, rather than of common sense; which makes VOL. XXIII, NO. 46.

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them often commit faults, ruinous even to themselves. common amongst them, that hardly any thing is safe in their houses, especially in time of scarcity. Roberts assured me, that the island would abound with swine, if the young ones were not stolen, and then eaten to prevent detection. I can easily credit this propensity to thieving, when I recollect, that the king's brother himself stole a piece of sugar from me, and, being accused of the crime, endeav oured, in the most barefaced manner, to persuade me that it was committed by a duck which I had given him, and which was then under his arm.

It is proved by facts, that ignorance is the mother of superstition. It will therefore excite no astonishment that the inhabitants of Noocahiva should possess this quality in the highest degree. Every one here is persuaded, that the soul of a grandfather is transmitted by nature into the body of his grandchildren; and that, if an unfruitful wife were to place herself under the corpse of her deceased grandfather, she would be sure to become pregnant. It is also a current opinion, that there are individuals on the island who can cure the effects of the strongest poison, by simply rubbing the sides of the patient with their hands, which is supposed to make the poison come out from under the ribs. But the belief in evil spirits has the greatest weight, and is carried to the greatest absurdity amongst them; for it is imagined, that these spirits come sometimes into houses, and by whistling, and other more tremendous noises, demand pork and cava or ava, which, being placed in the middle of the room and covered, are immediately devoured by them. Surely these instances prove how insignificant, in its natural state, is the human understanding. p. 87-89.

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The Sandwich Islands, Mr Lisiansky found to be fast rising into importance; they are a resort for all ships going to the N. W. coast of America; as they can refit there, and take in provisions. The islands are divided into two districts; the one governed by Jamoony, the other by Hamamea, a prince of courage, abilities, and very much inclined to cultivate and improve by the Europeans; of these he has more than 50 in his service, and so great a quantity of small guns, swivels, and ammunition, that the value of these articles is materially reduced in his dominions. Their prisoners of war, instead of being guarded in large and commodious barracks, after an English method, are baked to death. On the demise of the King, twelve persons are killed; and every one in the island is under the necessity of losing a tooth. Both sexes, on this afflicting occasion, go naked, and every species of the most horrid licentiousness prevails.

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The inhabitants of the Sandwich Isles,' (says Mr Lisiansky), are of a middle stature, and of a dark complexion. In the men, the form of the countenance varies; some have even a perfect European

face. The women, on the contrary, nearly resemble each other; the face in all being round, the nose small and flattish, and the eyes black. The hair of both sexes is black and strong. The men cut theirs in different forms; but the prevailing fashion at present, is that of a Roman helmet. The women crop theirs close, leaving a ridge, about an inch and a half long, sticking up, and extending from side to side on the forehead. This ridge of hair they daub over every afternoon with a sort of pomatum (if I may use the word), made of shells and corals, to give it a yellowish appearance. The men do the same with theirs, colouring only the hair which forms the crest of the helmet. From this practice, we were at first led to suppose the hair of the head to be of two natural colours; for the ridge and the crest retain a portion of the hue they acquire by the frequent daubings. Contrary to the usage of their neighbours (the other islanders of the South Sea), these people neither paint the body nor wear ornaments in the ears. They have, however, bracelets on their

arms, made of bone.

The women ornament their heads with wreaths of flowers, or worsted threads, of different colours, raveled out of European stuffs. They commonly wrap themselves in a long piece of cloth, of the manufacture of the country; and in cold weather cover the body with broader pieces of it, several times doubled. The rich and poor are in common dressed alike; but, on particular occasions, the rich put on their feather cloaks, which, with their helmets and fans, form a dress that must be admired every where.

These people are extremely fond of the European dress, and receive with pleasure, old shirts, jackets, and trowsers. We parted here with all our rags, in exchange for provisions, and other articles of which we were in want.' p. 123–125.

We were amused with observing an account of a religious sect in the Sandwich Islands, who arrogate to themselves the power of praying people to death. Whoever incurs their displeasure, receives notice that the homicide litany is about to begin; and such are the effects of imagination, that the very notice is frequently sufficient with these poor people to produce the effect, or to drive them to acts of suicide.

The chief novelties of the route are the Russian settlements of Sitca and Cadiack, on the north-west coast of Americaneither of them of very great importance. Cadiack is a large barren island, at the eastern extremity of the Aleutian chain; inhabited by about 4000 of the most filthy and stupid savages of which we have any where an account. They are almost all covered over with itch and ulcers; and are extremely indolent and torpid. Their favourite recreation,' says M. Lisiansky, after sleeping, is to sit on the roofs of their houses, or on the beach, for hours together, looking at the sca, and observing a profound silence-for they never converse;

⚫ and I am persuaded,' adds the worthy Muscovite, that the simplicity of their character exceeds that of any other people.' Their great passion is for snuff and amber; and their chief occupation catching whales,-on the blubber of which they fatten luxuriously, in a favourable season. They have a strange superstition, which leads them to believe that the possession of the dead bodies of any old or famous fishers contributes essentially to their good luck; and accordingly show considerable sagacity in hunting them up in the caverns and other secret places where they have been stowed by their relations. Some, says M. Lisiansky, have actually accumulated a treasury of not fewer than twenty such corpses.

The settlement of Sitca is somewhat farther to the south; in the interior of that deep bay to which Vancouver gave the name of Norfolk's Sound. The savages in this quarter are of a more lively and ferocious character than those of Cadiack. Instead of dozing on the ridges of their houses, they sing and dance perpetually; and are both brave and expert in the use of fire arms, with which they are supplied by the American traders, who occasionally resort to that coast. They killed five or six of M. Lisiansky's men, in a gallant defence of a kind of rude fort, from which that commander chose to expel them, that the agents of the Russian Company might occupy the spot as a factory. After cannonading it all day, it was found next morning that the natives had deserted it in the night; and when M. Lisiansky went to take possession, he was not a little shocked to find, as in a second massacre of innocents, numbers of young children lying together murdered! lest their cries, if they had been carried along with them, might have led to a discovery of the flight of their cruel parents;-a number of dogs had been butchered for the same reason. They burn their dead, and massacre their prisoners. They are extremely muscular and hardy; and apparently quite insensible to pain. One lad, who frequently visited the navigators, and stole whatever he could lay his hands on, was at last threatened with the scourge, but absolutely laughed at the menace,-and continued his derision and gaiety when under the most rigorous discipline that a Russian flagellator could apply. They are great beaux withal;paint their faces of various colours, and work up their hair with a red paste, and then powder it in a magnificent manner with the fine white down of the sea ducks. Their country is obviously volcanic. M. Lisiansky climbed up the highest mountain on the coast, which Vancouver distinguished by the name of Mount Edgecumbe, and found the summit formed into a huge crater, nearly two miles in circuit, and about three hundred feet deep. It was partly filled with snow; and there is no tradition of the

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