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ALOUD AND WRITING anticipatory articulation of verse articulatory Attention on Writing Attention Undirected audiometer auditory aspect automatic automatic writing basilar membrane beats binaural blindfolded combination tones consciousness counting aloud curve difference tone difficult directions distracting process errors evident experimenter fork four tones frequently Galton whistle hand Helmholtz horizontal ideational illusion imagery intensity intervals introspective January 24 Koenig Lapses localization Lord Rayleigh ment method mirror-writing monaural motor movement Normal Number counted Number of words observer omission of letter omission of letter-part oscillation of attention primary tones Psychol rapidity reagents records repetition of letter repetition of letter-part required for writing resonator Second trial seemed sensations sound stimulus summation tones tendency threshold time-readings tion training series tuning forks upper partials variation vertical vibrations visual anticipation visual control visual material visual perception visual report vocal-motor vocalization words read writing for day writing-cue was auditory-vocal-motor
Page 23 - When reading is done efficiently, the eye-movements are regular and the return sweep from the end of one line to the beginning of the next is made quickly and accurately.
Page 71 - The very slight amount of variation in the nature of the data necessary to affect the efficiency of a function-group makes it fair to infer that no change in the data, however slight, is without effect on the function. The loss in the efficiency of a function trained with certain data, as we pass to data more and more unlike the first, makes it fair to infer that there is always a point where the loss is complete, a point beyond which the influence of the training has not extended.
Page 71 - Improvement in any single mental function need not improve the ability in functions commonly called by the same name. It may injure it. Improvement in any single mental function rarely brings about equal improvement in any other function, no matter how similar, for the working of every mental function-group is conditioned by the nature of the data in each particular case.
Page 142 - The lower grade of this consciousness is that in which the influence of the sensation in question makes itself felt only in the conceptions we form of external things and processes, and assists in determining them. This can take place without our needing, or indeed being able, to ascertain to what particular part of our sensations we owe this...
Page 72 - The general consideration of the cases of retention or of loss of practice effect seems to make it likely that spread of practice occurs only where identical elements are concerned in the influencing and influenced function.
Page vii - Nevertheless I have convinced myself by particular experiments, that even in this instrument the greater part of the force of the combinational tone is generated in the ear itself. I arranged the portvents in the instrument so that one of the two generators was supplied with air by the bellows moved below by the foot, and the second generator was blown by the reserve bellows, which was first pumped full and then cut off by drawing out the so-called expression-stop, and I then found that the combinational...
Page 139 - In other cases when he did hear the theoretical upper partials, they were weaker than the theory required. He concluded that the definition of a simple tone as given by Ohm was too limited, and that not only pendular vibrations, but other vibrational forms, provided they were not too widely separated from the pendular, were capable of exciting in the ear the sensation of a single simple tone, which, however, had a variable quality. He consequently asserted that when a musical tone was compounded...
Page 39 - The experiments given before and after training may be called the test series, and the other set, the training series. The test series is made up of several experiments, some of which are like the training series, while others differ. which the observer is not trained. This effect is measured by the difference in the results between the test series given before the training, and the test series given after the training. In order to measure the amount of training in the test series itself, two sets...
Page 139 - ... strings, we shall see that in many cases theory informs us beforehand of the nature of the vibration executed by a string, and in particular whether any specified simple vibration is a component or not. Here we have a decisive test. It is found by experiment that, whenever according to theory any simple vibration is present, the corresponding tone can be heard, but, whenever the simple vibration is absent, then the tone cannot be heard. We are therefore justified in asserting that simple tones...
Page ix - This supposition [ie, Young's theory] cannot be reconciled with the law confirmed by all other experiments, that the only tones which the ear hears, correspond to pendular vibrations of the air."62 •Before we consider the various objections that have been urged to these points, let us consider for a moment a certain inconsistency in Helmholtz's own statement of the origin of combination tones. " Multiple combinational tones [ie, those of higher orders] cannot in general be distinctly heard, except...