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version, join issue with their enemies, and refift then.

If we enquire more particularly who thefe kings and nations are that come to Armageddon, to support the beast, we shall find an exact list of them, Jer. xxv. 15.-23. But in regárd the most approved commentators apply. that passage to the conquefts of Nebuchadnez, zar, it will be necessary to remove the preju. dice arising from their interpretation. The prophets are the best interpreters of the prophets. It is by comparing fcripture with fcripture that we arrive at its genuine meaning. There are so many circumstances in the narra. tion, corresponding exactly with the description of the battle of Armageddon in other par. sages, that the concurrence of the whole affords a fufficient proof that the fame battle is here in. tended. Besides, many of these circumstances cannot in their literal meaning apply to the conquests of Nebuchadnezzar.

The punishment inflicted is called “the wine

cop of God's fury,” ver. 15. The same exprefsions are ufed, Ifa. li. 22, 23. and Zech. xii. 2. and refer as we have already seen, to Armageddon. In consequence of this punishment, it is faid, that they “ shall fall, and rise së no more" ver. 27. So Armageddon is call. ed “the valley of decision," Joel iii. 14. be.


cause immediately after it the kingdom of Christ is established in the world. It is represented as a divine interposition for God's holy habitation. “ The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter “ his voice from his holy habitation ; he shall

mightily roar upon (for) his habitation,” Jer. xxv. 30. So it is said of Armageddon, “Like “ as the lion and the young lion roaring on his

prey, when a multitude of shepherds is call. “ed forth against him, he will not be afraid of " their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of " them : fo shall the Lord of hofts come down “ to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill " thereof,” Ifa. xxxi. 4. This surely cannot apply to the conquests of Nebuchadnezzar. , It is called a wine-press: “He shall give a shout, “ as they that tread the grapes, against all the 66 inhabitants of the earth,” Jer. xxv. 30. a metaphor used to represent Armageddon, Rev. xiv. 20. and xix. 15:..“ He will plead with all * flesh,” Jer. xxv. 31. fo Ifa. lxvi. 16.and Joel iii. “ 2. He will give them that are wicked to the « sword.” Ver. 31. can only apply to Armageddon, where all the enemies of religion are cut. off: “Evil shall go forth from nation to na" tion.” Ver. 32. fitly represents the emissaries mentioned Rev. xyi. 13. “ The slain of the “ Lord shall be at that day from one end of the “ earth (land) even unto the other end of the

“ earth sc earth (land),” Jer. XXV. 33. exactly accords with the extent of the wine-press, Rev. xiv. 20" for the land of Judea, according to Jerom, is just a thousand and fix hundred furlongs,

The nations therefore that drink the cup . of God's fury, in consequence of afsifting the beaft, are the following:

« Pharaoh king of Egypt, and his servants, and « his princes, and all his people ;” Jer. XXV. 19.

“ And all the mingled people ;" ver 20. The word in the original is the same that is translated Arabia, ver. 24. though differently pointed, which makes no material difference, most likely they are such as inhabit the coasts of the Red Sea. “ And all the kings of the land of “Uz," ver. 20. There are three persons so named in fcripture, the son of Aram, whom Bo. chart fuppofes to have settled in Syria, the son of Nahor, who fettled in Arabia Deserta, and probably is intended here, and a son of Efau. : “ And all the kings of the land of the " Philistines, and Ashkelon and Azzah, and E. 5. kron and Ashdod, Edom and Moab, and the “ children of Ammon, and all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the “ kings of the isles which are beyond the sea, (the “ coasts of the Mediterranean), Dedan, and TeCC ma, and Buz, (districts of Arabia), and all that “ are in the utmost corners, (probably nationsin

“ habiting « habiting betwixt the Euxine and Caspian seas), «and all the kings of Arabia, and all the “ kings of the mingled people that dwell in the “ defert; (Arabia Deferta), and all the kings of “ Zimri, (a people of Arabia descended from « Zimram, Abraham's fon by Ketürah), and

all the kings of Elam, (Persia), and all the “kings of the Medes, and all the kings of the “ north, (Syria and Affyria), far and near, « (fuch as immediately border on the land, and « such as are at a considerable distance), and all so the kingdoms of the world, which are upon 6 the face of the earth, (all the kingdoms of a

worldlyor earthly fpirit in whatever place): " and the kings of Sheshach fhall drink after " them;" Jer. XXV, 20.-26. By Sheshach is intended the king of Babylón, chap. li. 41. meaning there as well as here the head of the system of fpiritual Babylon, in other words, the beast whom they endeavoured to fupport'. By this list forces are sent up from the following districts of country, bordering upon each other, though widely extended, Egypt, Arabia, che country ftuate betwixt Arabia and Palestine, forînerly poffeffed by the Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites, all Palestine, Syria, and the diftrict of


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(1) Sheshach may fignify one punished sixfold, or one drawn with a hook or fork of fix prongs, i, e. one signally punished, which is obyiously applicable to the head of fpiritual Babylon.

country lying eastward, as far as Assyria, the great kingdom of Persia, probably the coun. try betwixt the Euxine and Caspian seas. Several different names are given to the inhabitants of the same country, as to the Arabians, eight names, Arabia the mingled people, twice, Uz, Dedan, Tema, Buz, Zimri ; to the inhabi. tants of Palestine, eight, the Philistines, Alhkelon, Azzah, Ekron, Ashdod, Tyrus, Zidon, the iles or coasts of the Mediterranean, to intimate, I prefume, that they are conducted by so many different leaders, and constitute so many diftinct corps, independent of each other, which accounts in some measure for the diversity of fentiment so fatal to their expedition, as we shall afterwards fee.

Another list of the kings of the carth and their armies who support the beast at Armageddon, is given, Ezck. xxxii. 17.–32. But whereas the former may be considered as a muster-roll of the forces before the battle, the latter may be reckoned an account of the plain after the bat. tle. In Jeremiah they are mentioned by corps, in Ezekiel by nations. Some mentioned in the first, as the Arabians, are wholly omitted in the last. Perhaps they withdrew their forces when divisions broke out among the combined powers, and so escaped the general flaughter. Making allowance for the difference occasioned by these


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