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II. Liberty of the Tree of Life.
I. A Criticism of Dr. Hatch's "Essays in Biblical Greek," by Dr. Hort. (A Fragment.)
BY THE REV. G. Matheson, m.a., d.d., f.r.s.e.
III. Christ's Attitude to His Own Death.
V. The Threefold Cord.
BY THE REV. a. M. FAIRBAIRN, D.D., LL.D., PRINCIPAL
IV. Moses at the Battle of Rephidim.
BY THE REV. G. MARGOLIOUTH, M.A.
VI. Christian Perfection.
BY W. R. INGE, M.A., HERTFORD COllege, oxford.
2. Other New Testament Teaching.
VII. Professor Hommel on Arphaxad.
BY THE REV. PROFESSOR T. K. CHEYNE, D.D., OXFord.
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1 Essays in Biblical Greek. Ecclesiastical History, Oxford.
A CRITICISM OF DR. HATCH'S "ESSAYS IN
THIS Volume of 293 pages contains "the substance of the
By Edwin Hatch, M.A., D.D., Reader in Oxford, 1889.
them of a large mass of valuable evidence as yet hardly brought into use, and that it enforces and illustrates the need of scientific procedure in the handling of this and all other evidence.
The seven essays included in the volume fall under two heads, the Greek vocabulary of the Bible (I.-III.), and the text of the Septuagint and Apocrypha (IV.-VII.). Perhaps, however, more justice would be done to the ideas which seem to have governed Dr. Hatch's own studies by saying that five essays (I.-III., V., VI.) deal with the evidence to be obtained from the LXX. for the examination of problems external to itself, while the remaining two (IV., VII.) are concerned with the textual criticism of the LXX. and Apocrypha.
The reader will do well not to be frightened at some paradoxes which enliven the opening paragraphs of Essay I. (On the Value and Use of the Septuagint). Without at all concurring in Dr. Hatch's sweeping disparagement of all that has been hitherto done for the elucidation of the language of the New Testament, one must needs welcome so stout an ally against the delusion of finality; for assuredly much of the vocabulary of the New Testament, and even some parts of its grammar, stand urgently in need of fresh and more methodical investigation.
The series of paragraphs in which Dr. Hatch discriminates various causes of difference between " "Classical " Greek and that of the New Testament are in substance admirable and instructive, though exception might be taken to some verbal details and many examples. Their value fortunately does not depend on the strange initial assertion that "in almost every lexicon, grammar, and commentary" the New Testament is chiefly interpreted according to Attic standards. Dr. Hatch rightly distinguishes these causes of difference under two heads, roughly described as time and
country. Differences due to the lapse of time, he points out, arose partly from causes external to language, such as "the rise of new ideas, philosophical and theological, the new social circumstances, the new political combinations, the changes in the arts of life, and the greater facilities of intercourse with foreign nations" (p. 3); partly from those spontaneous changes in living speech which literary archaism is powerless to arrest. Thus far, he says, the LXX. and New Testament "may be treated as monuments of Post-Classical Greek," and their language illustrated from "contemporary secular writers" but the several books which make up both the LXX. and the New Testament vary largely among themselves in philological as well as in literary character, and in many cases contemporary Greek fails to give an adequate philological explanation such as it supplies elsewhere. Hence account has to be taken, secondly, of difference of country. This consists partly in difference of physical and social conditions, as shown by the change from the Attic metaphors of the law-courts, the gymnasia, and the sea, to metaphors suggested by "the conditions of Syrian life," and still more by the change from the religious and moral ideas of the Greeks to those of a Semitic race, 'whose traditions came down from Moses and the Prophets." In the striking paragraphs here condensed (pp. 9 ff.) respecting physical and social differences, it seems to be too hastily assumed by implication that the LXX. translators, no less than the Apostles, were inhabitants of Palestine; and no allowance is made for the influence of the Hellenized cities of the sea-board on the whole country. But what is said of the effect of differences of religious and moral ideas is undoubtedly true, though not the whole truth.
These paragraphs lead the way to a generalization which is virtually the text of the first three essays, and the importance of which, if it be true in the rigorous sense in which