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life, with remission of their sins, as to the eternal guilt or pain, but yet obnoxious to some temporal punishment, of which we have spoken, still remaining due, or not perfectly freed from the blemish of some defects or deordinations, are purged before their admittance into heaven, where nothing that is defiled can enter. Furthermore,
6. Catholics also hold, that such souls so detained in purgatory, being the living members of Christ Jesus, are relieved by the prayers and suffrages of their fellow-members here on earth : But where this place is ; of what nature or quality the pains are ; how long souls may be there detained ; in what manner the suffrages made in their behalf are applied; whether by way of satisfaction or intercession, &c. are questions superfluous and impertinent as to faith.
7. No man, though just, can merit either an increase of sanctity in this life, or eternal glory in the next, independently on the merits and passion of Christ Jesus : But the good works of a just man proceeding from grace and charity, are so far acceptable to God through his goodness and sacred promises, as to be truly meritorious of eternal life.
8. It is an article of catholic belief, that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist, there is truly and really contained the body of Christ, which was delivered for us; and his blood, which was shed
for the remission of sins : the substance of breadand wine being, by the powerful words of Christ, changed into the substance of his blessed body and blood; the species or appearances of bread and wine, by the will of God, remaining as they were. But,
9. Christ is not present in this sacrament, according to his natural way of existence, or rather as bodies naturally exist, but in a manner proper to the character of his exalted and glorified body : His presence then is real and substantial, but sacramental; not exposed to the external senses, or obnoxious to corporal contingencies.
10. Neither is the body of Christ, in this holy sacrament, separated from his blood, or his blood from his body, or either of them disjoined from his soul and divinity; but all and whole living Jesus is entirely contained under either species : so that whosoever receives under one kind is truly partaker of the whole sacrament; he is not deprived either of the body or the blood of Christ. True it is,
11. Our Saviour left unto us his body and blood, under two distinct species, or kinds; in doing of which he instituted not only a sacrament, but also a sacrifice ; a commemorative sacrifice, distinctly showing his death and bloody passion, until he come. For as the sacrifice of the cross was performed by a distinct effusion of blood ; so is that sacrifice commemorated in that of the altar, by a distinction of the symbols. Jesus therefore is here given, not only to us, but for us; and the church thereby is enriched with a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice usually termed the mass.
12. Catholics renounce all divine worship and adoration of images and pictures ; God alone we worship and adore ; nevertheless we place pictures in our churches, to reduce our wandering thoughts and to enliven our memories towards heavenly things. Further, we show a respect to the images of Christ and his saints, beyond what is due to every profane figure; not that we can believe any divinity or virtue to reside in them, for which they ought to be honoured, but because the honour given to pictures is referred to the prototype, or thing represented. In like manner,
13. There is a kind of honour and respect due to the Bible, to the cross, to the name of Jesus, to churches, to the sacraments, &c. as things peculiarly appertaining to God; and to kings, magistrates, and superiors on earth; to whom honour is due, honour may be given, without any derogation to the majesty of God, or that divine worship which is appropriate to him. Moreover,
14. Catholics believe, that the blessed saints in heaven, replenished with charity, pray for us their fellow-members here on earth ; that they rejoice at our conversion ; that seeing God, they see and know in him all things suitable to their happy state : But God may be inclinable to hear their requests made in our behalf, and for their sakes may grant us many favours; therefore we believe that it is good and profitable to desire their intercession. Can this manner of invocation be more injurious to Christ our mediator, than it is for one Christian to beg the prayers of another here on earth ? However, Catholics are not taught so to rely on the prayers of others, as to neglect their own duty to God; in imploring his divine mercy and goodness ; in mortifying the deeds of the flesh; in despising the world ; in loving and
serving God and their neighbour ; in following the footsteps of Christ our Lord, who is the way, the truth, and the life : to whom be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
On the Re-union of Christians.
It was the intention of the writer of these pages, to close his account of the symbolic books of the Christian churches, with a succinct HISTORY OF THE ATTEMPTS, WHICH HAVE BEEN MADE AT DIFFERENT TIMES, FOR THEIR RE-UNION.
The subject has been exhausted by a learned and interesting work, published at Paris, “ De la Réunion des Communions Chrétiennes; ou Histoire des Négotiations, Conférences, Correspondances qui ont eu lieu, des projets et des plans qui ont été formées à ce sujet, depuis la naissance du Protestanisme jusqu'à présent. Par M. Tabaraud, prêtre de la ci-devant congrégation de l'Oratoire. Paris 1808, i vol. 8vo.” An excellent sketch of these attempts had been previously given by Doctor Mosheim, in his Ecclesiastical History, Cent. XVI. sect. 2. part. 2. C. 1. and Cent. XVII. sect. 2. C. 1. To these publications the reader is referred :—the present Essay may be found to contain, I. A general view of the attempts made after the Reformation, to unite the lutheran and calvinist churches: II. Some account of the attempts made at different times by the sovereigns of France