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By the Rev. Dr. MATHESON, of Innellan. “Aids to the Study of German Theology." T. & T. Clark, 1874;
published, 48 ; 3rd edition, 4s 6d. “Growth of the Spirit of Christianity," 2 vols. T. & T. Clark,
1877; published, 218. (May be now had for 12s). “Natural Elements of Revealed Theology”-Baird Lecture,
1881. Nisbet & Co.; published, 5s. “My Aspirations (Heart Cords)." Cassells & Co., 1883;
By Rev. A. K. H. BOYD, D.D., of St. Andrews. “Recreations of a Country Parson.” Third Series. Longmans
& Co. 3s 6d. “From a Quiet Place.” Some Discourses. Kegan Paul, Trench
& Co, 5s. “Our Little Life." Essays, Consolatory and Domestic, with
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By E. J. HASELL. “Bible Partings." Blackwood & Sons. Price 6s 6d.
THE CHURCH AND ART. As the church gradually encroached
more and more upon the lives of the people, and as with its increasing influence it asserted its supremacy on every domain of human life; so it extended its power of repression upon the subjects as well as upon the methods of art. Not only was the barrier raised against all representations of bodily strength, grace, and beauty, but even in the delineation of sacred subjects, the artist was forbidden to render them in any way human by using his powers of conception and modification. Hardly even was a variation of grouping or the introduction of a figure allowed in the treatment of the religious events; and, for hundreds of years, St. John and the Virgin stood in the same attitude, at the right and at the left of the cross, and Christ, in the centre of the picture, gazed upon the spectators with the placid eyes of divine power, of which no agony could avail to dim the Godhead. To the end of the eleventh century all expression of pain upon the face of the Saviour was entirely absent, absolutely forbidden by the priesthood. He was depicted as standing upon the cross, with erect head and widely open eyes, and in aspect, as Crowe says, “either erect or menacing.” While this spirit of representation continued, it was manifestly impossible for art to improve. All study of the nude discouraged, if not forbidden, all the worth of material beauty despised, all originality of conception sternly interdicted, and all expression of human emotion considered as irreligious, the unhappy painters had no opening left them for anything but slavish imitations of their predecessors. It would take me too long to show how this anti-naturalism of the Church came to be in some degree modified; probably one of the chief causes was the recognition by the priesthood of the progressive tendency of the times, and the consequent relaxation of the harsh restrictions which had fixed the limits of pictorial art. In every age the essential principle of the Catholic religion in its dealings with secular matters has been an adoption of the tendencies which it could not repress, and the endeavour to turn them to its own advancement. It may well be that that the growing naturalism of pictorial representation from the twelfth century to the end of the thirteenth was sanctioned by the church from this cause.
In any case, during this period religious art took its first hesitating steps in the right direction.
Slowly the crucifixes represented the Saviour with downcast head and closed eyes, and his body no longer stood erect upon the cross, but swayed outward in the pain of death. (From Giotto in “Great Artist” Series, Samson Low, Marston,
Searle & Rivington).
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By AUGUSTUS W. HARE. “Sermons on the Lord's Prayer." [Smith, Elder & Co.,
15 Waterloo Place, London.]
By WILLIAM B. CAPARN, M.A. “Divine Counsels: or the Young Christian's Guide to Wisdom ;"
translated from Arvisenet, and adapted to the use of the Anglican Church. John Hodge, 13 Soho Square, London, Price ls,
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MY SHE A V ES.
Calendar for the montb.
THE time for toil has passed and night has come
Worn out with labour long and wearisome, Drooping and faint, the reapers hasten home,
Each laden with his sheaves.
Last of the labourers, Thy feet I gain,
Lord of the harvest ! and my spirit grieves
Master, behold my sheaves !
Through all my frame a weary aching leaves;
Yet these are all my sheares.
Brambles and flowers, dry stalks and withered leaves;
Master, behold my sheaves !”
With evening dew upon their folded leaves
The glory of my sheaves.
For well I know thy patient love perceives
Thou wilt accept my sheaves.
1st. Born, 1675, Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, Political and
Philosophical Writer. 2nd. Died, 1842, Dr. W. E. Channing, great Unitarian Divine, Preacher,
and Philanthropist. 3rd. Died, 1690, Robert Barclay, celebrated Scottish Quaker, Author of
the "Apology for Quaker Tenets," 4th. Died, 1226, St. Francis, Fonnder of the Order of Franciscans or Grey
Friars. --1743, Henry Carey, Musician,--1806, Samuel Horsley,
Bishop of St. Asaphs, Divine and Controversalist. 5th. Born, 1703, Jonathan Edwards, Calvinistic Divine. 6th, Born, 1510, Dr. John Key (Caius), Founder of Caius College, Cambridge. 7th. Born, 1573, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.—Died, 1796,
Dr. Thomas Reid, Scottish Metaphysician.-1849, Edgar Allan Poe. Sth. Died, 1841, Johann H. Dannecker, German Sculptor. 9th. Born, 1547, Michael Cervantes de Saavedea, author of Don Quixote, 10th.–Born, 1790, Rev. Theobold (Father) Mathew, Irish Apostle of
Intemperance. 11th.--Born, 1675, Dr. Samuel Clark, Author of "The Being and Attributes
of God. - Killed, 1531, Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Reformer.—Died 1752, Thomas Stackhouse, Biblical Writer. - 1837, Samuel Wesley,
Musician. 12th.-Born, 1802, Hugh Miller, Geologist and Writer of Books. 13th. - Died, 1605, Theodore Beza. Reformer.-1771, Dr. John Gill, Baptist
Divine.--1845 Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, Philanthropist. 14th.-Born, 1644, William Penn, celebrated English Quaker and Philan.
thropist, and Founder of the Colony of Pennsylvania. 15th.-Died, 1838, Letitia Elizabeth Maclean nee Landon, "L.E.L.," Poetess.
--1843, Rev. John Foster, celebrated Essayist. 16th.-Martyred, 1555, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer.-Died 1812,
Henry Martyn, Oriental Missionary. 17th.--Died, 1586, Sir Philip Sidney, Poet and Hero.-1849, Frederic
Chopin, Musical Composer. 18th.- Day of St. Luke, the Evangelist.--Born, 1662, Matthew Henry,
celebrated Divine and Commentator, 19th.–Born, 1605, and Died, 1682, Sir Thomas Browne, Antiquary and
Philosopher, Author of "Religio Medici."— Born, 1784, James
and Political Writer.– Died, 1806, Henry Kirke White, youthful Poet. 20th.-Born, 1632, Sir Christopher Wren, Architect of St. Paul's.-1784,
Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston, Statesman.-Died, 1713,
Musical Composer. 21st.-Born, 1772, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Poet.--Died, 1785, Alexander
Runciman, Scottish Painter.-Killed, 1805. Lord Nelson. 22nd.-Died, 1802, Dr. Samuel Arnold, and 1859, Louis Spohr, celebrated
Composers. 24th.-Born, 1765, Sir James Macintosh, Politician and Miscellaneous
Writer. 25th.-Born, 1735, Dr. James Beattie, Poet. -1773, George Stanley Faber,
Theological Writer. -Died, 1400, Geoffrey Chaucer.-1647, Evange
lista Torricelli, Inventor of the Barometer. 26th.-Died, 1751, Dr. Philip Doddridge, eminent Divine and Author, 27th.-Born, 1782, Captain James Cooke, celebrated Voyager.-1797, Dr.
Andrew Combe, eminent Physiologist.— 1553. Michael Servetus
Painter.—1858, Madame Ida Pfeiffer, celebrated Traveller. 28th.-Born, 1467, Desiderius Erasmus, distinguished Scholar and Writer.
1659, Dr. Nicholas Brady, Versifier of the Psalms.—Died, 1704,
John Locke, Philosopher.-1792, John Smeaton, Engineer, 29th.--Born, 1740, James Boswell, Biographer of Johnson. -1745, William
Hayley, Poet and Biographer of Cowper.--1796, John Keats, Poet,
Allan Cunningham, Poet and Miscellaneous Writer. 30th.-Born, 1751, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Dramatist and Politician (see
Mrs. Oliphant's Life of Sheridan, just published in "English Nen of Letters," Macmillan).-Died, 1823, Edmund Cartwright, In. ventor of the Power-Loom.-1824, Rev. Charles Maturin, Drama.
tist and Tale Writer, 31st.-Hallowe'en.-Born, 1620, John Evelyn, author of Sylva, Memoirs. &c.
THE DEFEAT OF THOR.
Thro' the shades of Northern story,
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