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At the close of it he went to England, and there AMONG the monumental brasses, which have recently became preceptor to the sons of the Warden of the been placed in St. Giles', to commemorate the notable Western Marches, that Lord Dacre, whose “horsemen connected with that Church, none better de- men light” his father had no doubt seen, perhaps serves its place, than that which bears the name of encountered, at Flodden. This office he had held John Craig, Knox's colleague, chaplain to King for about two years, when a renewal of the maraudJames, one of the builders up of the Reformation, ing warfare which was chronic on the Border, and and leaders of the Kirk in troublous times. No name in which Lord Dacre had to take a leading part, recalls a more strangely varied and eventful history rendered his position in the Warden's family em-fuller of the wild romance of those days of reli- barrassing, and, resigning his situation, he returned gious and social revolution. Romance may seem an to Scotland. He must have been, by this time, at ill-chosen word to apply to the incidents of a period least 20 years of age; and not long after he entered which was specially a period of religious crisis and the Order of Dominicans at their house in the Northchange; but none other describes so appropriately gate of St. Andrews. the vicissitudes and experiences of the lives of many It was now many years since Luther had struck, of the actors in the great drama, and very notably at Wittenberg, his first resounding blow at the of such of them as were our countrymen.
immoral doctrines and practices of Rome, and had, The Scottish scholars and divines were, in the at Worms, made his heroic stand on behalf of human 15th and 16th centuries, as familiar figures on the freedom and the rights of conscience : but the voice Continent as the Scottish soldiers and knights errant; of “the solitary monk that shook the world” had as and their careers were not less chequered and adven- yet found but broken echoes in Scotland. Patrick turous. The changes and chances that befel them Hamilton and Henry Forrest bad perished at the in the churches, monasteries, and universities of stake-the proto-martyrs of the good cause : others France, Italy, and Germany, as they travelled from had fled into England or over sea; but the old system city to city, or ministered to the scattered congrega- was still dominant. The Church was jealously on tions of the Reformed, are as picturesque and spirit- the watch for heresy, and believed in the policy of stirring in their way as any that we read of_in the stamping it out by extirpating the heretics. Suspimartial anrals of the Scottish Guard of the French cion of being infected with the Lutheran errors kings, or of the musketeers who fought and con- fastened on Craig, and he was thrown into prison ; quered under “the Lion of the North." The adven- but after a short confinement liberated. Alarmed, tures of Buchanan as he wandered through France however, by his treatment, he left St. Andrews and from Paris to Bordeaux, where he was the friend of made his way to England, where, though rough the Scaliger and the teacher of Montaigne, and finally sway of Henry VIII. was, there was yet more into Coimbra, where the Inquisition laid its hand on dividual freedom than could be found in the North. him, and, as the story goes, bade him, in expiation He hoped that his former patron, Lord Dacre, would of his offences, write his Latin version of the Psalms: have been able to procure his admission to the of Knox, rowing in the French galley on the Loire, University of Cambridge, where there was some and mingling in the religious strifes and interests of toleration for Protestant opinion; but Lord Dacre's Frankfort and Genera, ere he came to his proper influence had declined, and his friendship was of no place in his own country: of John Welch, serving a avail. Disappointed in his hopes of an English gun on the ramparts of St. Jean D'Angeley, and residence, and deterred by his recent experience when the siege was over and he stood a prisoner from retracing his steps to Scotland, Craig crossed before the king, meeting his accusation of unlawful over to France-probably late in 1536, or early in preaching with the answer, “You, sire, if you did 1537—and is said to have travelled about, for more right, would come to hear me preach, and make all than a year, with some young Englishmen, as their France hear me too:"—the adventures of these tutor. Be this as it may, before the end of 1538 he men, and of others in the great company of Scottish reached Rome, where he took up his abode for some exiles and wanderers on the Continent, would, if we time. could record them all, form a history second to none The most notable Englishman in Rome, in in variety and interest.
those days, was Reginald Pole, distinguished alike Of that great company John Craig was a con- by his princely lineage, rich scholarship, humane spicuous member. He was born in the year 1512. principles, and personal sacrifices for the sake of the Ilis father, who was a gentleman of Lothian, and of Papal supremacy. His opposition to Henry's divorce the same stock as that from which the present family and his maintenance of the Pope's authority, in his of Gibson Craig of Riccarton is descended, fell“
book “De unitate ecclesiastica,” bad driven him into Flodden's fatal hill” the year after his son John was exile, enraging the king, who stripped him of all born.
his English preferments, as much as they gratified The boy was well cared for by his kindred, and in the Pope, who raised him to the compensating due time sent to college at St. Andrews, where he dignity of Cardinal.
dignity of Cardinal. Craig was introduced to Pole, passed through his course of letters and philosophy. who was attracted by the young Scotsman's acquirements and manner, and admitted him to his family, and entrusted him with the education of his sons. friendship.
The report of his heterodoxy had, however, spread too The Cardinal, although zealous for the preroga- widely, and the Inquisition had set its mark against tives of the Papal chair, which he hoped one day to his name. His faithful service of the Order during occupy, was a man of a liberal and catholic spirit ; his twenty years at Bologna availed him nothing. and bis genial breadth and charity-contrasted with In November, 1558, he was seized, carried to Rome, the suspicious bigotry which had hunted Craig from and thrown into the dungeon of the Inquisition. Scotland-no doubt did much to restore the latter's The historian Row describes this as a “pit into somewhat shaken allegiance to the Church of Rome. which the river of Tiber did every tide flow, so that By the Cardinal's advice he resolved to resume the the prisoners stood in water, sometimes almost to their monastic life, which he had quitted at home; and on middle," which, as there is no tide in the Tiber, is a his recommendation he entered a convent of Domini- specimen of the sympathetic exaggeration not uncans, in Bologna, a city whose university is supposed common in the chronicles of the Reformation ; but to have supplied the model upon which that of St. no doubt the prison was squalid and dismal enough. Andrews was erected, and where the Dominican Order He was kept there for nine months in great misery, was numerous and powerful. There is no record and at last, having made a final and unswerving of his ordination as priest; but his appointment, soon
confession of his faith, he was on the 18th August, after his reception at Bologna, as Master of Novices, 1559, condemned to be burnt at the stake the next pre-supposes his being in Orders. That appointment, morning. But while Craig stood that day at the and his frequent missions to other houses of the Order infamous bar of the Inquisition, Pope Paul IV., the throughout Italy, attest his capacity for business great patron and model of all Inquisitors, was lying and his brethren's confidence in him. On one occa- at the point of death, and with his failing breath sion he was sent as far as to the isle of Chios, to commending the Inquisition to the care of his rectify abuses which had there corrupted the rule of cardinals. That evening he died. During the night St. Dominic. He discharged this embassy so ably Craig, and some others who were to suffer along that, after his return, he was promoted to be rector with him, were, like Paul and Silas at Philippi, of the Dominican College.
encouraging each other with prayers and psalmWe are told that Luther's finding a copy of the singing, when the dungeon doors were suddenly Scriptures in the library of the University at Erfurt thrown wide, and a man appeared who called to them was the first step in his deliverance from Papal error, that they were free, that the Pope was dead, and all and entrance into the fulness and freedom of the the prison doors in Rome were open. Gospel. Like him, Craig lighted on a book in the Craig and his companions quickly fled, and found library at Bologna, which marked a crisis in his the streets resounding with the uproar of the mob religious history; but_his discovery was a very making merry over the death of a ruler who had different one from Luther's. It was Calvin's been feared and hated, dragging his statue through "Institutes," which, though published in 1536, he the kennels, assaulting the officers of the Inquisition, had never seen till now—some twenty years later. and setting fire to its buildings. Craig, who was The severe logic and the rigid morality of the penniless and nearly naked, sought refuge in a small Genevan divine, coupled with his uncompromising tavern in the suburbs, which, as he was waiting to exposure of the Romish system, so wrought upon be supplied with some food and drink, was entered Craig's mind, that by the time he had read the book by a band of Papal soldiers, say some—of banditti, through he was at heart a convert from Popery. say others—but, in either event, of rough and disThere was an old Scotch friar in the monastery, orderly men-at-arms. Their leader, after eyeing whose piety and gentleness had won Craig's friend- Craig narrowly for some time, took him aside, and ship, and with whom he was on terms of confidential asked him if he remembered a day, many years ago, intercourse. To him he imparted his new convic- when walking with some young men in a wood near tions, and found, to his surprise, that for many years Bologna, he met a poor wounded soldier, to whom he they had been his old friend's own. “ But,” said showed kindness, providing him with food and money. the cautious Scot, “I have kept my belief to Craig seems to have had no distinct recollection of myself; and I advise you in these perilous times to the incident. “But I,” said the captain, “remember do the same.”. But in Craig's ears there seemed to it well. I am that man you befriended. sound the words which fell on Luther's, as he went you gave me I gave to a surgeon, who healed my through the streets of Worms to stand before wound, so that you saved my life. The fortune of the Diet, “Whosoever shall confess Me before men, war has favoured me, and I am now a commander, him will I also confess before My Father who is in and able to make some return for your kindness.” heaven ;” and he felt that he was in a place where He ended by furnishing Craig with money and he was bourd to speak the truth, “impugn it whoso clothes, a horse to carry him to Bologna, and his own list.” Both in conversation with his brethren, and escort part of the way. Craig's idea in returning to in his public sermons, he avowed his sympathies with Bologna was to trust himself to the protection of the reformed doctrines, until he gave such offence some of his friends there; but, on arriving, he found to the authorities that he had to withdraw from his them so little disposed to the risk of his company office and quit the monastery.
that he left them as secretly as possible, and shaped The Reformation was not without its converts, his course for Milan, which, lying outside the States even in the Papal territories themselves; and a Protes- of the Church, he hoped might prove a more hospitant nobleman is said to bave received him into his table retreat for him.
It was during this journey that the incident sire to separate himself from her unity, unless he were occurred, which has been regarded in some quarters forced to do so. He might, probably, have remained with no little scepticism, but which, in all its main at Vienna, and become the chief of the Kaisar's facts, there can be no doubt Craig was himself in chaplains, for his preaching was renowned; but the the habit of relating as absolutely true, and as a report of his popularity at the Imperial Court marvellous illustration of a watchful and kindly reached Rome, and the new Pope, Pius IV., forProvidence. I shall tell it in the words of Arch- warded a demand for his surrender to the Inquisibishop Spottiswoode, who was less likely than Row, tion, from whose jaws he had just escaped. or any Presbyterian historian, to exaggerate the Maximilian contrived that this demand should be facts, and who says that Craig often related it (we evaded, and furnished him with a safe-conduct, which may presume in the form it wears in Spottiswoode's provided for his passing, in security, through Gerpages)" to many of good place.” “When he had many to England, for thither, after an absence of 24 travelled some days, declining the highways out of years, he determined to wend his way. He made out fear, he came into a forest, a wild and desert place, his journey safely, and landed in England in the spring and, being sore wearied, lay down among some of 1560, and in the following year went on to Scotland. bushes on the side of a little brook, to refresh him- When he had quitted his native land, some self. Lying there, pensive and full of thought (for five-and-twenty years before, James V. was on neither knew he in what part he was, nor had he any the throne; James Beatoun was Archbishop of means to bear him out the way), a dog cometh St. Andrews; and the ancient church was, as fawning with a purse in his teeth, and lays it down yet, in all the pride of place and power. Now, before him. He, stricken with a fear, riseth up, and Mary was on her way to Holyrood, determined looking about if any were coming that way, when to restore the Roman system and doctrine ; but the he saw none, taketh it up, and, construing the real ruler of the Scots was John Knox, under whose same to proceed from God's favourable providence inspiration the Parliament had upset the hierarchy towards him, followed his way till he came to a little and made celebration of the mass a crime; and the village, where he met some that were travelling to first General Assembly of the Kirk had met, on 20th Vienna, in Austria, and, changing his course, went December, 1560. There was much to do before it in their company thither.” Row adds to this that should be decided whether the Romish faction, with the purse was full of gold, and that when Craig, Queen Mary at its head, or the Scottish people, with more than a year afterwards, came back to Scotland, John Knox at its head, was to win the battle between he had still some of the coins, and brought with the old faith and mediæval traditions, and the new him the purse, and the dog, which, unquestionably, forces and convictions of the modern world. The deserved the best of board and lodging from him for Church was to be the battle-field; and among the the rest of its days.
combatants there were not a few base mercenaries, At Vienna, Craig, who seems to have had the selfish renegades, greedy robbers, and camp followers, happy gift of winning the goodwill of the generous as well as high-minded patriots and noble soldiers of and high-minded, gained the friendship of the Arch- the Cross. A veteran such as Craig, in the fulness duke Maximilian, heir-apparent of the Kaisar Ferdi- of his strength, rich in learning, and manifold experinand, a prince always friendly to the cause ence of the world, was welcome to the field. He reformed. Maximilian heard him preach; and his had finally made up his mind to renounce his father, on hearing him also, was so pleased that he allegiance to Rome. The Church of Scotland, which resolved to appoint him one of his chaplains. Craig he had left corrupt and benighted, he found reformed still wore his friar's gown, and had not renounced his and enlightened. He felt that, as a loyal Scot, his connexion with the Order. It was as a Dominican services were due to her, and be offered them— he preached at Vienna. Like many another of those passing, like Winram the Augustinian, Douglas the who were imbued with the evangelical doctrines, he Carmelite, Willock the Franciscan, and many others, appears to have had no destructive wish to proclaim from the ranks of the regular clergy of the Romish, war against the ancient church, and no schismatic de- to the ministry of the Reformed Church.
COURT OF THE GENTILES.
G E T H E.
By the Rev. W. M. METCALFE. With theologians Goethe is not, generally speaking, tion of this seeming contradiction, for, after all, it is an acknowledged favourite; yet, strange to say, he only seeming, is to be found partly in the coldly has furnished Canon Liddon, Professor Luthardt, Dr. severe and intensely critical character of Gothe's Christlieb, and other of our modern Christian apolo- nature, and partly in the width and depth and keenly gists with some of their most telling phrases, and sensitive nature of his sympathies. He had not only has drawn, moreover, one of the finest literary por- wonderful talents and wonderful versatility in their traits of a Beautiful Soul, or, as Carlyle prefers to use; he had behind them a nature wonderfully suscepcall her, of a Fair Saint, in existence, if not indeed tible to all the influences around him ; and yet, while the finest there is outside the Bible. The explana- keenly alive to them, he could so hold himself in
hand as to be unmoved by them. Nor was this all. educating, and not wanting in imagination and the Such was his self-mastery that he could con faculty of story-telling. Hers was a curious nature. template his feelings and whatever moved them Her sensitiveness was extreme, and there was nothing as if from a distance, and then turn them to his she disliked so much as the hearing of painful news. use. Theologians prefer emotion and tradition. With her servants she always made it a condition Religion and criticism, they imagine, have nothing in that they should never repeat to her anything of the common, and are, if anything, mutually opposed. kind they might accidentally pick up; and during Gæthe is always himself, always ruling, never ruled. her son's dangerous illness at Weimar no one durst He has feelings, deep, strong, vehement, as well as venture to tell her of it until it was past. Yet for a clear and piercing intellect; but the former he her own funeral she gave the most minute directions, never suffers to control bim, keeping them, as a rule, ordering her servants, among other things, not to behind, and rarely allowing them to appear. As you put too few raisins in the cakes, as she could never read his works, you always feel that he is above endure that in her life, and it would be sure to chafe them, that he is using his words and measuring their her in her grave. On the day of her death she effect with a calm, passionless, masterly power which is received an invitation to a party, and sent for scarcely human. And so, while he sees and says many reply that “ Madame Gæthe could not come, as she things which theologians can approve, and which are was engaged just then in dying.” The peculiarities often of the greatest use to them, there is always of both father and mother were seen in Gathe. From something about him—a spirit of criticism, a realism, the former he inherited his orderliness, thoroughor perhaps they would say a worldliness, or a pagan ness, pride, independence; and from the latter his ism, by which they are more or less repelled. imagination, sensuousness, and dislike to encounter
In his “Dichtung und Warheit,” or, as it is some mental pain, or to hear of suffering or anything sad. what inaccurately translated,
During his earlier years * Truth and Poetry,” Gæthe
Goethe's education was suhas given us a charming ac
perintended by his father. count of a great part of his .
In 1764 he began that habit life. Readers who wish to
of falling into love which make his acquaintance should
never left him during the next begin by reading this. They
sixty years of his life. One will find in it not only much
of his first love affairs having that is of interest about
led him into an indiscretion Goethe told in a singularly
which threatened to be clear and delightful way, but
serious, and which strongly also many profound observa
incensed his father, he was tions on art and life, with
sent off in 1765 to the frequent criticisms on con
University of Leipzig. The temporary authors. All that
intention was that he should Gæthe says about himself
study law, but he preferred need not be received with
drawing caricatures of the absolute faith. The facts
professors to taking notes and events are doubtless
of their lectures. A love correct; but their colouring
affair and a severe illness is more frequently the reflection unconsciously cast brought on a crisis in his life. Soon after bis recovery upon them from the memory and imagination of a he took the task of his education into his own hand; cheerful old age. The standard biography of Goethe and, though he never got rid of the habit of falling in is, of course, Mr. G. H. Lewes' “ Life of Goethe,” love, his personal self-culture remained his chief aim not the "Story of Goethe's Life,” which is simply through life. In the year 1776, when Gæthe was an abridgment; but the “Life," which, like Car already famous as an author, the Heir-Apparent of lyle's “ Schiller,” has the no small merit of having Weimar passed through Frankfort, and through the the approval and admiration of Germans.
intervention of some friends waited upon him. The Gæthe was born at noon on the 28th August, 1749, visit seems to have been mutually agreeable. Soon in the old-fashioned and thoroughly mediæval-looking after, Goethe accepted an invitation to reside in town of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, under, as he himself Weimar, and remained the trusted minister and friend records, a "propitious horoscope,” in which there was of the Duke until they were separated by death. clear anticipation of the special worship of young Goethe was what Fichte calls a genuine scholar. ladies and of a general sceptre over earth and air. Though a master in his art, he was always learning, His father, who occupied an official position and was and never believed that his studies, which were the in easy circumstances, was shy, testy, punctilious, most varied possible, were completed. His literary somewhat proud of his family connections, fidgety works, which require to be distinguished from his and austere in his superintendence of his children, scientific, amount to between twenty and thirty yet not ill-natured. His mother was a genial, busy, volumes. Strangely enough, too, they are all in little body, with, for a German, a strong sense of a measure autobiographical—not that they are forhumour, à not over-strict conscience, willing and mally so, like his - Dichtung und Warheit,” but, in skilful in the invention of white lies to screen her reality, Goethe never wrote aught that was purely children, whom she never pretended to be capable of fictitious. Whatever he cast into a literary form had
passed through the alembic of his personal experience, of negative or destructive doctrines. He is and was the sensuous expression of some phase or thoroughly positive and practical. His chief dictum incident of his own interior life. At the same time, is, that the end of man is not thought but action, his works have a broader significance. Keenly sen- and that only by wise activity can be dissolve his sitive to the influences around him, and penetrating doubts and attain to knowledge, while his whole into their inmost character, in his “Götz von Berlich- philosophy of life may be summed up in the lines thus ingen,” his “Sorrows of Werter,” his “ Faust,” his translated by Carlyle :« Wilhelm Meister," and his "Torquato Tasso," he has mirrored as in a glass the deepest thought and
“What, shap'st thou here at the world ? 'Tis shapen long life of his time. One can see there the under-currents
The Master shap'd it, he thought it best, even so : of European life, and the thoughts and aspirations, the
Thy lot is appointed, go follow its hest ; doubts and beliefs, which were then unconsciously Thy course is begun, thou must walk, and not rest; struggling for utterance in the minds of men.
For sorrow and care cannot alter thy case As a teacher, Goethe is by no means a propounder
And running, not raging, will win thee the race !"
HEINRICH HEINE TO HIS MOTHER.
I am apt enough to bear my bonnet high;
How boldly yet soe'er my thoughts might fly,
When thy sweet loving holiness was by,
Ranging untrammelled through the Heavens aloft,
It wrings me to remember now, how oft
Though I should travel to Earth's utmost end,
A love that my fond love might apprehend
My hands at every door I did extend,
Begging this boon from whoso had to spend.
Till coming home, heart-weary with despair,
O joy! the dear long-sought-for love was there !
L. C., 1884