« PreviousContinue »
authority was a shadow. In Spain he was absolute there were few to welcome him—only one of the sovereign, and if he had gone with the Reformers princes, Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, spoke to him. against the l'ope, he would have lost the hearts of his “Dear Doctor, if you are right, the Lord stand by hereditary subjects, Luther was not to find a friend | you.” And as he entered the assembly and came into in Charles, but he was to find a noble enemy, whose the presence of the Emperor, surrounded as he was by lofty qualities he always honoured and admired." Spanish priests and nobles, and the dukes and barons
Charles was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, on the of Germany, George of Freūndsberg touched him on the 28th January, 1521, and thereafter proceeded shoulder and said, “Little monk, little monk! Thou to Worms, to hold the first Diet of the hast work before thee that I and many a man, whose Sovereigns and States of Germany. To this Diet | trade is war, never faced the like of. If thy heart is Luther was summoned amid his own fears and right and thy cause good, go on in God's name. He the fears of those who remembered the fate of will not forsake thee." Huss. He, however, was quite calm. “I will go if I It was a memorable occasion, and must have been a am to be carried sick in my bed, I am called of the picturesque scene. “The sun, verging to its setting, Lord, when the Kaiser calls me. I trust only that the streamed full on the scene of worldly magnificence, Emperor of Germany will not begin his reign with the strangely varied by every colour and form of dress: the shedding of innocent blood, I would rather be mur Spanish cloak of yellow silk, the velvet and ermine of the dered by the Romans.” The first move of his opponents Electors, the red robes of Cardinals, the violet robes of was to secure his condemnation without a hearing, but Bishops, the plain sombre garb of deputies of towns this, through the influence of the Elector Frederick and priests.” On the one hand the pride, the pomp, and others, they were not able to manage.
the power of the world and the greatest Church in it! He and his friends set out from Wittenburg with the On the other, a solitary, low-born, peasant monk—pale good wishes of all their fellow townsmen, in a carriage with care, illness, and study! “No wonder,” Mr. provided by the municipality, and their progress through Froude says, “the appearance of Luther on this occathe country was one of triumph. Several incidents sion is one of the finest, perhaps the very finest, in give human interest to the journey. The people as- human history. Many a man has encountered death sembled round the hotels where he rested, to cheer and bravely for a cause which he knows to be just, when encourage him. At Nuremberg a friend gave him a he is sustained by the sympathy of thousands, of whom portrait of Savonarola, urging him “to be manful for | he is at that moment the champion and the representathe truth, and to stand by God, and God would stand tive. But it is one thing thus to suffer, and another to by him.” At Weimar, in answer to an inquiry if he encounter face to face, and single handed, the array of felt his danger, he replied, “I will go although they temporal and spiritual authorities which are ruling should kindle a fire between Wittenberg and Worms to supreme.” At first it seemed as if he might almost reach to heaven.” When even Spalatin desired to dis waver. He was asked by his old opponent Eck if the suade him from going further he said, “I will go if books on the table before him were his? In a low there were as many devils in Worms as there are tiles voice, he replied that they were. He was asked again, npon the house-top. Though they burnt Huss they whether he was ready to retract them ? He begged for could not burn the truth.”
time and was allowed a night for consideration. His He preached at Erfurt, “and a crowd of tender asso opponents were jubilant-his friends despondent. But, ciations rushed upon his mind as he gazed at the Con next day he was brave in the strength of his convicvent—the scene of his spiritual birth ; and as he stood tions ! The only admission he would make was that by the grave of one of his former companions, a he may have been too hard in his attacks against parbrother monk, “How calmly he sleeps ! and I-" was ticular persons. If fault could be proved, he would his remark to Jonas, while he leaned upon the grave admit it. “Would he retract the heresies of which stone absorbed in thought, until warned of the lateness the Council of Constance had condemned him ?” An of the hour.” At Eisenach he fell ill, but was not dis answer “ without horns” was demanded, “Yes," or couraged. When the city of Worms came in sight, it “No." Then he spake these brave words_“I will is supposed by some, that, standing up in his carriage, give you an answer which has neither horns nor teeth! he sang his famous hymn—" Ein' feste Burg ist unser Popes have erred, and Councils have erred. Prove to Gott," the Marsellaise of the Reformation, as it has me that I am wrong, and I submit. Till then my been called. On the 16th of April he entered Worms, conscience binds me. Here I stand! I can do no and a trumpet blast proclaimed that he had arrived. more. God help me.---Amen." The Elector had provided him with a residence, but With these words he won his victory. His brave mien, his true courage, his humble dependence upon which accompanied her from Hungary, and which was God, brought him much sympathy. Neither Charles reverenced for generations in Scotland as the “ Black nor the princes of Germany cared to violate their Rood ;" her washing and kissing the feet of the poor; promise of safe conduct; and, while some shouted that her night-long vigils in the Church, "herself assisting he ought to be sent to prison, and others that the at triple matins—of the Trinity, of the Cross, and of Rhine ought to receive his ashes he was allowed to St. Mary—and afterwards repeating the Psalter, with go back in safety to his hotel. He found awaiting him, tears bedewing her raiment, and upheaving her breast," there a present from the aged Duke of Brunswick—a —these bear to us, whose theory and practice are less silver can of Einbech beer, and as in his weariness he rigorous and more “enlightened," an aspect of almost drained it, he said—“ As Duke Eric has remembered superstitious zeal. We are tempted to think of her, as me this day, so may our Lord Jesus Christ remember of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, as a morbid devotee : him in his last struggle.” Many men came to see him: yet the religion thus expressed was of the sincerest and some to congratulate and encourage him—others to most self-sacrificing character, and fitted to impress the ascertain his views, and urge his submission to the reckless spirit of the age as no less demonstrative Emperor. The gist of all his declarations was that he devotion could have impressed it. It wrought upon acknowledged no authority but Scripture. On some one the bold and generous nature of the king like a asking him if he knew of any remedy for the unhappy humanising spell. dissensions that had sprung up ? He replied, “I know Fearless and warlike in the field, and ready as ever not of any, except the advice of Gamaliel—'If this to encounter the foe, he set the example in his palace counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought. of the decorous and charitable life of a Christian But, if it be of God! ye cannot overthrow it.' Let knight. The queen's advice and wish were his the Emperor and the States write to the Pope that | domestic law. “What she eschewed he was wont to they are fully assured that if the doctrines so much eschew; and, in his love, to love whatever she loved.” derided are not of God, they will perish by a natural He helped her in attending to her poor; and when death within two or three years."
these came in greater crowds, he would have them ushered into the inner court, and the gate shut, so that no one but a few monks and servants should see the
alms they received, or the services rendered to them. Margaret: Saint and Queen.
And if sometimes the good queen, in her lavish almsBy the Rev. R. HERBERT STORY, D.D., Rosneath.
giving, exceeded her own resources and appropriated some of her husband's, the king “on discovering his
loss would merely tax her laughingly with the theft.” TIKE all good women, Margaret first shed her in He learned from her to be regular and earnest at his
fluence on her own home Malcolm, with the big prayers, and every morning he attended matins and head, lived among his rugged chiefs, with little of the the celebration of the mass. He never rectified his grace or culture of a Court about him or his retainers. early neglect of letters, and to the end of his life Hard fighting and rough living were more familiar to could not read the Latin Bible, and other books in them than domestic quiet or social intercourse. Igno which Margaret took great delight; but he used to rance, lawlessness, and superstition abounded. Even | have these volumes clad in the richest binding, and the king, though he could speak both the Latin and emblazoned with gold and gems, and would kiss and Saxon tongues, could neither read nor write.
fondle them as his wife's pets. This proof of his Into this rude and churlish circle Margaret, like a regard was no doubt very acceptable to Margaret, for second Una, brought the unconscious charm of her with her religious zeal she combined a marked admiraown purity, piety, and refinement. Her religion was tion for what was costly and ornate in garniture and the ruling principle of her life; and it was not with raiment. Probably it was both to please a natural her, as it was with the later queen, whose name alone taste, and with the view of correcting the coarse has left a deeper mark on Scottish annals, a ritual and simplicity of the royal appointments, that she introa policy-it was a force—a passion. It was in most duced the use of gold and silver plate at table, of of its outward features very different from the religion vestments of fine foreign cloth and varied dyes, and of our day, which has, perhaps, lost as much in largely increased the number of the attendants on spiritual intensity as it has gained in intellectual herself and the king. Her own attire was magnificent, breadth. Her love of relics, and special devotion to and the old colourless honeliness of the royal entourage the jewelled crucifix, with its shred of the true cross, gave place to the pomp and splendour of a dignified
princesses became patterns of intelligence and good conduct, and “the fierce light that beats upon a throne" discovered no stain or blot on name and fame.
In two wide spheres beyond the palace gates the influence of Margaret was soon recognised as "quick and powerful.” These were the national policy and the Church.
At so great a distance we cannot trace her presence amongst the people, as we can in a later era trace Mary's, as she moved about from the Border to the Grampians—now at the banquet or the dance-now on her palfrey "fleeting like a beam of light” in the gay cavalcade or merry chase. Only here and there a vestige or a tradition recalls some ancient "progress” of Malcolm and his Queen-such as that, for instance, which connects the arms and motto of the Leslies with a royal visit to the Garioch. Many refugees of the Saxon party, among others “old uncanonical Stigand,” had either accompanied or followed the Aetheling to Scotland. One of those was Bartolf— whom some suppose to have been an early Hungarian friend of the Saxon family. He won the hand of Malcolm's sister, Beatrix, and in pursuance of the King's sagacious policy of inducing the more civilised strangers to settle amongst his subjects, Bartolf was endowed with broad lands (part of which remain still in his descendants' possession) in Inverurie, Aberdeenshire. Bartolf was also Chamberlain to the Queen, and, as such, the duty and honour fell to him of carrying Her Majesty on a pillion, behind his saddle, when she travelled. In one of her journeys, presumably when she and her husband had come to visit their friend in his stronghold of Inverurie, as Bartolf and the queen were crossing a stream “she was in danger or fear of falling, and Bartolf, whose belt she held by, said to her, Grip fast;' to which the queen replied, Gin the buckle bide.'»
The Leslies of Balquhain still carry
for their arms argent on a fess azure, three buckles or, with the motto, “Grip fast."*
Court. There was in reality no inconsistency between this and the profusion of her religious services and the humility of her good works. She felt that the squalid and comfortless domestic life of the Scotch would benefit by the stately and ornate example of her palace. There is no divorce between religion and beauty, and no connection between dirt and godliness. The piety and the dignified lustre of her life at once fostered religion and purified manners. The home of the king of Scotland, under her influence, began for the first time to wear the aspect, never afterwards lost, of the residence, not of a mere chief amidst his retainers, but of a feudal sovereign, surrounded by the chivalry of a settled and polished Court.
Margaret bore King Malcolm eight children—six sons and two daughters. The eldest daughter, Edith, after being educated in the Convent of Romsey, of which her aunt Christina was the abbess, married Henry the First of England ; and, having changed her name to Matilda, or Maud, out of compliment to his mother, came to be known among "a grateful people" as “Good Queen Maud." The younger daughter, Mary, married Eustace, Count of Boulogne, and left an only child who, like her aunt, became the wife of an English king-Stephen of Blois.
It is an incidental proof of Margaret's domestic ascendancy that all her sons' names seem to have been her own choice. Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, and Edgar, were all named after kinsmen of her own; Alexander, after the Pope; and David's name had become fashionable with pious mothers in those days. Edward, the eldest son, fell in battle beside his father; Ethelred became Abbot of Dunkeld and Earl of Fife ; Edmund, "the only one who fell away from goodness," is said to have at last hidden his failures and his penitence in an English cloister. The three others lived to wear in succession the Scottish crown, and not only so,
but to illustrate in their own careers the principles they had learned from their mother. Margaret had not, like modern mothers and pedagogues, outlived Solomon's faith in the virtues of the rod. While she ruled her whole household carefully, obliging her many ladies-in-waiting to spend their leisure in useful needlework, and to avoid all frivolity and indecorum, she governed her children with special firmness. Her mere look was enough to check anything unbecoming; and they grew up under the wholesome, if somewhat grave and austere, influence of this pure and noble presence. She took care that they should acquire all the learning that became their station, and she enjoined their monkish tutors to enforce strict discipline and attention, by corporal chastisement whenever it was necessary
Thus trained the young princes and
But though no longer traceable in her "going out and coming in ” among her subjects, Margaret has left her mark deep and clear upon the internal policy of her husband's long and energetic reign.
The two principles she held by were industryand order. It is somewhat difficult after more than seven centuries to distinguish, with exactness, between the measures of Margaret and those of her illustrious and like-minded son David, but we are tolerably certain that the spirit which originated the policy that was carried to its completion by the son was the mother's; and that he,
* See the very interesting and exhaustive History of Inverurie and the Earldom of the Garioch, by the Rev. Dr. Davidson, Minister of Inverurie.
like his father, had learned the truth of the old Saxon over the Scottish Church in the ninth and tenth cenbelief that "something divine dwelt in the counsels of turies. As Margaret's era approaches dawn begins to woman," and especially of this one woman. While break, and we see the Church still Celtic in character, Malcolm strove to consolidate the royal power and to though more tinged than of old with Roman ideas and extend the area in which it was supreme, Margaret practices, and materially strengthened by the possession invited the settlement within that area of her own of substantial temporal endowments. The centres of countrymen, and others from foreign lands, whose such religious life and light as existed were the Culdee industry and skill stimulated those of the natives, and Colleges or Convents — Saint Andrews, Lochleven, gradually raised the character and the value of Scottish Monymusk, Abernethy, Dunkeld, Dunblane, and produce and handicraft. She did all that royal others. There were bishops, but they had no dioceses, patronage could do to encourage traders from Conti and there were no parishes or parish priests. The nental ports to visit Scotland. To the impetus thus clergy were inert and superstitious. The lamp of given to commerce and manufactures is directly learning no longer burned in their cloisters. They referable the growth of those burghs and guilds, to had fallen behind the age. Isolated from the general which David afterwards granted charters, and which interests and movements of the Church Catholic, the became the nursing mothers of traffic and enterprise, Scottish Church, which has, in its later age, been so and of civil liberty and popular rights.
often rent with schisms, then stood in peril of the Although the formal and regular administration sectarianism of tribal and local rivalries, and the of justice, and the construction of a code of laws
jealous blight of an unenlightened provincialism. were, in Margaret's day, still but promises of the Usage was lax-authority was vaguo— life was indofuture, the idea of them was familiar to her love | lent — thought was unproductive. Not only the of order and of peace; and here, too, David was Church but Religion was in danger, and Margaret set afterwards able to realise the prophetic visions herself to the task of reformation. of his mother. We trace to her the beginning and One might have expected that the churchly zeal suggestion of the great popular movement, if we of a queenly devotee would have shown itself in lavish may so call it, which by degrees was to substitute the endowments or benefactions to the clergy. But robust and practical civilisation of the Anglo-Saxon for Margaret and her husband did comparatively little for the more visionary and graceful culture of the Celt; to the Church in the way of bestowing worldly goods. introduce, among the less coherent elements of national We associate with her name the “ Reilig Odhrain,” life in Scotland, the Norman system of organisation
which preserves at Iona the site of Columba's original and of feudal interdependence, and thus out of the cell, and where Margaret's care repaired the ravages of cluster of tribes and races, over which Malcolm's
the Norsemen. Besides this, we can trace to her only predecessors had held uncertain sway, to form one the Benedictine Monastery at Dunfermline, and the homogeneous nation. All this, perfected by David, was tiny Norman Chapel, still called by her name, and commenced by Margaret; and we do not wonder that crowning the highest peak of the rock that holds her pious son, recognising in her the good genius of
Edinburgh Castle. * his life and of his kingdom, should, when his end was Her love of the Church and religion was manifested near, have bidden his servants carry him to offer a in a more thoughtful way than in mere buildings and last prayer before the Black Rood, * that was linked in gifts. The richer a corrupt Church is, the more many a sacred memory with the thought of his wise infectious grows the corruption. Margaret knew she and saintly mother's devotions.
might leave the endowing of the Church to her It was as a Church Reformer Margaret achieved her
children, if she helped to make it worthy of their greatest work.
love and care. Her concern was to reform its usages The Whitby Conference in 664, from which Colman and to regulate its orders into harmony with the of Lindisfarne retreated indignantly to Iona, com discipline of Rome. She began with the practical mitted the Anglo-Saxon Church to the discipline and | point of erroneous usage. As, perhaps, was natural in unity of Rome. The Church in Scotland remained | a female reformer, questions of mere ritual were dealt true to the traditions of Columba, and long continued with as earnestly as those of deeper moral meaning. to exhibit the Celtic characteristics, with which his One of her most solemn conferences with the clergy apostolic force and fervour had imbued it at the first. was occupied with the discussion of the right day for A darkness, which none of our lights can dispel, broods
• This little oratory has been recently “restored," but with no taste. * A crucifix of gold, about the length of a palm: the figure of ebony,
elderly person, who acted as show-woman, sold photographs. The religio loci is not understood in Edinburgh Castle.
The last time I was in it the only furniture was a deal table, at which an
stadded and inlaid with gold.
A piece of the true cross was enclosed.
beginning the austerities of Lent-in the practice of than he was. But his “ Amelia” and her mother which the queen was rigidly scrupulous. The king thought differently, and he was pursued by many letters acted as interpreter between her and the Celtic priests, representing his perfidy, and the obligations under who knew no Saxon, and for no less than three days which he had come. At last the mother appeared at “ did she employ the sword of the Spirit in combating the Post Office, and the supreme moment of ludicrous their errors.” “Often,” says Turgot enthusiastically, torture, which awaited him, can only be described in “ have I heard her, with admiration, discourse of the words of the autobiography. “My hair almost subtle questions of theology, in presence of the most stands on end now, as I remember the figure of this learned men of the kingdom.” So gifted a royal woman walking into the big room, in which I sat with disputant was certain to prevail, and Margaret's three six or seven other clerks, having a large basket under days' debate ended in her persuading the clergy to her arm, and an immense bonnet on her head. The forsake the ancient usage, and to adopt that which messenger had vainly endeavoured to persuade her to Rome had introduced about 200 years before, of remain in the ante-room. She followed the man in, beginning Lent on Ash Wednesday, instead of on the and. walking up the centre of the room, addressed me Monday following Quadragesima Sunday.
in a loud voice-'Anthony Trollope, when are you The Lord's Day had come to be little regarded. going to marry my daughter?' We have all had our The people went about their work and their pleasure | worst moments, and that was one of my worst. I lived on that day, as on any other day of the week. The through it, however, and did not marry the young queen remonstrated and urged until the day was kept lady. These little incidents were all against me at the with decent propriety, as a day of rest and of religious office.” observance.
There was much indeed against Trollope, all (To be Continued.)
through his boyhood and youth. He “was always in
trcuble," as he himself says. His father was a Anthony Trollope's Youth. Chancery barrister, who had been a Wykamist, and a BY PRINCIPAL TULLOCH.
Fellow of New College. He was adjudged by those AUTOBIOGRAPHY is the order of the day. | competent to know, to be “an excellent and most A Carlyle drew his own character, if also many
conscientious lawyer.” But he had an execrable other characters, in his Reminiscences ; Bishop
temper, which “drove the attorneys from him.” “In Wilberforce photographed his disappointed ambitions,
his early days he was a man of small fortune, and of and jealousies unworthy of himself, in the rapid
higher hopes ;” but what with bad temper and bad Diary, heedlessly published by his son; and now we
farming—for like many men who could not succeed have a formal “autobiography' from the pen of the in his own profession, he thought he might succeed as many-volumed novelist who so lately left us. Nothing a farmer – he gradually immersed himself in diffican be more characteristic than these volumes.* culties, which compelled his retreat across the channel. Trollope, the writer, is depicted in every page; and in
His farm proved ruinous—his clients, who were never the first volume, which is much the more interesting
many, deserted him—an old uncle, whose heir he was of the two, Trollope the boy, and the young man is
to have been, married and had a family. When especially set before us. There has seldom been drawn Anthony was seven years old, the family had descended a more vivid and frank picture of a forlorn boyhood, to a mean and small house, on the farm the father had and an apparently good-for-nothing youth. The author tried to cultivate, in the vicinity of Harrow, to which sketches himself with the same analytical and pitiless school the boy was sent. His description of what he frankness with which, for example, he paints Johnny
suffered, both at Harrow and Winchester, to which he Eames in the “Small House of Allington.” The afterwards went, are far from creditable to either youth, Anthony Trollope, as he stood in the some school—and it is to be hoped that his sensitive feeling what severe judgment of the successful novelist is and imagination may have somewhat exaggerated his indeed in many ways the photograph of Johnny sufferings. He admits that his appearance was against Eames. All will remember how Johnny was entrapped
him, and his idleness incorrigible, yet he pictures a in the toils of Amelia Roper. The youthful Trollope singular lack of chivalry on the part both of masters suffered in the same manner. A young woman in the and boys. Walking through the muddy lanes to country had taken it into her head that she would like school, with seldom “much in the way of clothes,” he to marry him. No young man, the novelist says, cannot have been a nice-looking boy; but that was no could have been "less to blame” in such a matter reason why the headmaster, Dr. Butler, “with all the
clouds of Jove on his brow, and all the thunder in his * An Autobiography of Anthony Trollope, 2 vols., Blackwood & Sons.