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of the Gods, he who is at all conversant with their writings needs not to be informed. The word weprolapece particularly, Hesychius explains by the synonimous terms, αντιλυτρον, αντιψυχον : and Suidas describes its meaning in this remarkable manner, Ουτως επελεγον (Αθηναιοι) τα κατ ενιαυτον συνεχoντι σαντων κακα" (this Schleisner affirms to be the true reading)---περιψημα ημων γενε, ήτοι σωτηρια και απολυτρωσις. Και ουτως ενεβαλλον τη θαλασση, ωσανει τω Ποσειδωνι θυσιαν αποτιννύντες. .

Nor is the idea of propitiatory atonement, more clearly expressed by the Greek, than it is by the Latin, writers of antiquity. The words placare, propitiare, expiare, litare, plaeamen, piaculum, and such like, occur so frequently, and with such clearness of application, that their force cannot be easily misapprehended, or evaded. Thus Horace, (lib. ii. sat. 3.) Prudens placavi sanguine Divos: and (lib. i. Ode 28.) Teque piacula nulla resolvent: and in his second Ode, he proposes the question, cui dabit partes scelus expiandi Jupiter : (“ to which,” says Parkhurst whimsically enough, 66 the answer in the Poet is, Apollo--the second person in the Heathen Trinity.") Cæsar likewise, speaking of the Gauls, says, as has been already noticed, Pro vita hominis nisi vita hominis reddatur, non posse de orum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur. Cicero (pro Fonteio. x.) speaking of the same

people, says, Si quando aliquo metu adducti, deos placandos esse arbitrantur, humanis hostiis eorum aras ac templa funestant. The same writer (De Nat. Deor. lib. iii. cap. 6.) says, Tu autem etiam Deciorum devotionibus placatos Deos esse censes. From Silius Italicus and Justin, we have the most explicit declarations, that the object of the unnatural sacrifices of the Carthaginians, was to obtain pardon from the Gods. Thus the former (lib. 4. lin. 767, &c.).

Mos fuit in populis, quos condidit advena Dido
Poscere cæde Deos veniam, ac flagrantibus aris
(Infandum dictu) parvos imponere natos

And in like manner the latter (lib. xviii. cap. 6.) expresses himself; Homines ut victimas immolabant: et impuberes aris admovebant; pacem sanguine eorum exposcentes, pro quorum vitâ Dii rogari maxime solent. Lucan also, referring to the same bloody rites, usual in the worship of the cruel Gods of the Saxons, thus speaks of the (Pharsal. lib. i. lin. 443. &c.)

Et quibus immitis placatur sanguine diro
Teutates, horrensque feris altaribus Hesus,
Et Tharamis Scythiæ non mitior ara Dianæ

Virgil likewise, (Æn. ii. lin. 116.)

Sanguine placastis ventos, et virgine cæså,
Sanguine quærendi reditus, animâque litandum

Suetonius relates of Otho. (cap. 7.) Per omnia piaculorum genera, manes Galbæ propitiare tentasse. And Livy (lib. vii. cap. 2.) says, Cum vis morbi nec humanis consiliis, nec ope divinâ levaretur, ludi quoque scenici, inter alia cælestis irae placamina institui dicuntur : and the same writer, in another place, directly explains the object of animal sacrifice; Per dies aliquot, hostiæ majores sine litatione cæsæ, diuque non impetrata par Deúm. The word litare is applied in the same manner by Pliny, (De Viris Illust. Tull. Host.) Dum . Numam sacrificiis imitatur, Jovi Elicio litare non potuit; fulmine ictus cum regiâ conflagravit. This sense of the word might be confirmed by numerous instances. Servius, (Æn. iv. lin. 50.) and Macrobius, (lib. iii. cap. 5.) inform us, that it implies," facto sacrificio placare numen:” and Stephanus says from Nonius, that it differs from sacrificare in this, that the signification of the latter is, veniam petere, but that of the former, veniam impetrare.

But to produce all the authorities on this head, were endless labour: and indeed to have produced so many, might seem to be an useless one, were it not of importance to enable us to appreciate with exactness, the claims to literary pre-eminence, set up by a writer, who on all occasions pronounces ex cathedra ; and on whose dicta, advanced with an authoritative and imposing confidence, and received by his followers with

implicit reliance, has been erected a system, embracing the most daring impieties, that have ever disgraced the name of Christianity. If the observations in this number, of the length of which I am almost ashamed, have the effect of proving to any of his admirers, the incompetency of the guide 'whom they have hitherto followed with unsuspecting acquiescence, I shall so far have served the cause of truth and of christianity, and shall have less reason to regret the trouble occasioned both to the reader and to myself, by this prolix detail.



Page 10. (f)—This thought we find happily conveyed by Mr. Pope, in his Essay on Man :

66. In human works, tho' laboured on with pain,
66 A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain;
“ In God's, one single does its end produce;
$ Yet serves to second too, some other use.".

In the illustration of this part of my subject, I have been much indebted to the excellent Sermons of the Bishop of London, on the Christian doctrine of Redemption : and also to the sixth Letter of H. Taylor's Ben Mordecai's Apologyà work, which though it contains much of what must be pronounced to be erroneous doctrine, is



nevertheless, in such parts as do not take their complexion from the tinge of the author's peculiar opinions, executed with acuteness, learning, and research.




Page 10. (5)—The objection stated in the page here referred to, is urged by Chubb, in his reasons ing on Redemption.

The species of argument here employed, is a favourite one with this deistical writer. He

applies it on another occasion, to establish a conclusion, no less extraordinary, than that the conversion of the Jews or Heathens to Christianity was à matter of little consequence, either as to the favour of God, or their own future safety; for, adds he, if they were virtuous and good men, they were secure without such conversion; andif they were bad vicious men, they were not secured by it !!! (Posthumous Works, vol. 2. p. 33.) Thus with the simple apparatus of an IF and a DILEMMA, was this acute reasoner able, on all occasions, to subvert any part of the system of revelation against which he chose to direct his attacks. The APE nOT ET.2 was never wanting to this moral Archimedes ; and the fulcrum and two-forked lever were always ready at hand, to aid the designs of the logical mechanician.

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