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way for Newfoundland. But it is discovered again, that Mr Pennant, in his valuable work, entitled, Arctic Zoology, gives the following account of the fisheries.' (S17.) After one page devoted according to the preestablished harmony' to the Bermudas, we reach Greenland. Once more, a celebrated naturalist Mr Pennant still) gives the following account of the animals.' (24.) We get at last to Hudson's Bay; but we only go deeper into Mr Pennant; in praise of whose work the very same sentence above quoted is reprinted from our author's own words; and, because of the scarcity of the arctic zoology, the following extract may not be unacceptable.' (p. 381.)
The West Indies, having been scantily treated of in the first edition, are now copiously described by Bryan Edwards and Dr Pinckard, and Mr Mackinnon. As a specimen of this, we may just observe, that after giving the meagre account of Jamaica, from the former edition, our author says, its brevity was complained of, and he will give some amplifications from Mr Edwards, in his own words,' for a reason not easily guessed,- for the sake of greater authenticity.' So there follows an excerpt of thirty pages from Mr Edwards's well known book; then fourteen pages on the Caribs; and twenty-three on the Caribbee Islands; besides various excerpts of different sizes from the travellers formerly alluded to, and Dr Anderson. And this is Mr-Pinkerton's way of supplying the defects of his first edition, and of increas ing its bulk above one half, by long, sedulous and painful re
Where the books which he wishes to incorporate are written in a foreign language, he has somewhat more work; but does not come off as well. The acquisitions from Spanish writers, with which he has enriched his account of America, are the parts he boasts chiefly of. Our limits do not permit us to follow him closely over this part of his additions; but we shall give a few specimens of his manner of reading Spanish books, for the purpose of shewing how much care he has bestowed on his subject, and how safely his new edition may be trusted, as containing an accurate description of the Spanish colonies.
Vol. III. p. 160.- The oidor, or chief judge, is an officer of great importance.' The oidor is not the chief judge, but one of the inferior or puisne judges. The chief judge is called Regente, or Regent of the Audience. Viager. Univ. xxvi. 283.
Ibid. There are also several inferior tribunals, among which that of the acordada judges small causes without expense, and with great promptitude.' The acordada, instead of resembling the small debt court of Edinburgh, as Mir Pinkerton gives us to understand in this passage, is the most formidable criminal court
in Mexico. The judge of the acordada, or as he is otherwise called, the Captain of the Holy Brotherhood, has 8 or 10,000 men under him; and formerly there was no appeal from his sen tence, even in capital cases; but, at present, they are reviewed by the viceroy and two or three oidores. The particular province of the acordada is to maintain order and tranquillity throughout the kingdom, and to punish robbery, murder, and other acts of violence. Viag. Univ. xxvi. 280.
P. 167.- Assignments on the Windward Islands.' It should be, Assignments (i. e. on the treasury of Mexico) for the use of the Windward Islands.' Viag. Univ. xxvii. 217.
P. 168.- All which are under the management of the minister of state. It should be, though the last is under,' &c.
Viag. Univ. xxvii. 217.
Ibid. The whole of the passage, beginning The branch of tributes,' is nonsense, from ignorance of the Spanish.
P. 190.- The College of St Mary of all Saints, is the only one of the first rank in the Spanish American possessions. Colegio Mayor, is not, college of the first rank, but, college for young nobles.
P. 206. There being no money of bullion as in Spain.' This has evidently no meaning; and shews clearly, that Mr Pinkerton does not use his mind, but his hand, when he writes geography. All money is made of bullion; and all bullion ceases to be so called when it is coined into money. The original is, • Moneda de Vellon, '-' copper coin. '-Vellon never, by any chance whatever, means bullion.
P. 211.-Another example of Mr Pinkerton's haste, and want of thought when he writes. He tells us gravely, that the religious women of Vera Cruz are occupied in teaching grammar to the parrots of Alvarado.' The original is, Hay en esta cuidad unas beatas que ganan su vida ensenando à hablar a los loros, i. e. by teaching parrots to speak. Mr Pinkerton has probably seen hablar in the title-page of some spelling book, and supposed that it meant grammar.
P. 230.—The passage beginning The imposts,' is absolutely unintelligible from the mistranslation of Viag. Univ. xxvii.
P. 267.- They (the inhabitants of California) imagine, that, after death, they are changed into owls, which is not improbable !' P. 387. In 1792, the products of cotton were computed at six thousand arrobas, while that of fruits amounted to the surprising sum of 25,600,000 pecas; but under this article he includes coffee, chocolate,' &c. In this short sentence there are three blunders; 1. Frutos, in Spanish, does not mean fruits, but
produce or merchandize, in contradistinction to money. 2. The Spanish author does not say that the frutos of the island amounted to so much, but that the frutos imported and exported at the Havana, amounted to that sum. 3. He does not speak of the island of Cuba at all, but of the Havana.-Estala, xx. 69. If Mr Pinkerton had only reflected that his statement makes the island of Cuba export above seven times more in fruits, than all Mexico does in every article of merchandize, he could scarcely have committed such a blunder.
P. 539.— Estanco de tabaco,' is monopoly of tobacco.' Mr Pinkerton translates it deposit. <
P. 541.- Asesor letrado,' is an assessor bred to the law. Mr Pinkerton makes it a learned assessor.'
P. 548. Fiel executor,' is clerk of the market' in the original. (Estala, xxvii. 286.) Mr Pinkerton makes it
P. 549.— Caidas de Caballos,' means, falls from horses. Mr Pinkerton pleasantly translates it heels of horses. '
P. 539. Para lo contenciofo de efte ramo forma el Xefe tribunal con un afefor que le da S. M. fifcal y notario.' (Eftala, xxvii. 292.) This Mr Pinkerton tranflates, In difficult cafes he has an affeffor, fiscal, and notary. It ought to be, Exchequer fuits are tried by a court confifting of the intendant and his affeffor, who is named by the king, aflifted by the fifcal and notary.' P. 554. The inhabitants may be 6oo. The original is, ima fcifcientos vecinos;' (E. xx. 124.) i. e. the householders are about 600.' The fame mistake repeatedly occurs in Mr Pinkerton's book; and in p. 631, (note), he corrects a fuppofed inconfiftency of Eftala, which is in reality a blunder of his own, arifing from his mistake of vecinos for inhabitants.
P. 541. The affeffor has a falary of from lawfuits.' A falfe tranflation; it is
rents.' (Ef. xxvii. 297.) १
1000 dollars derived from the municipal
P. 556. Hides of beeves. The original is, cueros al pelo,' i.e. undreffed hides.' (Ft. xx. 100.)
Ibid.- Coarfe foap. The original is, Sebo deffelido, i. e. melted tallow.'
P. 570. To expedite the work of the miners. The original is, para habilitar los trabajos de minas,' (Eft. xxvii. 302.); i. e. to make advances to the miners to enable them to undertake and carry on their work; habilitar is the technical phrafe for such advances, and anfwers to the phrafe, to mount,' ufed in our manufacturing towns. But a very remote approximation to the meaning of the original always fatisfies Mr Pinkerton; and he is feldom fo lucky in his guefling as in the prefent inftance.
Ibid. Eleven and a half per cent. are then deducted for the dues of the bank.' It fhould be, the duties of eleven and a half per cent. (payable to the crown) are taken from the gold and filver delivered into the bank.' (Eft. xxvii. 303.)
P. 587. Caufes judged in two by the oidors. The original is, Se exercita en dos por los oidores el de los juicios civiles, (Eft. xx. 105.); i. e. in two of the chambers civil causes are tried by the oidors."
P. 596. The addition of 22 per cent. is on account of the price of filver at Cadiz.' How the price of filver at Cadiz should juftify a political arithmetician in adding 22 per cent. to the value of goods exported from that city, we could not eafily imagine; we therefore naturally fuppofed, that Mr Pinkerton, with his accustomed want of thinking, had refted fatisfied with the first guess at the fenfe of his original; upon turning to which, we accordingly found, 22 per cent. added to the official value of goods exported, '-' para equalarlos al precio de plaza en Cadiz,' (Eft. xx. 222.); i. e. to bring the official value to the market price at Cadiz. If it is requiring too much knowledge of Spanish in Mr Pinkerton, to expect that he should have diftinguifhed plaza, a market, from plata, filver, at least we may truft that a builder of geographical fyftems fo' noble, scientific and luminous,' (I. xxii.) fhould not fet down reafons like the above, which are abfolute nonfenfe, and to which he could have attached no one idea when he put them in words. It would certainly be too romantic to fuppofe that he should have known that filver is not dearer in Cadiz than elsewhere, but rather cheaper.
It is quite unneceffary to multiply further the examples of this nature with which every part of this work abounds, and especially the additions made to the prefent republication. We have faid enough, to fhew how far the opinion we have already given is well founded, that, with all its pretenfions, the new portion of the book is a moft hafty and flovenly performance; eked out, by more than the excefs of the ordinary book-makers' arts; and compiled with fo little care or knowledge, (where it is not mere tranfcript of noted works) as to render it at once a most unfafe and molt cumbrous guide.
In a work of this description, style is no doubt a secondary consideration yet must we say a single word upon it, both because Mr Pinkerton's pretensions are as high in this as in any other particular, and because we have to vindicate ourselves from
* A parallel inftance of thoughtleffnefs occurs in fpeaking of the Swedish finances; Sweden owes ten millions to Hamburg, it feems, and therefore is filled with the paper money of that city !?
all share in the following heavy charge which he brings against the literary journals of this country. Their eulogy of the style' (says he, speaking of the notice taken of his first edition) does credit to their own judgment.' The reason is certainly unexpected. As in the opinions of foreigners eminently versed in the English language, such is the purity of the grammar and expression, that they were as seldom obliged to refer to a dictionary as in any other production whatever of the English language; and the voice of foreigners must in this respect be regarded as an infallible test.' Those who dispute the perfections of his style after this, are likened to the Scotch schoolmaster in Smollet, who came to London to teach the pronunciation of the English language,' which, to be sure, is not quite so whimsical as making a French critic's taste the standard of English style. Now, for our own parts, as we are called upon to choose, we have no hesitation in siding with the Scotch schoolmaster, rather than the French critics, being verily persuaded that the discovery of a worse style than Mr Pinkerton's is reserved for some distant age. The specimens which we have been obliged incidentally to give of this pure and perfect' manner of writing, are sufficient to make the reader acquainted with its merits. But Mr Pinkerton will have numerous examples of bad style from all who presume to censure him. (I. xxiv.) So we must comply, and briefly indicate some passages of peculiar note.
The first visitation of Greenland. (III. 3.) The love of glory like the vast mechanical force of steam, another vapour.' (Ibid. 86.) Even their authors cannot advance in the direct road to the temple of fame, but stray into thickets and devious paths of quaint expression, where they often lose their health and reputation. They also often die of bombast and obscurity. (III. 181.) We venture to doubt the accuracy of this last assertion. The lake of Titica now ascribed to the viceroyalty of La Plata.' (Ibid. 501.) The conjunct flood.' (513.) Barbaric civilization. (586.) The soil displays a great variety of barrenness.' (267.) The brilliant plumes of the royal goose do not save it from destruction.' (608.) Conspiracy timeously discovered. ' (647.) Numerous are our edible sea-fish.' (I. 133.) Dependant on the secretaries of state is the state paper office at Whitehall.' (bid. 50.) The pastoral effect of the following description is striking. The cows seem to have been originally. from Holstein, and the utmost attention was paid to warmth and cleanliness, so that, even in summer, the animals appeared in the meadows clothed with ludicrous care.' (I. 511.) The sublime is cultivated in the following high wrought passage. The Moskocstroem,