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The same fact is attested by Shah Nuaz Khan, in his biography of Rajah Tudor Mull.

He exacted the fourth of the produce in money; and in kind divided the crop, which was called Buttai.

Considerable perplexity will be found also to occur in Mr Colebrooke's manner of considering the subject of Zemindari rights.

In one point of view, the Zemindars, as defcendants of antient independent Rajahs, or as the fucceffors of their defcendants, feemed to have been tributary princes. In another light, they appeared to be, only officers of government. Perhaps their real character partook of both.'

We know, in point of fact, that none of the considerable Zemindars of Bengal are descended from independent sovereigns, and that their possessions are comparatively of very recent date. The observation, then, only tends to embarrass the question, by the introduction of an irrelevant supposition.

It only remains to consider the hints suggested by the enlightened benevolence of Mr Colebrooke, for the amelioration of our Indian dominions. They consist of two propositions: 1st, That the capital employed in agriculture is too small, and injudiciously applied.

If Bengal had a capital in the hands of enterprizing and intelligent proprietors, who employed it in agriculture, manufactures, and internal commerce, thefe arts would be improved; and with more and better productions from the fame labour, the fituation of the labourers would be lefs precarious, and more affluent.'

Let us examine this proposition. A more intelligent cultivation would indisputably raise a greater quantity of produce: But is it the penury of its produce of which Bengal has to complain? In a country where corn does not pay the expense of cultivation, would the production of a still greater quantity augment its value? The produce is now exuberant, and the defects of the agricultural system cannot be demonstrated by the scantiness of the produce, as stated by our author himself. We apprehend, from Mr Colebrooke's statements, corroborated by our own observation, that it is not the produce, but the constant demand, which should be augmented, to alleviate the situation of the husbandmen. But who are the intelligent and enterprizing proprietors, to whose assistance he would have recourse? Would he recommend the rescission of the act of Parliament, which precludes Englishmen from purchasing or farming lands? To res scind an act of the Legislature, which places the character of the British nation

Above all Greek, above all Roman fame?' An act of justice and enlightened policy, without which, we will

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venture to affirm, one half of the lands of Bengal would, ere this, have become the property of Englishmen, and the natives would have been strangers on their own soil. But perhaps we

mistake Mr Colebrooke's idea, and will not pursue this topic further. Should that prove the case, the permanent settlement, by the sale of lands to supply deficiency of revenue, seems to provide for the introduction of more enterprizing, and more affluent proprietors, into the landed system. The purchasers usually consist of wealthy natives, who have acquired their fortunes by commerce: their habits of industry, their enterprize and their capital, under the encouragement held forth by a permanent assessment, may, it is hoped, be advantageously employed in rural


The second proposition is the encouragement of agriculture, in facilitating exportation, by lowering the rates of freight, and the duties on Bengal sugar in England. The length to which we have carried our analysis of this important and valuable publication, prevents us from entering on a subject so much perplexed by jarring interests; and obliges us to conclude by repeating our warm general approbation of the contents of this work.

ART. III. The Stranger in Ireland; or, a Tour in the Southern and Western Parts of that Country in the Year 1805. By John Carr, Esq. of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple ; Author of a Northern Summer, or Travels round the Baltic; the Stranger in France, &c. &c.

WE were glad to see a tour through Ireland by Mr Carr; for though a hasty traveller, and an incorrect writer, we judged, from his former publications, that he had talents for observation, and for lively description. We expected that he would throw new lights upon the state of Ireland; that country, for which, as Lord Chesterfield said, God has done so much and man so little.' The union has certainly created a demand for a statistical, economical, moral and political view of Ireland, with a clear explanation of the causes which have, for nearly three centuries, impeded its progress in civilization; and a statement of such remedies as sound policy and practical humanity suggest for its improvement.


It is difficult to defcribe the aftonishment with which foreigners learn this act of magnanimity in the British Legiflature. Several perfons of diftinction in France could not conceal the impreffion produced by mentioning it.

Spenfer, who was fecretary to one of the lord lieutenants in the reign of Elizabeth, and Sir John Davies, who was attorney-general and speaker of the Houfe of Commons in Ireland in the reign. of James the I., have left full and able accounts of the ftate of that country in their times. The Irish were then a nation of wandering fhepherds, and feudal freebooters. The English pale extended but to a few counties immediately round Dublin; all without were excluded from the benefit of the English laws and protection. On the confines of the pale, and in the Englifh marches, a continual warfare was carried on between the natives and the fettlers; but in these petty contests there was little of that chivalrous fpirit which diftinguifhed our Scottish borderers. Neither in profe or verfe could the hiftory of these marauders be told with grace or dignity. Spenfer, however, gives an entertaining account of their fepts and clans, their Brehon laws, their Boolies, their Cofbeerings, their Stucas, their long mantles, and their faffron-coloured linen. The methods which he propofed for the civilization of the Irish, were the abrogation of the Brehon, and the adoption of the Englifh laws; the difperfing English foldiers and fettlers over the country to overawe the rebellious, and to induce the well-difpofed to imitate examples of better modes of life: He recommended alfo the establishing of garrifons and magazines for corn, and the building of villages, and country fchools near every parish church for the inftruction of the common people.

Sir John Davies, who wrote but a few years after Spenfer died, gives a fimilar account of the country, but adds, in his Progress through the Wafles and wildeft Parts of the Kingdom,' and in his Hiftory of the fettlement in Ulfter, an interesting view of the efforts made to accelerate the progrefs of civilization, and the fuccefs with which thefe judicicus attempts were attended. The right claimed by the foldiers, to take at will, from the peafantry, man's meat, and horfe's meat, and even money; the damnable custom (as Sir John justly styles it) of coin and livery, a custom which, eftablished in hell, as it was in Ireland, would have overturned the kingdom of Beelzebub,' was abolished. The pernicious customs of taniftry and gavel-kind, by which the defcent of property was rendered uncertain, and its fubdivifion an encouragement to idlenefs, were now broken through. The lands were fet, and their defcent established according to the actual English law. The Brehon laws were altogether abrogated, and fomething like a rational and equal administration of justice commenced. The number of judges of affize were increased, and they went regular circuits through the kingdom; whereas the circuits, in former times, went but round about the pale, like the circle of the cynofura about the pole.' Trials by jury were inftituted; but Sir John



obferves, that many of the poor people were very unwilling to be fworn of the juries, left, if they condemned any man, his friends, in revenge, fhould rob, or burn, or kill them for it; the like mifchief having happened to divers jurors fince the laft feffion holden there.'

Sir John Davies, who fhews himself a true friend to Ireland, made efforts, in this Progrefs, to inquire into the state of the church Jands and benefices; but my lords the bifhops were not well pleafed that laymen fhould intermeddle with these things, and did ever aufwer, Let us alone with that bufinefs. Take you no care of that.' The churches were miferably out of repair: fuch as were got up for prefentation only thatched; and, fays Sir John, the poor vicars that came to our camp were moft ragged, ignorant creatures, not worthy the meaneft of their livings, though those were many of them but of 40s. per annum.' The non-refidence of the proteftant bifhops was much complained of; and a proverb is quoted, which was frequently in the mouth of one of the greatest of these prelates, That an Irish prieft is no better

than a milch cow.'

Davies, as well as the great Bacon, had fagacity enough to predict, that unlefs measures of liberal policy were adopted for the government of the country, Ireland civil would become more dangerous than Ireland favage.' What Davies could, he did; and what he could not effect, he fuggefted. He obtained amnefties for the offences of the rebels who returned to their allegiance'; remiffion of old debts and quit-rents due to the crown: he obliterated, as far as poffible, the remembrance of antient feuds and party diftinctions; reftrained the exceffes of the foldiery; and, befides eftablishing a regular adminiftration of juftice, did his utmost to obtain fome education for the poor of the country.

Of the progress of civilization in Ireland after his time, and of the fteps by which it was retarded or advanced, we have no diftinct view. There have, indeed, appeared voluminous pamphlets, profeffing to treat of the ftate of that country; but thefe relate chiefly to party queftions. Arthur Young's Tour has been much and defervedly applauded as a faithful and lively picture of that kingdom when he faw it; but that was nearly thirty years ago. Much remains to be learned; and we therefore opened with eagernefs a new tour through Ireland, which we hoped would reprefent to us Ireland as it was, and as it is. But, alas! we were miferably difappointed. We found Mr Carr's quarto, a book of ftale jefts, and fulfome compliments. All the old ftories of bulls and blunders, which, as we are informed, have for years paft been regularly brought forward for the recreation of every new lord-lieutenant and his fecretary, are here collected for the edification of


the public. The Stranger in Ireland was, it seems, upon his arrival, bountifully fupplied, by the hofpitable Hibernians, with all the good things in which that convivial nation-abounds. With a little more tafte and judgment, he might have arranged thefe fo as to afford agreeable entertainment to his readers; but, to fave himself the trouble of thought or arrangement, he has emptied and overwhelmed us with his common-place book. For one beauty this work is indeed eminently diftinguifhed,-for the beauty of contraft; that fpecies of contraft, which refults from want of order, where grave and gay, juft and abfurd, fine and vulgar, fublime and ludicrous, fucceed each other, fo as to create in the highest degree the pleasure of unexpectedness. This pleasure, indeed, gradually abates as we proceed; for we are at length taught to expect the recurrence of these ftrange figures, which come round and round again like the pictures in a Savoyard's magic-lantern; whilft the fame tone of a fhow-man, kept up inceffantly, muft at last weary the most enduring ear. Let no impatient reader of this volume refort to the index in hopes of fkipping with celerity and advantage. The table of contents will rather mislead than direct; it will entice him on, and leave him difappointed and provoked. The knack of giving good heads to chapters has been carried to a high and treacherous ftate of perfection. We are often cheated into reading a stupid chapter, as we are entrapped in the newspapers by the beginning of fome paragraph, apparently about Newton or Buffon,-about fome new difcovery in optics, or natural history, which proves in the end nothing more than a lottery advertisement. Our Author's table of contents may be most inviting to the large tribe of anecdote-mongers and defultory readers; but furely, numerous as they are, their taste should not have been exclufively confulted, to the utter neglect of the interests of purchafers, who fet fome little value upon their money or their time.

Befides being difappointed in the folid contents, we were dif gufted with the manner of this book. It is worfe written than any of Mr Carr's former tours. The ftyle is both careless and affected, trivial and inflated; his fine fentences are fometimes without meaning, and often without grammar; and his high-flown defcriptions, which are neither profe nor poetry, frequently terminate. in ftriking inftances of the bathos. For example, take the following account of his arrival at Killarney.

The evening, fhrouded in black clouds charged with rain, rapidly fet in; the wind roared; and only the light-blue fmoke of the cabin relieved the universally deep embrowned fterility of the fcene. In these and most other diflritis the milk of sheep is used.'

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His defcription of Mucrofs-Abbey is not inferior.

The graceful ruins of Mucross-Abbey on our right, half embofomed


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