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whole length of the Missouri and the Yellowstone. While this scheme did not materialize because of trouble with the Blackfeet, he did send out bands of trappers through that entire region. Some of these under David Jackson and William Sublette crossed the Rockies and came into competition with traders of the Hudson's Bay Company. Ashley later transferred the entire business to Jedediah S. Smith, Jackson, and Sublette. Smith went overland to California and north to Vancouver, the first to accomplish this. He visited Dr. McLoughlin at Vancouver in 1828. He then pushed eastward in 1829. He stopped at Fort Walla Walla and Fort Spokane and then journeyed eastward following through Idaho. In 1830 he took the first loaded wagon westward across the Rockies. In 1832 Captain Bonneville, backed by New York capital, organized a fur-trading company, leaving from Fort Osage on the Missouri River, with 110 men and 20 wagons. They crossed the Rockies at South Pass, journeyed to Salt Lake and then along the Snake River Valley as far as Fort Walla Walla.

Nathaniel Wyeth.-For several years, beginning about 1815, Hall J. Kelley, a Boston schoolmaster, created considerable interest in the Oregon country through articles and pamphlets which he published. He tried unsuccessfully to organize a colonizing expedition. He made the journey westward through California and then northward to Fort Vancouver where he was cared for by Dr. McLoughlin. His writings caught the imagination of Nathaniel Wyeth, of Boston, who enlisted the cooperation of a company of Boston merchants in the enterprise. They fitted out a vessel loaded with goods which sailed for the Columbia River in 1831. Wyeth with 20 men started on the overland journey on March 11, 1832. The trip was not very successful. Some of the men turned back and Wyeth and 11 men joined William L. Sublette of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. They reached Fort Vancouver, October 24, 1832, only to find that the ship had not arrived. It had been wrecked at the Society Islands.

The first school in the Northwest at Vancouver.-One of his party, John Ball, volunteered to start a school to teach the children at the fort. The school was opened late in 1832.29 This school for British children, taught by a Yankee schoolmaster, was the first in Washington and in the Oregon Territory. It is more fully discussed in a later chapter.

Wyeth returned to Boston, reported glowing possibilities of the salmon industry, induced the Boston partners to fit out another ship, the May Dacre, which sailed in the fall of 1833. He organized the present site

* Bibb. Thomas W. History of Early Common-School Education in Washington, p.38.

Columbia River Fishing and Trading Company. He again went overland to meet the ship. His company of 50 men left Independence, Mo., on April 28, 1834. They followed the North Platte, Sweetwater, Fort Laramie, South Pass, Snake River, Columbia route, following essentially what has become known as the Old Oregon Trail. On the banks of one of the tributaries of the Snake River, near the of Pocatello, he founded Fort Hall. This fort was at the gateway to practically all of the overland routes to the northwest country. On August 5, 1834, the Stars and Stripes were unfurled. 30 This had great significance for the later settlement of the boundary question. Wyeth and his party reached Fort Vancouver on September 6, 1834. The ship May Dacre arrived soon after. He crossed the Columbia to Wapato, now Sauve Island, and built Fort William. Wyeth's trading ventures in Oregon and Fort Hall did not pan out well and in 1836 he returned to Boston. A little later he sold out all the northwest interests to the Hudson's Bay Company.

11. National Struggles for Supremacy Bancroft says that it was impossible for anyone to succeed in compe tition with the Hudson's Bay Company opposing. Dr. McLoughlin treated Wyeth and others with great consideration but at the same time gave them as rivals absolutely no chance. He says:

McLoughlin with all his goodness was a shrewd enough diplomatist; let alone a Hudson's Bay Company Scotchman for that. The Wyeth movement he saw was an important one; more important if anything, although of less magnitude, than Astor's. The time was at hand for an open declaration of rights. The agricultural occupation of Oregon was ordained. The adventurers of England could not arrest it, and their director Fort Vancouver knew that they could not. To meet it, therefore, in spirit of fairness and liberality was clearly the wisest policy. And yet the keen old kind-hearted man was determined that not one iota of the company's trade should be sacrificed or relinquished sooner than necessary. In a word, McLoughlin determined that Wyeth's adventure should not succeed, though he would be kind to Wyeth, and employ none but legitimate and honorable means in defeating him. • From the very first, McLoughlin was satisfied that the Columbia River Fishing and Trading Company would prove a failure; nay, he was determined it should be so. Besides discouraging the natives of the lower Columbia from trading at Fort William or assisting in catching salmon for the Americans, immediately after the erection of Fort Hall the Hudson's Bay Company planted a rival establishment in that vicinity. They did not build immediately contiguous as was often the case elsewhere, but placed Fort Boise, as they called the post, on the east bank of the Snake River, midway between Boise and Payette Rivers, thinking that by taking a position somewhat to the westward of the American post, they might the better cut off and oppose the Pacific trade.al

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80 Meany, op. cit., p. 69. 11 Bancroft, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 566, 595.

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In the pioneer days of Oregon and Washington the missionaries played a most important role in the colonization, and industrial development of the new region as well as in their spiritual ministrations and the promotion of education. Missionaries had long urged the expenditure of money by the Government as a means of civilizing the Indians and in the effort to compose some of the violent hatreds that had grown up toward the white man, especially following the War of 1812. At first Congress was apathetic, but finally a bill was passed appropriating $10,000 which provided that the expenditure should be made through the several missionary societies that were maintaining workers among the Indians.

Jedediah Morse. In 1820 Rev. Jedediah Morse, who had been sent on a missionary survey of the western tribes, prepared an elaborate report, printed by the Government, in which he advocated theestablishment of “education families" among the most promising tribes. By this be meant that several workers should cooperate in the civilizing of the Indians-for example, the school teacher, the preacher, the Indian agent, the farmer, and the blacksmith. Such a group of workers might hope to develop among the Indians new tendencies and habits of life which would make the religious teachings fruitful, instead of being, as was too often the case, a scattering of wheat seed in a field infested with tares." This plan, although never very fully carried out, together with the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi, helped to develop a definite new interest in missionary efforts to educate and civilize the Indians.

Missionaries followed the expatriated Indians across the Mississippi. They preached andtaught the Indian children to read, and often induced the natives to till the soil and live in permanent houses, instead of wandering about in pursuit of game. Sometimes the Government employed the missionaries as teachers or Indian agents, and often assisted them by providing a blacksmith to make tools and farming implements.?

The far west Indians who had come in contact with the explorers, trappers, and fur traders had in turn developed a desire to know more

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1 Schafer, Joseph. A History of the Pacific Northwest, p. 113. • Ibid., p. 115.

of the white man's religion. Some had come to know the Catholic missionaries under the protection of the Hudson's Bay Company. Some Indians were sent East to the Red River School. A delegation of four, probably Flatheads and Nez Perces, were sent to St. Louis to leam from their old friend General Clark, the explorer, the truth about the white man's religion. Two of them died in St. Louis. One died on the return trip.

Jason Lee.-In 1833 the Methodists commissioned the Rev. Jason Lee to work among the Flatheads. The next summer be and several others pushed on down the Columbia. A branch mission was established at The Dalles. Upon the advice of Dr. McLoughlin they estab lished a school in the Willamette Valley, which already had a considerable number of settlers, largely fur traders and trappers who had Indian wives. A school was started about 10 miles north of the present site of Salem. In 1841 the school was moved to the present site of Salem. It later became the Oregon Institute and ultimately the present Willamette University. Jason Lee was one of the great pioneers of Oregon education.

Fathers De Smet, Blanchet, and Demets.-Evidently the Indian delegations were asking for Catholic priests, or "black robes" as they called them. In 1838 the first Catholics went to western Oregon, instead of to the land of the Flatheads and Nez Perces. In that year Father Blanchet, of the Montreal diocese, and Father Demers, of Red River, entered upon their ministry under the protection of the Hudson's Bay Company. The first mission was located on the Cowlitz River, probably on Cowlitz Prairie near the present Toledo. Another mission was established at Fort Nisqually. They also traveled widely and went among the Walla Wallas and Cayuses near the Whitman mission. Father De Smet was one of the most distinguished of the Catholic fathers in Oregon, reaching there in 1840. His labors were largely in the Spokane and Coeur d'Alene regions and even as far east as the Bitter Root Valley in Montana. The first sermon preached in the pioneer village of Seattle was by Father Demers in the latter part of 1852. He was then bishop of Vancouver Island. The services were in the cookhouse of Yesler's mill. "Everybody in town, irrespective of creed, attended this service." 3

Rev. Samuel Parker.-In 1835 Rev. Samuel Parker was sent by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to investigate the opportunities for missionary service among the Oregon Indians. With him was Dr. Marcus Whitman, a young physician more inter

Bagley, Clarence B. History of Seattle, p. 178.

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ested in missionary work than the practice of medicine. They entoured from Liberty, Mo., with a party of trappers. At Pierre's Hole in the Rockies, hearing such favorable reports from the Indians there, Dr. Whitman returned East to secure more missionaries and supplies. Parker continued to Vancouver and spent the winter with Dr. Mc. Loughlin. In the spring he returned to the Walla Walla country where be preached to a multitude of Indians. From there he pushed on to the Spokane River and back again up the Snake River. In writing of the Walla Walla region the following year he said it was a delightful situ. ation for a missionary establishment and a mission located there on that fertile field "would draw around (it) an interesting settlement, who would fix down to cultivate the soil and to be instructed. How casily might the plough go through these valleys, and what rich and abundant crops might be gathered by the hand of industry."* Parker taught for a few months at Fort Vancouver in 1835–36.

Dr. Marcus Whitman.-Dr. Marcus Whitman on returning to New York was commissioned by the board to superintend the establishment of a mission in Oregon. He enlisted the interest of Mr. and Mrs. Spalding who accompanied Whitman and his young bride. They joined a company of five traders at Liberty, Mo., and traveled with them to the mountains. Whitman had a one-horse wagon in addition to saddle and pack animals. He drove this wagon as far as Fort Boise on the Snake River. This was the first wheeled vehicle to make the trip beyond Fort Hall. They reached Fort Walla Walla, September 1, 1836. Whitman and Parker with their wives continued to Vancouver. The women were left under the care of Dr. McLoughlin for a couple of months while the men returned to the Walla Walla country. They constructed an adobe brick building at Waiilatpu, the Indian term mean ing “the place of rye grass." This was about 20 miles from Fort Walla Walla and 6 miles from the present site of Walla Walla.

Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. Spalding arrived at the Waiilatpu Mission on December 10, 1836. Mrs. Whitman wrote to her mother on December 26: "We had neither straw, bedstead, nor table, nor anything to make them of except green cottonwood.". Thus was launched one of the world-famous missions.

T. J. Farnham, who visited the mission in 1839, wrote the following: It appeared to me quite remarkable that the doctor could have made so many im. provements since the year 1834 (1836). But the industry which crowded every hour of the day, his untiring energy of character, and the very efficient aid of his wife in

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Schafer, op. cit., p. 120.
* Printed in the Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association, 1891, p. 89.

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