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Table 1.- Population of certain Northwest States from 1850 to 1880

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Table 2.- Population by counties in Washington, at successive periods

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285

149 2, 384

401

408 3,081

921

638 5, 490 7, 103 2,062

406

730

294

626 1, 268 2, 120

866

531
302
544

1, 087 1, 712 6,910 1, 738

230
384

329 888

Adams, Asotin Chebalis Clallam. Clark Columbia Cowlitz. Douglas. Franklin, Garfield Island Jefferson. king Kitsap. Kittitas. Klickitat. Lewis. Lincoln Mason Olanogan Pacinc Pierce San Juan Skagit. Slamania Snobomish Spokane. Stevens Thurston Wabkiakum Walla Walla Whatcom Whitman. Yakima..

4,055 2,600

162

289

639

420 1, 115

738 1, 409

554

1, 645 3, 319

948

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Nov. 28, 1883
Oct. 27, 1883
Apr. 14, 1854
Apr. 26, 1854
June 27, 1844
Nov. 11, 1875
Apr. 21, 1854
Nov. 28, 1883

do
Nov. 29. 1881
Jan. 6, 1853
Dec. 22, 1852

.do.

2,098

580 9, 249 2, 771 11, 709 6,709 5, 917 3, 161

696 3,897 1, 787 8, 368 63, 989 4, 624 8, 777 5, 167 11, 499 9,312 2,826 1, 467 4, 358 50, 940 2, 072 8, 747

774 8, 514 37, 487 4, 341 9, 675 2, 526 12, 334 18, 591 19, 109 4, 429

Jan. 16, 1857
Nov. 24, 1883
Dec. 20, 1859
Dec. 21, 1845
Nov. 24, 1883
Mar. 13, 1854
Feb. 2, 1888
Feb. 4, 1851
Dec. 22, 1852
Oct. 31, 1873
Nov. 28, 1883
Mar. 9, 1854
Jan. 14, 1861
Jan. 29, 1858
Jan.

20, 1863
Jan. 12, 1852
Apr. 25, 1854

do.
Mar. 9, 1854
Nov. 29, 1871
Jan. 21, 1865

Entire State..

11, 594

23, 955

75, 116

357, 232

TABLE 2.- Population by counties in Washington, at successive periods—Continued

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Adams.
Asotin
Benton
Chehalis.
Chelan.
Clallam..
Clark
Columbia
Cowlitz.
Douglas.
Perry
Franklin
Garfield.
Grant..
Island.
Jefferson
King.
Kitsap.
Kittitas.
Klickitat
Lewis.
Lincoln.
Mason
Okanogan
Pacific
Pierce
Pend O'reille
San Juan
Skagit.
Skamania
Snohomish
Spokane.
Stevens
Thurston.
Wahkiakum
Walla Walla.
Whatcom
Whitman.
Yakima

Nov. 28, 1883
Oct. 27. 1883
Mar. 8, 1905
Apr. 14, 1854
Mar. 13, 1899
Apr. 26, 1854
June 27. 1844
Nov. 11, 1875
Apr. 21, 1854
Nov. 28, 1883
Feb. 21, 1899
Nov. 28, 1883
Nov. 29, 1881
Feb. 24, 1909
Jan.

6. 1853
Dec.

22, 1852

.do
Jan. 16, 1857
Nov. 24, 1883
Dec. 20, 1859
Dec. 21, 1845
Nov. 24, 1883
Mar. 13, 1854
Feb. 2, 1888
Feb.

4, 1851
Dec. 22, 1852
Mar. 1, 1911
Oct. 31, 1873
Nov. 28, 1883
Mar. 9, 1834
Jan. 14, 1861
Jan. 29, 1858
Jan. 20, 1863
Jan.

12, 1852
Apr. 25, 1854

do
Mar. 9. 1854
Nov. 29, 1871
Jan. 21, 1865

10, 920 5, 831 7.937 35, 590 15, 104

6, 755 26, 115

7,042 12, 561

9, 227 . 4, 800 3,153 4, 199 8,698 4, 704

&, 337 284, 638 17, 647 18, 561 10, 180 32, 127 17, 539

3, 156 12, 887 12, 532 120, 812

1, 870

5,712 110, 053

6, 767 9,704 6, 407 15, 157 11, 909 3, 810 4, 689 5,983 55, 515

9, 623 6, 359 10, 203 44. 572

5, 802 11, 268 38,805

6,093 11, 791 9,392 3, 143 5,877 3, 875 7.771 5, 489

6, 557 389, 240 33, 162 17, 580

9, 268 36, 740 13, 141

4,919 17, 094 14, 891 144, 127

6, 363 3, 605 33, 388

2, 375 67. 690 141, 289 21, 605 22, 367

3, 372 27. 539 50, 585 31, 323 63, 710

7.719 8, 136 10, 952 59, 982 31, 634 20, 449 40, 316

5,325 31. 906 7, 561 4, 292 6, 137 3,662 5.666 5, 369

8, 346 463, 517 30, 776 18, 154

9, 825 40, 034 11, 876 10,000 18, 519 14. 970 163, 842

7, 155 3, 097 35, 142

2,891 78, 861 150. 477 18, 550 31, 351

3, 862 28, 441 59. 128 28, 014 77. 402

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Entire State.

518, 103 1, 141, 990 1,356, 621

1, 563, 396

A study of the Federal census for Oregon reveals earlier and larger settlement. The census of 1850 records 13,294 in Oregon. By 1860 that number had increased to 52,465, and by 1870 the census shows a population of 90,923. As it is known that many did not continue clear through to Oregon an examination has been made of the census records for Idaho, Montana, Colorado, and Utah for the corresponding early years. No separate Federal census of Idaho was taken until 1870. At that time there were 14,599 inhabitants. Up to March 3, 1863, Idaho had been included at first in Oregon and after 1853 when Washington Territory was formed it was partly in Oregon and partly in Washington. Western Montana had originally been a part of Oregon and later a part of Washington. There are no figures previous to 1870 but in all probability the 20,595 inhabitants were not in large

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part from that half million who blazed the Oregon Trail. Probably most of the settlers in Montana entered from the East by a more northerly route, the Yellowstone Trail, and even from farther north through the Dakotas.

Colorado numbered 34,277 souls in 1860 and 39,864 in 1870. This does not account for many more deflections en route to the Oregon country. Utah absorbed a much larger number. The Mormons and others settling in the Great Basin of Salt Lake came westward largely from Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, although some came in from the Southwest. That basin had been known to the Spanish at a much earlier date by way of the Old Spanish Trail." In 1850 the popula. tion of Utah was 11,380 and had increased to 40,273 by 1860. In this number must have been many who followed the Oregon Trail as far as Green River and then deflected to the southward through Fort Bridger to Salt Lake. The census of 1870 recorded a population of 86,786, but, of course, many of these additions were due to the re. markable birth rate of the Mormons and some emigrants came in that decade by the iron horse over the Union Pacific which drove the "golden spike" at Promontory Point, Utah, on May 10, 1869.

Still there remains a large part of that cavalcade to be traced to its ultimate destination. An examination of the population statistics will assist in accounting for large numbers. Southern California had been settled to some extent for three-quarters of a century. 13 Gold was discovered on January 24, 1848. At first people were incredulous, but once the actuality was realized the wildest excitement ensued and the news spread like wildfire, starting an unparalleled scramble to reach the Eldorado. The rush began in May. People came from all parts of the world, and by every known route and conveyance. The majority, however, came overland from the Mississippi Valley. According to Bolton and Adams,

There were not many people in California to share in this good fortune, for in 1847 the total population (not including Indians) had been only about ten thousand. But gold wrought a miracle of numbers. So fast did people come when they heard the news that in 1850 there were one hundred thousand—83,000 were from the United States, of whom 75,000 were newcomers from east of the Rocky Mountains. 14

In the mad rush and excitement undoubtedly the Federal census in 1850 did not discover all who were in “them thar hills " and consequently the figures are below the actual numbers. The census

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1 Creer, Leland H. Utah and the Nation. University of Washington Press, 1929. p. 25. u See Bolton, Herbert E. and Marshall, Thomas Maitland. The Colonization of North America, ch. 21. ** Bolton, Herbert E. and Adams, Ephraim. California's Story, pp. 110-114.

figures show a population in 1850 of 92,597, while in 1860 the enumeration revealed 399,974, and that of 1870 showed 560,247.

Undoubtedly far greater numbers detoured southwestward at Green River or Bear River across Utah and the Sierras into California seeking the foothills east and north of Sacramento. Of course, Sacramento, San Francisco, and other cities of the bay region waxed rapidly in population.

The effects of the gold strike upon Oregon and Washington.—The immediate result of the new found gold fields in California was to partially depopulate the entire Oregon Territory, which included Washington and Idaho. The immense cavalcades on the Oregon Trail, originally headed for the Willamette Valley, at once sheered to the southward for the gold fields of the New Eldorado. The “Oregon Trail" over South Pass and as far as Bear River became the “California Trail." Schafer says: "Instantly after the passage of the thronging multitudes of '49, it became known as the 'California Trail', and to this day most men know it by no other name." 16

Not only did vast throngs invade California over the Sierras from the East, but immediately after August 1848, when the news reached Oregon, pack trains were threading their way over the forbidding Siskiyous. Within a year Oregon (including Washington) lost most of its male population. The first to become Governor of California, Peter H. Burnett, was in one of those pack trains from Oregon. Later many returned rich with gold needed for development of the Northwest. Immediately new cities in California arose as if by magic. Accessory industries were brought into being to mine the gold. Much timber was needed. The tidewater regions of Oregon and especially the Puget Sound region were drafted to supply the timber. San Francisco needed coal; it had lain for æons embedded near the surface on the shores of Puget Sound near Seattle. Miners dug it out and ships constructed on the shores of Puget Sound carried it to the land of perpetual sunshine. Agriculture, dairying, stockraising, and many other occupations became profitable in the Willamette Valley and were necessary accessories to the mushroom growth of California's golden cities. San Francisco's population of a few hundred in 1848 jumped to 56,000 by 1860 and to 150,000 by 1870.

When Congress had under consideration the bill for the admission of Oregon as a territory in 1848, it was suggested that California and New Mexico should also be made territories. Objectors declared against yoking Oregon with “territories scarcely a month old, and 14 Schafer, op. cit., p. 206.

peopled by Mexicans and half-Indian Californians." Within 2 years, 1850, California was admitted as a State. There were then 92,000 inhabitants, mainly American. Oregon had 14,000. In a decade Califomia had jumped to 380,000 population. By 1870 it exceeded balf a million. Synchronously the whole Pacific northwest, including Oregon, Washington, and Idaho numbered only 130,000 by 1870.

4. Pioneer Settlements in Washington Roadways, home sites, and schools.—To answer the question regard. ing the location of the pioneer schools we need only to know the location of the pioneer settlements. After providing the modest habitations and temporary means of existence schools were the first concern of those sturdy pioneers. They had come to establish homes. Real homes were impossible without education. Early home sites naturally were selected in spots where a living could be made most advantageously. Settlement always depends upon roadways. The pioneer roadways into this wilderness were, of course, the waterways. The Columbia, the Snake, the Cowlitz and their navigable tributaries; the Puget Sound and Grays Harbor; the Chehalis, Skagit, and Snohomish Rivers all offered ingress to the vast timberlands and fertile valleys. On their banks and along their sinuous courses we may expect to find traces of earliest settlements. Research into the early history of communities along these natural roadways confirms conjecture.

The second stage in early settlement followed the through trails and highways constructed to reach terminal points as the trail and roadway between the Columbia River and the nearest point on Puget Sound. Later came an east-west overland highway from the Walla Walla Mission across the Cascades to Steilacoom and Olympia.

The last stage was in the planting of settlements along the railways built from the East to connect with marine ports on Puget Sound and the lower Columbia River. Each of these will receive separate discussion.

The first settlement, as already noted, was at Vancouver. To reach the British port at Fort Nisqually the most natural route was followed. It led down the Columbia by water to the mouth of the Cowlitz near Longview, up the Cowlitz to the mouth of the Toutle or later on past to the present site of Toledo and thence overland through the rather open country to Fort Nisqually. Later the Deschutes River was descended for a portion of the way. It empties into Puget Sound at Tumwater which is one of the oldest towns in the State. On Cowlitz Prairie, near Toledo, agriculture was started at an early day. There

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