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LIV. St. Am

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pared for Baptism by a sincere self-humiliation, and by an A. D. 887. extraordinary resolution in bringing his body under subjection, to such a degree as to go barefoot during the winter in that part of Italy, a country peculiarly cold to natives of Africa.

At length St. Augustine was baptized' by St. Ambrose, with his friend Alypius and his son Adeodatus, who was then broses

treatise on about fifteen years of age. They were baptized on Easter

Mysteries. eve, which in this year, 387, fell on the seventh of the calends' Confess. of May, i. e. on the twenty-fifth of April, as was determined

Ambr.Ep. by St. Ambrose, when consulted by the Bishops of the pro- 23. & 15. vince of Æmilia. It is thought that upon this occasion St. Ambrose composed his book On Mysteries, or those who are initiated into them, for the instruction of those who were newly baptized. It had been preceded during Lent with the s. Ambr.

de Myst. moral instructions which he daily gave them, upon the lives of the patriarchs and on the Proverbs. This shews that the Book of Genesis and the Proverbs of Solomon were then read in Milan at the Evening Service, as it is still the custom Triod. of the Greeks.

ks. Several works of St. Ambrose were taken (sheet F. from these sermons upon Genesis : the Hexaëmeron and the .1111.) following books, particularly those on Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, monit, in and Joseph, which with great probability are referred to this Joseph, year, 387, though it is not to be doubted but that during the course of his office, he might have treated of the same subjects every year, as the same passages happened to be read.

In the book On Mysteries St. Ambrose explains to those who were newly baptized, the nature and ceremonies of the three Sacraments which they had just received, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist. Which he could not do before ; " Because,” says he, “that would be betraying the De Myst. "secret of the mysteries, rather than explaining them." He then takes notice of the chief ceremonies of Baptism; first, vii. 34. the opening the ears of the Catechumen, with the words [St. Am

brose exEphphatha, i.e. be opened; then of their being brought into the plains holy of holies", i. e. the Baptistery ; then of the presence of the Sanctorum Deacon, Priest, and Bishop", and of the renunciation of the by Regenedevil and all his works, the world and its luxury and pleasures. sacrarium.] In renouncing the devil, the Catechumen was to turn towards siderare

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A. D. 387. the West, as it were to oppose him to his face; then he corporum turned towards the East, as it were to behold Christ'. St. Amfiguras sed mysterio- brose afterwards explains the benediction of the font, magnitiam. Præ- fying the mysteries of water taken notice of in the Lessons

of the Old and New Testament, which had been read during angelis lo

Lent, particularly on Holy Saturday, namely, the Creation, sicut scrip

the Deluge, the Passing over the Red Sea, the Cloud, the Mal. 2. 7.] c. 2.8 7. waters of Marah, Naaman, and the paralytic at Bethesda.

[conse- When the baptized persons came out of the font', they were crantem.]

anointed on the head; then their feet were washed, and they *c. 7. were clothed in white garments. Afterwards they received [signacu- the seals and pledge of the Holy Spirit, the seven gifts being lum.]

pronounced, that is, they received the Sacrament of Con

8. firmation. Then they walked towards the altar, saying, as is (Ps.43.(42. still the custom when we approach it, “I will go unto the altar Vulg.) 4. ]

of the Lord, to God who rejoiceth my youth.They find the altar prepared, and are present at the Holy Sacrifice for the first time.

Here St. Ambrose explains to them the ancient types of

the Eucharist ; viz. the offerings of Melchisedec, the manna, c. 9. and the water flowing out of the rock. He then adds:

“You will say, perhaps, I see something else, how can I “be sure that I receive the body of Christ ? Let us prove “then that it is not what nature formed it, but what the “benediction hath consecrated it; and that the benediction " is more powerful than nature, because by the benediction

even nature itself is changed." He urges the example of

the rod of Moses changed into a serpent, and several other $ 52. miracles, and adds, “If a human benediction availed so much

as to change the nature of things, what do we say of the Divine consecration, where the very words of our Saviour “ Himself operate? The word of Christ, which could make “that which was not out of nothing, can it not change things “which are, into that which they were not ?” He

says [1 Cor. 14. the people answered Amen to the words of consecration, which 16.]

shews that it was pronounced aloud. He recommends to the $ 55.

new believers to keep the mysteries secret. LV. The five Mystagogical Catecheses of St. Cyril of Jerusalem St. Cyril's catecheti. agree entirely with this work of St. Ambrose, and shew that cal dis.

the tradition is the same both in the East and West, for the courses.


celebration of the Sacraments; St. Cyril's are indeed some A. D. 887. years older'. He speaks thus in the first of these instructions [' written

prob. A.D. which are called Mystagogical, i.e. introductory to mysteries : 348.] “You first,” says he, “enter into the porch of the Baptistery, p. 306. c. 2.

(278.] "and being in a standing posture, and turned towards the West, you are ordered to extend your hand, and you " renounce Satan as though he were present.” And afterwards ; “Why do you look towards the West ? because it is p. 307. C. 4.

[279.] “the symbol of the darkness of which he is the prince.” He explains the renouncing the works of Satan, which are our c. 5. sins; his pomps, which are the shows of the theatre, the c. 6. circus, and the like; his worship, that is, not only idolatry, but all manner of superstition, such as enchantments, charms, and divinations. He takes notice of the confession of faith; and adds : “All this is done without; you afterwards entered p.310[ 283 | " into the holy of holies, i. e. the Baptistery.—Immediately Catech. 2. you put off your tunic, an image of the putting off of the P-311.[284.] "old man.—Afterwards you were anointed with the oil, which c. 3. "had been consecrated by exorcism, from the top of your "head to your feet.” This is the oil of the Catechumens with which the Greeks still anoint the whole body. St. Cyril con- Eucholog.

c. 4. p. 312. tinues : “You were led to the sacred bath' of Baptism.— [286.'; “Every one of you was asked whether he believes in the '(konvubh

θραν] "Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy

(els) ; you made the confession of salvation”; you were

'[Thy ourh dipped three times in the water, signifying the three days prov duono" of Christ's being in the grave.” In the third Catechetical víar] discourse he explains the unction after Baptism and Confirmation. “Christ,” he says, “ having sanctified the waters " of Jordan by his Baptism, came out of them, and the Holy “Ghost lighted upon Him after a sensible manner'; you, in Covoraðis

επιφοίτηmanner, having come out of the sacred bath, received “the unction, the image of that of Christ.—You were first 5 [årritu "anointed upon the forehead,—then on your ears,—your

πον] ]

p. 317. c. 4. nostrils, -and your breast.” He then explains the mean- [290.] ing of all those anointings, which are still observed by the Eucholog.

8. St. Cyril in his fourth Catechetical Discourse, explains the Sacrament of the Eucharist. He first gives an account of the P: 320

[229.] institution of it from the words of St. Paul ; then he adds :

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A. D. 887. “He Himself having declared, speaking of the bread, “This 1 Cor. xi. 24. “ is My Body,' who will dare any longer doubt thereof? He

“ Himself having said, “This is My Blood,' who will ever

“ doubt and say that it is not His Blood ? He once changed (oikelø “the water into wine, at Cana of Galilee, by His will only'; νεύματι, ,

“and shall we refuse to believe Him, that He hath changed fors.legend. oikeiov al. “wine into Blood? Let us therefore partake, with all full ματι, SC. τον οίνον] ] assurance of faith', as of the Body and Blood of Christ. * [nAmpopo. “ For under the figure of bread, the Body is given thee, and pias)

“the Blood under the figure of wine; to the end that Slév TÚTO άρτου

“partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ thou mayest ov sv]

“ become of one body and of one blood with Himo.” And *[σύσσωμος σύναιμος)

afterwards, “ If sense suggest doubt, let faith confirm thee; c. 6. p. 321.

“ do not judge by the taste, but by faith, and out of a full "assurance undoubtingly believe, that thou art so far

“honoured as to receive the Body and Blood of Christ.” c. 8. p. 322. And again, “Be fully assured, that what appears to be

“ bread, is not bread, although it seems so to the taste, “but the Body of Christ. And that what appears to be “wine, is not wine, although the taste will have it so, “but the Blood of Christ.” At the beginning of his fifth Catechetical Discourse, he distinctly takes notice of the three Sacraments, when he says, “We have said enough of “ Baptism, of Unction, and of partaking of the Body and “Blood of Christ.” He afterwards explains all the cere. monies of the Holy Sacrifice. The Deacon gave water to the Bishop and the Priests who surrounded the altar to wash, and to it are applied, by St. Cyril, the words of the twenty

sixth Psalm, “I will wash mine hands among the innocent, [Vulg. 23. ] « and will encircle Thy Altar, O Lord.” The Deacon cried

, Embrace ye each other, and they then gave each other the

kiss of peace. The Priest' then said, “Lift up your hearts," » [& iepeús] and the rest of the preface is repeated, as it is still used. He ' [thu tvev. then beseeches God that it may please Him to send down ματικήν

the Holy Spirit upon those His gifts, that He may make the atov åvai- bread, the Body of Christ, and the wine, the Blood of Christ

. λατρείαν] ]

“ After having finished this spiritual and unbloody sacrifice," ' (Ovo ías says St. Cyril, “we pray over that sacrifice of the propitiation”

, του ιλασ.

"for the common peace of the Churches, the quietness of the MOD] * [ευστα

“ world, for Kings, for soldiers, and for all that have need of θείας]

Ps. 26.

θυσίαν και


2 [των προ

“ assistance. We commemorate those that are departed', A. D. 387. “first the Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, that' (umuo

νεύομεν] " by their prayers' God may receive ours; then we pray " for the holy Fathers and Bishops and all the rest of the κεκοιμημέ"departed, believing that prayer together with the holy and ywr] “most tremendous sacrifice will be of the greatest advantage zais autav

'[rais et"to their souls.” Then was said the Lord's Prayer, the Kal mpeo

Belais) people answering, Amen. Afterwards the Priest said”, “Holy

* [φρικω" things are for the holy:" then they proceeded to the Com- deotárns) munion : “When you approach it,” says St. Cyril, “ do not 'c. 19. "stretch out your hands, and do not spread your fingers; but c. 21. " put your left hand under your right that it may serve for a “throne, since it is to receive this great King, and then " receive the Body of Christ in the hollow of your hand,

saying, Amen. Sanctify your eyes by touching them with " this sacred body; then partake, and take heed that ye lose “ not any of it. If you had gold-dust in your hands, how cautiously would you hold it ! this is much more valuable " than gold or precious stones; take great care therefore not "to let fall the least crumb. After having communicated of "the Body of Christ, approach likewise to the cup of the “Blood without extending your hands; bend yourself in a "posture of adoration", saying, Amen; and sanctify yourself [KÚTTWY " by partaking also of the Blood of Christ. Whilst your (quod male ' lips are still moist, touch them with your hands in order to ların. genu sanctify your forehead, your eyes, and the other organs of Me 19), kai

τρόπφπροσyour senses.—Hold fast these traditions inviolate?, and Kurhoews

και σεβάσnever deprive yourself of these holy mysteries by your matos] "sins."

St. Augustine after his baptism, having seriously considered upon a place where he might serve God more usefully, resolved to return into Africa with his mother, nica. his son,

his brother, and a young man named Evodius. Evodius also, was of Thagaste; he was an agent of the Emperor, and having been converted, was baptized before St. Augustine, and laid down his employment in order to devote himself to the service of God. On arriving at Ostia, they there refreshed themselves for some time, after their long journey from Milan, and made preparations for embarking. One day, St. Augustine and St. Monnica his mother, leaning c. 10.

'c. 23.

LVI. Death of St. Mon

Confess. 9.

c. 8.

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