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others, were seen the mother and sister of one of these un- A. D. 387. happy men sitting at the door of the room, where the judges were examining them, though they were women of the greatest distinction in the city; there they remained, alone, disregarded, and covering their faces through shame. They could hear from within the room the threatenings of the judges, the voice of the executioners, the strokes of the rods, and the cries of those who were tortured, which pierced their hearts. The judges themselves, who were humane and virtuous men, were distressed at the punishments which they were obliged to inflict. When evening came, the event was anxiously looked for; and in the mean time the people offered up prayers and vows to God, that He would incline the hearts of the judges to suspend the verdict, and refer it to the Emperor. At last, the criminals, loaded with irons, were sent to prison, and in this condition those who had exhibited shows at their own expense, and filled the other public employments in the state, passed through the open square exposed to the gaze of all. Their estates were confiscated, and banners' were set up at the doors of their houses. Their [' See bk. wives being turned out of doors, were forced to go and seek

41.] for a shelter, which it was very difficult for them to find, because every one scrupled to take them in, for fear of bringing himself under suspicion. Then the Monks' who lived in the neighbourhood of An

The Monks tioch, came down from the mountains, left the

caves and

afford help huts in which they had immured themselves for many years,

°, Fleury,bk. and came into the city of their own accord, purely to ad- xvii. $: 7. minister consolation to the afflicted. They needed but to s. 1. p. 172.

1. (p. 193. shew themselves, for they had lived a life of such austerity c.) that their very aspect inspired a contempt of life. They spent the whole day at the gate of the palace, spoke boldly to the magistrates, and interceded for the criminals, declaring that they would not move till the judges had pardoned the accused. The judges' told them that this was not in their '8.2.p.174. power, and that it would be of dangerous consequence not

(p. 195. D.) to punish such disorders. The Monks offered to go with the accused to the Emperor, in order to solicit their pardon,

For," said they, “the master of our empire is pious, and we shall certainly appease him, we will either prevent you

xviii. ch.

IV.

to Antioch, xvii. ch. 7.

5. 20. et

ened with

was,

A. D. 387. “ shedding the blood of these unhappy people, or we will die

“ with them. We own the crimes which they have committed

are great, but the Emperor's clemency is still greater." The judges, astonished at their resolution, for they were ready to undertake the journey to Constantinople, would not suffer them to go, and gave them hopes of obtaining pardon from the Emperor, provided only that the Monks would give them their remonstrances in writing, which they did. Having therefore obtained from the judges what they

desired, they immediately returned back to their solitudes. * Fleury,bk.

Among these holy Monks', Macedonius', surnamed CrithoTheodor. phagus", distinguished himself in a particular manner. He ejusd. Phi- was a person of great simplicity, unlearned, and had not the loth. sive least knowledge of the world', having spent his life on the c. 13. tom. mountains in prayer night and day. Meeting with the [* From liv- Emperor's two commissioners in the middle of the city, he only, moist- took one of them by the cloak, and commanded them water. ]

both to alight from their horses. They at first were in*(xal Twv dignant, seeing only a little old man covered with tatters, ylwr máu- but when some of their company told them who he they may áteipos alighted, and embracing his knees, begged his pardon. “My ]

“ friends," said hes to them, “speak thus to the Emperor : S. Chrys. "" You are not a king only, but a man ; your subjects are “o also men made after the image of God.

You are exas(194. A.)

“ perated for the destruction of brazen images; but a living
“and reasonable image is far different from them; the loss
“ of the former may easily be supplied, it is easy for us to

create many such images for every one that has been

destroyed, and indeed others are already set up in their « « places ; but you cannot yourself possibly create a single "" hair of those whom you shall have put to death."” Macedonius said this in Syriac, and it was explained in Greek to Hellebicus and Cæsarius. They were surprised; for such

words they never expected from a rude and ignorant * p. 175. A. they promised to repeat them to the Emperor. The Bishops' (p. 196. E.) discovered as much zeal as the Monks. They stopped the

judges, and would not suffer them to proceed on their way; till they had promised that this matter should have a happ! issue. If they refused they grew bolder, in order to prevail upon them the sooner ; but when they obtained what they

5 Vid.

Hom. xvii.

p. 172. D.

man;

and

sued for, they embraced their knees and kissed their hands, A. D. 387. shewing that their moderation was equal to their courage. We may suppose, that the Bishops in the neighbourhood of Antioch hastened thither on this occasion, and that the Priests seconded their exertions.

But the heathen philosophers did not imitate them in this respect; and St. Chrysostom did not fail to upbraid them in consequence. “Where are now," said he, “ those cloak" clad philosophers, displaying their long beards, and with " their staves in their hands, those infamous Cynics, more vile

and wretched than the dogs they imitate? they have all "left the city, and are gone to hide themselves in caves. “ Those only whose works prove them to be true philosophers, “have shewn themselves in the market-place, as if no evil " had befallen the city. The inhabitants of cities are fled into the deserts, and the inhabitants of the deserts are come into the city.” And afterwards': “ The present p. 174. D.

(196. C.) " transactions are a proof of the falsity of their histories, " and the truth of our own. Our Monks, who have suc“ceeded to the religion of the Apostles, exhibit their virtue " and their boldness. Thus we have no need of writings to

prove the virtue of the Apostles; facts themselves declaring "it, and the disciples representing the masters. We have

no occasion to have recourse to arguments, in order to “ discover the trifling of the Greeks, and the weakness of "their philosophers; acts themselves declaring, that the "whole has been throughout a series of fictions and de"lusion.” Neither would he suffer the Christians to expect consolation from the unbelievers. A heathen magistrate, upon a false report which had been raised of certain soldiers that were said to be arrived, had spoken to them to encourage them, and St. Chrysostom reproaches them with it in this manner; * Hom. xvi. “I have applauded the vigilance of this magistrate, but have init

. p. 160. "blushed for shame at the thought of your standing in need " of any such consolation. I wished that the earth would

open and swallow me up, when I heard the terms in which "he spoke to you, sometimes to comfort you, sometimes to upbraid your unreasonable timidity; it was not for you to receive instruction from him ; it is yours rather to instruct all who are unbelievers. With what face shall we look at

Cæsar. Tom,

p. 114. D.

xvii.

A. D. 387. “ them henceforward ? With what tongue shall we address

“ them, in order to animate and encourage them in their « afflictions?"

The informations and enquiries being ended, and the criminals thrown into prison, the Emperor's two Commis

sioners still agreed to make a report to him, and to await Liban. in his orders, before they proceeded further. Cæsarius' set ii. p. 515. out in order to receive them, and returned to Constanin Hellebic tinople with the utmost expedition ; Hellibicus remained at p: 525. (P. Antioch. Every thing grew calm there; and when the 533. B.)

people saw that no one had been put to death, and that the Emperor would have time to soften his resentment,

they began to revive, and to raise their desponding hopes. * Hom. xi

. St. John Chrysostom”, who during the time that the Em(p. 127. B.) peror's commissioners were engaged in these affairs, had * Hom. xi, remained silent, began again now to speak, and’ for four or xii, xiii,

five days successively, he began his Sermons with a thanksgiving upon the happy turn of affairs; continuing at the

same time to preach on the Creation, and against swearing. *Hom.xviii. In one of his succeeding discourses, he censures those, who (p. 211.)" under pretence of the prohibition, by which they were for.

bidden to go to the baths, used to go and bathe in the river ; where they danced, and committed a thousand irregularities

, drawing even women along with them to the place, and this too at a time when the principal citizens were either in prison or had fled, and the whole city was under the utmost alarm. He tells his hearers that he was sensible that they had no share in these disorders, but he exhorts them to endeavour to reform those who had been guilty of them.

In the mean time Flavian the Bishop arrived at ConConstant - stantinople. After he had entered the palace, he stood at a nople.

distance from the Emperor, without speaking, holding down p. 216. D. his head and hiding his face, as though he had been guilty D.)Ed.Sav, of the crime which the inhabitants of Antioch had committed. 1996. vi. P. The Emperor advanced towards him, and without shewing

the least anger in his countenance, laid before him his be •p. 217. A. neficence towards the city of Antiocho, during the whole

course of his reign, and as he enumerated each particular favour, he remarked, “ Is this then the requital I ought to “ have met with? what complaint, great or small, have they

V. Flavian at

5 Hom.xxi.

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“ deaths.

“to make against me? and why must they attack the dead ? A. D. 387. " have I not always shewn a greater love for this city than

for any other, not even excepting that in which I was born? "and have I not continually declared the desire which I had " to see it?Upon this the Bishop groaning bitterly, and bursting out again into tears, cried out: “We are indeed “sensible of the affection which your Majesty has ever dis

covered for our country, and this truly is our most bitter "reflection. Destroy, burn, kill, do what you will; our

punishment will still be less than we deserve; the evil we " have already done ourselves is worse than ten thousand

For what can be a more bitter thought to us, “than for the whole world to know that we have been "guilty of the utmost ingratitude? The devils have employed all their efforts' to deprive this city, once so dear ' p. 218. B " to you, of your good will. If you destroy it, you will gratify their wishes; but if you pardon it, you will inflict on them the most severe blow you can. You may now p."14. B. adorn

(p. 229.) your head with a brighter diadem than the crown you wear, since you owe that in part to another's generosity; whereas the glory that will accrue to you from hence, will be the fruit of your own virtue. Your statues “ have been thrown down. True! but you may erecto others s " of much greater value in the hearts of your subjects, and " by that means have as many statues as there are men in

the world.” He then quoted the example of Constantine“, - Ibid. B. who took no further vengeance on those who had thrown stones at his statue, than by laying his hand on his face, and saying that he felt nothing of it; he reminded Theodosius of his own laws", by which the prisoners were 5 Cod. Theset free at Easter, and of those noble words he had added, de induig.

. "Would to God, I could also raise the dead !” “It is now crim. 1. 1. 6. your power to do it,” continued Flavian, “and you will (A. D.

384.] 8. “ raise from the dead the whole city of Antioch. Its obli

[A.D. 385.] gation will be greater to you than to its founder, greater p.220. A.B. than if you had delivered it, after having been taken by (P. 230.) “the Barbarians.

Consider', that not only the safety of this city, but even ; p. 220. B. your own glory, or rather that of Christianity, is at stake. "Jews and Heathens are acquainted with this event, and have

(

p. 219. A.

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