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The probable consequences of these things are among the most important questions that can occupy the moralist or the philanthropist, but they do not fall within the province. of the historian. That the pursuits and education of women will be considerably altered, that these alterations will bring with them some modifications of the type of character, and that the prevailing moral notions concerning the relations of the sexes will be subjected in many quarters to a severe and hostile criticism, may safely be predicted.
Many wild theories will doubtless be propounded. Some real ethical changes may perhaps be effected, but these, if I mistake not, can only be within definite and narrow limits. He who will seriously reflect upon our clear perceptions of the difference between purity and impurity, upon the laws that govern our affections, and upon the interests of the children who are born, may easily convince himself that in this, as in all other spheres, there are certain eternal moral landmarks which never can be removed.
in her truly admirable little book better than by any other writer called Essays on Woman's Work, with whom I am acquainted.
judgment respecting, i. 92.
History of the practice of, ii. 20,
Abraham the Hermit, St., ii. 110
Acacius, his ransom of Persian
slaves, ii. 72
Adultery, laws concerning, ii. 313
Æschylus, his views of human
nature, i. 196. His violation of
dramatic probabilities, 229
Affections, the, all forms of self-
love, according to some Utilita-
rians, i. 9. Subjugation of the, to
the reason, taught by the Stoics,
&c., 177, 187. Considered by the
Stoics as a disease, 188. Evil
consequences of their suppression,
Africa, sacrifices of children to
Saturn in, ii. 31. Effect of the
conquest of Genseric of, 82
Agapæ, or love feasts, of the Christ-
ians, how regarded by the pagans,
i. 415; ii. 79. Excesses of the,
and their suppression, 150
Agnes, St., legend of, ii. 319
Agricultural pursuits, history of
the decline of, in Italy, i. 266.
Efforts to relieve the agriculturists,
Albigenses, their slow suicides, ii.
modes of worshipping the deity,
i. 166, note. Miracles attributed
to him, 372. His humanity to
animals, ii. 165
Apollonius, the merchant, his dis-
pensary for monks, ïi. 81
Apuleius, his condemnation of suicide,
i. 213. His disquisition on the
doctrine of dæmons, 323, Practi-
cal form of his philosophy, 329.
Miracles attributed to him, 372.
His defence of tooth-powder, ii.
Archytas of Tarentum, his speech on
the evils of sensuality, i. 200, note
Argos, story of the sons of the
priestess of Juno at, i. 206
Arians, their charges against the
Catholics, i. 418, note
Aristides, his gentleness, i. 228
Aristotle, his admission of the prac-
the desert, 107-109. Miseries
and joys of the hermit life, 113
et seq. Dislike of the monks to
knowledge, 115. Their hallucina-
tions, 116. Relations of female
devotees with the anchorites, 120.
Ways in which the ascetic life
affected both the ideal type and
realised condition of morals, 122,
Extreme animosity of
the ascetics to everything pagan,
136, 137. Decline of the civic
virtues caused by asceticism, 139.
Moral effects of asceticism on self-
sacrifice, 154, 155. Moral beauty
of some of the legends of the as-
cetics, 156. Legends of the con-
nection between the saints and
the animal world, 161. Practical
form of asceticism in the West,
177. Influence of asceticism on
chastity, 319, 320. On marriage,
320. On the estimate of women,
Asella, story of her asceticism, ii.
Asia Minor, destruction of the
churches of, ii. 14
Aspasia, the Athenian courtesan, ii.
Asses, feast of, ii. 173
Association, Hartley's doctrine of,
i. 22. Partly anticipated by
Hutcheson and Gay, 23. Illus-
trations of the system of associa-
tion, 26–30. The theory, how far
selfish, 30. The essential and
characteristic feature of conscience
wholly unaccounted for by the
association of ideas, 66
Astrology, belief in, rapidly gaining
ground in the time of the elder
Pliny, i. 171, and note
Atticus, his suicide, i. 215, and note
Augustine, St., on original sin, i. 209.
Éis belief in contemporary mira-
cles, 378. On the decline of the
Roman empire, 410.
demnation virgin suicides, ii.
Augustus, his solemn degradation of
the statue of Neptune, i. 169.
His mode of discouraging celibacy,
232. Miraculous stories related
of him, 258. His superstition,
376. Advice of Mæcenas to him,
399. His consideration for the
religious customs of the Jews,
Aulus Gellius, his account of the
rhetoricians, i. 313. Compared
with Helvétius, 313
Aurelius, Marcus, on a future state,
i. 184. On posthumous fame, 186.
Denied that all vices are the same,
192, note. On the sacred spirit
dwelling in man, 198. His sub-
missive gratitude, 199. His prac-
tical application of the precepts
of the Stoics, 202. His wavering
views as to suicide, 213. His
charity to the human race, 241.
Mild and more religious spirit of
his stoicism, 245. His constant
practice of self-examination, 249.
His life and character, 249–255.
Compared and contrasted with
Plutarch, 253. His discourage-
ment of the games of the arena,
286. His humanity, 308. His
disbelief of exorcism, 384. His
law against religious terrorism,
422. His persecution of the
Christians, 439, 440. His bene-
volence, ii. 77. His view of war,
Austin, Mr., his view of the founda-
tion of the moral law, i. 17, note.
His advocacy of the unselfish view
of the love we ought to bear to
God, 18, note. Character of his
‘Lectures on Jurisprudence,' 22,
Avarice, association of ideas to the
passion of, i. 25
Avitus, St., legend of, ii. 159
BABYLAS, St., miracles perform .
note. His death, ii. 9
Bacchus, suppression of the rites of,
at Rome, i. 401
Bacon, Lord, great movement of
modern thought caused by, i. 125.
His objection to the Stoics' view
of death, 202
Bacon, Roger, his life and works,
Bain, Mr., on pleasure, i. 12, note.
His definition conscience, 29,
Balbus, Cornelius, his elevation to
the consulate, i. 232
Baltus on the exorcists, i. 381, note
Baptism, Augustinian doctrine of, i.
Barbarians, causes of the conversion
of the, i. 410
Basil, St., his hospital, ii. 80. His
labours for monachism, 106
Bassus, Ventidius, his elevation to
the consulate, i. 232
Bathilda, Queen, her charity, ii. 245
Bear-gardens in England, ii. 175, note
Beauty, analogies between virtue
and, i. 77. Their difference, 79.
Diversities existing in our judg-
ments of virtue and beauty, 79.
Causes of these diversities, 79.
Virtues to which we can, and to
which we cannot, apply the term
beautiful, 82, 83. Pleasure de-
rived from beauty compared with
that from the grotesque, or eccen.
tric, 85. The prevailing cast of
female beauty in the north, con-
trasted with the southern type,
144, 145, 152. Adiniration of
the Greeks for beauty, ii. 292
Bees, regarded by the ancients as
embler or models of chastity, i.
Beggars, causes of vast numbers of,
ii. 94. Old English laws for the
suppression of mendicancy, 96.
Enactments against them in vari-
ous parts of Europe, 98
Benedict, St., his system, 183
Benefices, military use of, ii. 270
Benevolence; Hutcheson's theory
that all virtue is resolved into
benevolence, i. 4. Discussions in
England, in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, as to the
existence of, 20. Various views of
the source from which it springs,
22. Association of ideas pro-
ducing the feeling of, 26. Hart-
ley on benevolence quoted, 27,
note. Impossibility of benevo-
lence becoming a pleasure if prac-
tised only with a view to that
end, 37. Application to benevo-
lence of the theory, that the moral
unity of different ages is a unity
not of standard but of tendency,
100. Influenced by our imagina-
tions, 132, 133. Imperfectly re-
cognised by the Stoics, 188, 192
Bentham, Jeremy, on the motives of
human actions, i. 8, note. On
the pleasures and pains of piety
quoted, 9, note.
On charity, 10,
note. On vice, 13, note. On the
sanctions of morality, 19, and
note, 21. Throws benevolence as
much as possible into the back-
ground, 2ī. Makes no use of the
doctrine of association, 25, note.
His definition of conscience, 29,
note. On interest and disinter-
estedness, 32, note. On the value
and purity of a pleasure, 90, note
Besarion, St., his penances, ii. 108
Biography, relative importance of,
among Christians and Pagans, i.
Blandina, martyrdom of, i. 442
Blesilla, story of her slow suicide,
Blondel, his denunciation of the
forgeries of the Sibylline books,