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The probable consequences of these things are among the most important questions that can occupy the moralist or the philanthropist, but they do not fall within the province. of the historian. That the pursuits and education of women will be considerably altered, that these alterations will bring with them some modifications of the type of character, and that the prevailing moral notions concerning the relations of the sexes will be subjected in many quarters to a severe and hostile criticism, may safely be predicted.

Many wild theories will doubtless be propounded. Some real ethical changes may perhaps be effected, but these, if I mistake not, can only be within definite and narrow limits. He who will seriously reflect upon our clear perceptions of the difference between purity and impurity, upon the laws that govern our affections, and upon the interests of the children who are born, may easily convince himself that in this, as in all other spheres, there are certain eternal moral landmarks which never can be removed.

in her truly admirable little book better than by any other writer called Essays on Woman's Work, with whom I am acquainted.



judgment respecting, i. 92.
History of the practice of, ii. 20,

Abraham the Hermit, St., ii. 110
Acacius, his ransom of Persian

slaves, ii. 72
Adultery, laws concerning, ii. 313
Æschylus, his views of human

nature, i. 196. His violation of

dramatic probabilities, 229
Affections, the, all forms of self-

love, according to some Utilita-
rians, i. 9. Subjugation of the, to
the reason, taught by the Stoics,
&c., 177, 187. Considered by the
Stoics as a disease, 188. Evil
consequences of their suppression,

Africa, sacrifices of children to

Saturn in, ii. 31. Effect of the

conquest of Genseric of, 82
Agapæ, or love feasts, of the Christ-
ians, how regarded by the pagans,
i. 415; ii. 79. Excesses of the,

and their suppression, 150
Agnes, St., legend of, ii. 319
Agricultural pursuits, history of
the decline of, in Italy, i. 266.
Efforts to relieve the agriculturists,

Albigenses, their slow suicides, ii.


Alexander the Great : effect of his

career on Greek cosmopolitanism,

i. 229
Alexandria, foundation of, i. 229.

Effect of the increasing impor-
tance of, on Roman thought, 319.
The Decian persecution at, 451.
Excesses of the Christian sects

of, ji. 208, 209, note
Alexis, St., his legend, ii. 322
Alimentus, Cincius, his work written

in Greek, i. 230
Almsgiving, effects of indiscriminate,

ii. 90, 91
Amafanius, wrote the first Latin

work on philosophy, i. 175, note
Ambrose, St., his miraculous dream,

i. 379. His dissection of the
pagan theory of the decline of the
Roman empire, 409. His ransom
of Italians from the Goths, ii. 72.
His commendation of disobedience

to parents, 132
American Indians, suicide of the,

ii. 54
Ammon, St., his refusal to wash

himself, ii. 110. Deserts his wife,

Amour, William de St., his denun-

ciation of the mendicant orders,

ii. 96
Amphitheatres, history and remains

of Roman, i. 273

modes of worshipping the deity,
i. 166, note. Miracles attributed
to him, 372. His humanity to

animals, ii. 165
Apollonius, the merchant, his dis-

pensary for monks, ïi. 81
Apuleius, his condemnation of suicide,
i. 213. His disquisition on the
doctrine of dæmons, 323, Practi-
cal form of his philosophy, 329.
Miracles attributed to him, 372.
His defence of tooth-powder, ii.

Archytas of Tarentum, his speech on

the evils of sensuality, i. 200, note
Argos, story of the sons of the

priestess of Juno at, i. 206
Arians, their charges against the

Catholics, i. 418, note
Aristides, his gentleness, i. 228
Aristotle, his admission of the prac-


Anaxagoras, on the death of his son,

i. 191. On his true country, 201
Anchorites. See Ascetics; Monasti-

Angelo, Michael, in what he failed,

ii. 363
Anglo-Saxon nations, their virtues

and vices, i. 153
Animals, lower, Egyptian worship

of, i. 166, note. Humanity to
animals probably first advocated
by Plutarch, 244. Animals em-
ployed in the arena at Rome, 280.
Instances of kindness to, 288, 307.
Legends of the connection of the
saints and the animal world, ii.
161. Pagan legends of the in-
telligence of animals, 161, 162.
Legislative protection of them,
162. Views as to the souls of
animals, 162. Moral duty of
kindness to animals taught by
pagans, 166. Legends in the
lives of the saints in connection
with animals, 168. Progress in
modern times of humanity to

animals, 172
Antigonus of Socho, his doctrine of

virtue, i. 183, note
Antioch, charities of, i. 80. Its

extreme vice and asceticism, 153
Antisthenes, his scepticism, i. 162
Antoninus, the philosopher, his pre-

diction, i. 427
Antoninus the Pious, his death,

i. 207. His leniency towards the
Christians, 438,439. Forged letter

of, 439, note. His charity, ii. 77
Antony, St., his flight into the desert,

ii. 103. His mode of life, 110.
His dislike to knowledge, 115.
Legend of his visit to Paul the

hermit, 157, 158
Aphrodite, the celestial and earthly,

i. 106
Apollonius of Tyana, his conversa-
tion with an Egyptian priest re-
specting the Greek and Egyptian

tice of abortion, i. 92. Emphasis
with which he dwelt upon the
utility of virtue, 124. His pa-
triotism, 200. His condemnation
of suicide, 212. His opinions as
to the duties of Greeks to bar-

barians, 229
Arius, death of, ii. 196
Arnobius, on the miracles of Christ,

i. 375
Arrian, his humanity to animals,

ii. 164
Arsenius, St., his penances, ii. 107,

114, note. His anxiety to avoid

distractions, 125, note
Ascetics, their estimate of the

dreadful nature of sin, i. 113.
Decline of asceticism and evan-
escence of the moral notions of
which it was the expression, 113.
Condition of society to which it
belongs, 130. Decline of the
ascetic and saintly qualities with
civilisation, 130. Causes of the
ascetic movement, ii. 102. Its
rapid extension, 103-105. Pe-
nances attributed to the saints of

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et seq.

the desert, 107-109. Miseries
and joys of the hermit life, 113
et seq. Dislike of the monks to
knowledge, 115. Their hallucina-
tions, 116. Relations of female
devotees with the anchorites, 120.
Ways in which the ascetic life
affected both the ideal type and
realised condition of morals, 122,

Extreme animosity of
the ascetics to everything pagan,
136, 137. Decline of the civic
virtues caused by asceticism, 139.
Moral effects of asceticism on self-
sacrifice, 154, 155. Moral beauty
of some of the legends of the as-
cetics, 156. Legends of the con-
nection between the saints and
the animal world, 161. Practical
form of asceticism in the West,
177. Influence of asceticism on
chastity, 319, 320. On marriage,
320. On the estimate of women,

Asella, story of her asceticism, ii.

Asia Minor, destruction of the

churches of, ii. 14
Aspasia, the Athenian courtesan, ii.

Asses, feast of, ii. 173
Association, Hartley's doctrine of,

i. 22. Partly anticipated by
Hutcheson and Gay, 23. Illus-
trations of the system of associa-
tion, 26–30. The theory, how far
selfish, 30. The essential and
characteristic feature of conscience
wholly unaccounted for by the

association of ideas, 66
Astrology, belief in, rapidly gaining

ground in the time of the elder

Pliny, i. 171, and note
Atticus, his suicide, i. 215, and note
Augustine, St., on original sin, i. 209.

Éis belief in contemporary mira-
cles, 378. On the decline of the
Roman empire, 410.

His con-

demnation virgin suicides, ii.

Augustus, his solemn degradation of

the statue of Neptune, i. 169.
His mode of discouraging celibacy,
232. Miraculous stories related
of him, 258. His superstition,
376. Advice of Mæcenas to him,
399. His consideration for the
religious customs of the Jews,

Aulus Gellius, his account of the

rhetoricians, i. 313. Compared

with Helvétius, 313
Aurelius, Marcus, on a future state,

i. 184. On posthumous fame, 186.
Denied that all vices are the same,
192, note. On the sacred spirit
dwelling in man, 198. His sub-
missive gratitude, 199. His prac-
tical application of the precepts
of the Stoics, 202. His wavering
views as to suicide, 213. His
charity to the human race, 241.
Mild and more religious spirit of
his stoicism, 245. His constant
practice of self-examination, 249.
His life and character, 249–255.
Compared and contrasted with
Plutarch, 253. His discourage-
ment of the games of the arena,
286. His humanity, 308. His
disbelief of exorcism, 384. His
law against religious terrorism,
422. His persecution of the
Christians, 439, 440. His bene-
volence, ii. 77. His view of war,

Austin, Mr., his view of the founda-

tion of the moral law, i. 17, note.
His advocacy of the unselfish view
of the love we ought to bear to
God, 18, note. Character of his
‘Lectures on Jurisprudence,' 22,

Avarice, association of ideas to the

passion of, i. 25
Avitus, St., legend of, ii. 159

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BABYLAS, St., miracles perform .

note. His death, ii. 9
Bacchus, suppression of the rites of,

at Rome, i. 401
Bacon, Lord, great movement of

modern thought caused by, i. 125.
His objection to the Stoics' view

of death, 202
Bacon, Roger, his life and works,

ii. 210
Bain, Mr., on pleasure, i. 12, note.

His definition conscience, 29,

Balbus, Cornelius, his elevation to

the consulate, i. 232
Baltus on the exorcists, i. 381, note
Baptism, Augustinian doctrine of, i.

Barbarians, causes of the conversion

of the, i. 410
Basil, St., his hospital, ii. 80. His

labours for monachism, 106
Bassus, Ventidius, his elevation to

the consulate, i. 232
Bathilda, Queen, her charity, ii. 245
Bear-gardens in England, ii. 175, note
Beauty, analogies between virtue

and, i. 77. Their difference, 79.
Diversities existing in our judg-
ments of virtue and beauty, 79.
Causes of these diversities, 79.
Virtues to which we can, and to
which we cannot, apply the term
beautiful, 82, 83. Pleasure de-
rived from beauty compared with
that from the grotesque, or eccen.
tric, 85. The prevailing cast of
female beauty in the north, con-
trasted with the southern type,
144, 145, 152. Adiniration of

the Greeks for beauty, ii. 292
Bees, regarded by the ancients as

embler or models of chastity, i.

108, note
Beggars, causes of vast numbers of,

ii. 94. Old English laws for the
suppression of mendicancy, 96.

Enactments against them in vari-

ous parts of Europe, 98
Benedict, St., his system, 183
Benefices, military use of, ii. 270
Benevolence; Hutcheson's theory

that all virtue is resolved into
benevolence, i. 4. Discussions in
England, in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, as to the
existence of, 20. Various views of
the source from which it springs,
22. Association of ideas pro-
ducing the feeling of, 26. Hart-
ley on benevolence quoted, 27,
note. Impossibility of benevo-
lence becoming a pleasure if prac-
tised only with a view to that
end, 37. Application to benevo-
lence of the theory, that the moral
unity of different ages is a unity
not of standard but of tendency,
100. Influenced by our imagina-
tions, 132, 133. Imperfectly re-

cognised by the Stoics, 188, 192
Bentham, Jeremy, on the motives of

human actions, i. 8, note. On
the pleasures and pains of piety
quoted, 9, note.

On charity, 10,
note. On vice, 13, note. On the
sanctions of morality, 19, and
note, 21. Throws benevolence as
much as possible into the back-
ground, 2ī. Makes no use of the
doctrine of association, 25, note.
His definition of conscience, 29,
note. On interest and disinter-
estedness, 32, note. On the value

and purity of a pleasure, 90, note
Besarion, St., his penances, ii. 108
Biography, relative importance of,

among Christians and Pagans, i.

Blandina, martyrdom of, i. 442
Blesilla, story of her slow suicide,

ii. 48
Blondel, his denunciation of the

forgeries of the Sibylline books,
i, 377

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