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Culagium, a tax levied on the clergy,

ii. 330
Cumberland, Bishop, his unselfish

view of virtue, i. 19, note
Cynics, account of the later, i. 309
Cyprian, St., his evasion of perse-

cution by flight, i. 452. His exilo

and martyrdom, 455
Cyzicus deprived of its freedom, i.


ÆMONS, Apuleius' disquisition

on the doctrine of, i. 323. The
doctrine supersedes the Stoical
naturalism, i. 331. The dæmons
of the Greeks and Romans, 380.

And of the Christians, 382
Dale, Van, his denial of the super-

natural character of the oracles, i.

Dead, Roman worship of the, 1. 168
Death, calmness with which some

men of dull and animal natures
can meet, i. 89. Frame of mind
in which a man should approach
death, according to Epictetus, 195.
Preparation for death one of the
chief ends of the philosophy of
the ancients, 202. Bacon's objec-
tion to the Stoics' view of, 202.
The Irish legend of the islands
of life and death, 203. The
literature of Consolations, 204.
Death not regarded by the philo-
sophers as penal, 205. Popular
terrors of death, 205, 206. In-
stances of tranquil pagan deaths,
207. Distinctions between the
pagan and Christian conceptions

of death, 208
Decius, persecution of the Christians

respecting Sunday, 244. Magni-
ficence of his court at Constanti-

nople, 265
Conventual system, effect of the sup-

pression of the, on women, ii. 369
Cordeilla, or Cordelia, her suicide,

ii. 53, note
Corinth, effect of the conquest of, on

the decadence of Rome, i. 169
Cornelia, a vestal virgin, incident of

her execution, ii. 318, note
Cornelius, the bishop, martyrdom of,

i. 454
Cornutus, his disbelief in a future

state, i. 183
Corporations, moral qualities of, i.

Councils of the Church, character of

the, ii. 197, note
Courtesans, Greek, ii. 287. Causes

of their elevation, 291-294. How

regarded by the Romans, 300
Cousin, Victor, his criticism of the

Scotch moralists, i. 74, note. His

objection against Locke, 75, note
Crantor, originates the literature of

‘Consolations,'i, 204
Cremutius Cordus, trial of, i. 448,

Crime, value attached by the monks

to pecuniary compensations for,
ii. 213. Catalogue of crimes of

the seventh century, 237-239
Criminals, causes of our indulgent

judgment of, i. 135
Critical spirit, the, destroyed by

Neoplatonism, i. 330
Cromaziano, his history of suicide,

i. 216, note
Cruelty, origin and varieties of, i.

132, 134. Cruelty to animals,
utilitarian doctrine concerning,

46, 47
Crusius, his adherence to the opinion

of Ockham as to the foundation

of the moral law, i. 17, note
Cudworth, his analysis of moral

judgments, i. 76

under, i. 449, 450
Defoe, Daniel, his tract against beg.

gars, ii. 98, and note
Delphi, oracle of, its description of

the best religion, i. 167
Deogratias, his ransom of prisoners,

ii. 72

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what is, and the notion of there
being such a thing as, i. 5. Paley
on the difference between it and
prudence, 15, 16, note. Distinc-
tion between natural duties and
those resting on positive law,

93. Duty a distinct motive, 180
Dwarfs, combats of, in the arena, i.




Despotism, Helvétius' remarks on

the moral effects of, i. 129, note
Diagoras, his denial of the exist-

ence of the gods, i. 162
Diodorus, the philosopher, his

suicide, i. 215
Dion Chrysostom, his denunciation

of images of the Deity, i. 166,
167, note. His life and works,

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, on the

creed of the Romans, i. 167
Disinterestedness, Bentham's

marks on, quoted, i. 32, note
Disposition, what constitutes, ac-

cording to the theory of associa-

tion, i. 30
Divination, a favourite subject of

Roman ridicule, i. 166. Belief of

the ancients in, 363
Divorce, unbounded liberty of,

among the Romans, ii. 306-308.
Condemned by the Church, 350,

Docetæ, their tenets, ii. 102
Dog-star, legend of the, ij. 162
Dolphin, legends of the, ii. 162, and

Domestic laws, Roman, changes in,

i. 297, 298
Domestic virtues, destruction of the,

by the ascetics, ii. 125
Domitian, his law respecting suicide,

i. 219. Anecdote of his cruelty,
289. His law as to slaves, 307.
His persecution of the Stoics and

Christians, 431, 432
Domitilla, banishment of, i. 433
Domnina, her suicide with her daugh-

by the ancients, i. 369. Cause
of persecutions of the Christians,

Easter controversy, bitterness of the,

ii. 198
Eclectic school of philosophy, rise of

the, i. 242. Its influence on the

Stoics, 245
Eclipses, opinions of the ancients

ters, ii. 46
Donatists, their intolerance, ii. 195
Dowry of women, rise of the, ii. 277

and note
Dreams, opinions of the Romans con-

cerning, i. 366, 367, note
Dumont, M., on vengeance quoted, i.

41, note
Duty, theory of morals must explain

concerning, i. 366
Education, importance ascribed to,

by the theory of the association
of ideas, i. 30. Contrast between
that adopted by the Catholic
priesthood and that of the Eng-
lish public schools, 114. Its in-
fluence on the benevolent feelings,
133, 134. Two distinct theories

of, 187
Egypt, the cradle of monachism, ii.
105. The Mohammedan conquest
of, 143. Triumphs of the Catholics

in, 196
Egyptians, their reverence for the

vulture, i. 108, note. Their kind-
ness to animals, 289. Contrast of
the spirit of their religion with
that of the Greeks, 324. Difference
between the Stoical and Egyptian
pantheism, 325
Elephants, legends of, ii. 161
Emperors, Roman, apotheosis of,

i. 170, 257
Endura, the Albigensian practice of,

ii. 49
England, national virtues and vices
of, i. 153, Ancient amusements of,

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Essenes, virginity their ideal of

sanctity, i. 109, ii. 102
Euhemerus, his explanation of the

legends, i. 163
Euphrates the Stoic, his answer to

Pliny the Younger, i. 202. Has
permission from Hadrian to com-

mit suicide, 218, note
Euphraxia, St., ii. 110
Euripides, beauty of the gentler

virtues inculcated in the plays of,

i. 228
Eusebius, on the allegorical and

mythical interpretations of pagan-
ism, i. 163, note. His account
of the Christian persecutions, i.

Eusebius, St., his penances, ii.

Eustathius, condemnation of, by

the council of Gangra, ii. 131
Evagrius, his inhumanity to his

parents, ii. 125
Evil, views of Hobbes and the Utili-

tarians of the essence and origin

of, i. 8-10
Excellence, supreme, how far it is

conducive to happiness, i. 56
Excommunication, penalties of, ii. 7
Executioners, always regarded as

unholy, i. 41
Exorcism, among the early Christ-

ii. 174, 175, note
Ephrem, St., his charity, ii. 81
Epictetus, his disbelief in a future

state, i. 183. His life and
works, 184, and note, On the
frame of mind in which a man
should approach death, 195. His
views of the natural virtue
of man, 198. On suicide, 214,
note, 220. On universal brother-
hood, 254. His stoicism tempered
by a milder and more religious
spirit, 245, 246. His remarks on

national religious beliefs, 405
Epicureans, their faith preserved

unchanged at Athens, i. 128, and
note. Their scepticism, 162. Ro-
man Epicureans, 162, 163. Epi-
cureanism the expression of a
type of character different from
Stoicism, 171, 172. But never
became a school of virtue in
Rome, 175. Destructive nature
of its functions, 176. Esteemed
pleasure as the ultimate end of
our actions, 186. Encouraged
physical science, 193. Their
doctrine as to suicide, 214, 215,

Epicurus, the four canons of, i. 14.
Vast place occupied by his system
in the moral history of man, 171.
His character, 175, 176, note.
Lucretius' praise of him, 197.
His view of death, 205. Dis-
covery of one of his treatises at

Herculantum, 205, note
Epidemics, theological notions re-

specting, i. 356
Epiphanius, St., his miraculous
stories, i. 378. His charges
against the Gnostics, 417. Legend

of him and St. Hilarius, ii. 159
Epponina, story of her conjugal

fidelity, ii. 342
Error, the notion of the guilt of,

ji, 190-193

ians, i. 378, 380. Origin of the
notions of possession and exor-
cism, 380. Jews the principal
exorcists, 380. Belief of the early
Christians in, 382. Contempt of
the pagans for it, 384. Ulpian's
law against exorcists, 384. Prob-
able explanation of possession
and exorcism, 385. Speedy decline
of exorcism, 385. The practice
probably had no appreciable in-
fluence in provoking persecution

of the Christians, 420
Experience, general statement of

the doctrine which bases morals

upon, i. 5

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martyrdom of, i. 446

QALERIUS, his persecution of tho
hospital, ij. 80

illness, 462. Relents towards the
Fabius, his self-sacrifice, i. 185

Christians, 462
Fabius Pictor, his works written in Galilæans, their indifference to
Greek, i. 230

death, i. 392, note
Faculty, moral, the term, i. 75 Gall, St., legend of, ii. 182. His
Fairies, belief in, i. 348, 349

missionary labours, 247
Fatalism, Æschylus the poet of, i. Gallienus, proclaims toleration to

the Christians, i. 455, 457
Felicitas, St., her martyrdom, i. 444. Gallus, the Emperor, persecutions of
In prison, ii. 9

the Christians under, i. 454
Fénelon, on the unselfish love we Gambling-table, moral influence of
should bear to God, i. 18, note

the, i. 148
Fetichism, latent, the root of a Gaul, introduction of Christianity

great part of our opinions, i. 350 into, i. 442. Foundation of the
Fidenæ, accident at the amphi- monastic system in, ii. 106. Long
theatre at, i. 275

continuance of polygamy among
Fights, sham, in Italy in the middle the kings of, 343
ages, ii. 37, 38

Gay, his view of the origin of human
Fire, regarded by the ancients as an actions, quoted, i. 8, note. His

emblem of virginity, i. 108, note suggestion of the theory of associ-
Fish, symbol of the early Christians, ation, 23, 24
i. 376

Genseric, effect of his conquest of
Flamens of Jupiter, ii. 298

Africa upon Italy, ii. 82. His cap-
Flora, games of, i. 276

ture of Rome, 83
Forethought, brought into a new George of Cappadocia, his barbarity,

position by industrial habits, i. 140 ii. 195
Foundlings, hospitals for, ii. 23, Germanicus, the Emperor, fury of

note, 32. In ancient times, 28, the populace with the gods, in

29. Adversaries of, 98, and note consequence of the death of, i.
France, condition of, under the 169

Merovingian kings, ii. 236, note Germanus, St., his charity, ii. 245
Francis of Assisi, St., story of his Germany, conversion of, to Chris-

death from asceticism, ii. 49. His tianity, ii. 246. Marriage customs
kindness to animals, 172

of the early Germans, 278. Their
Franks, cause of their conversion, i. chastity, 340, 341

Gervasius, St., recovery of his re-
Frédégonde; Queen, her crimes, ii. mains, i. 379.
236, 237

Girdles of chastity, ii. 319, note
Freedmen, influence of, at Rome, i. Gladiatorial shows, influence of

233. Condition of the freedmen of Christianity on the suppression of,
the Romans, 236

1. 34. Reasons why the Romans
Frenchmen, the chief national vir- saw nothing criminal in them, 101.

tues and causes of their influence History and effect on the Romans
in Europe, i. 152. Compared of, 271-283. How regarded by

with Anglo-Saxon nations, 153 moralists and historians, 284.
Friendship, Utilitarian view of, i. 10 The passion for them not incon-


sistent with humanity in other

teaching of the, i. 74. Difference
between the teaching of the Roman
moralists and the Greek poets, 195.
On death, and future punishment,
205, 206. Greek suicides, 212.
Gentleness and humanity of the
Greek character, 227. Influence
on Roman character, 227, 228.
The Greek spirit at first as far
removed from cosmopolitanism
as that of Rome, 228. Causes of
Greek cosmopolitanism, 229. Ex-
tent of Greek influence at Rome,
230. Gladiatorial shows among
them, 276. Spirit of their reli-
gion contrasted with that of the
Egyptians, 324. Their intolerance
of foreign religions, 406. Con-
dition and fall of their empire of
the East, ii. 12–14. Their prac-
tice of infanticide, 25-27. Their
treatment of animals, 164. Their
treatment of prisoners taken in
war, 257, 258.

Their marriage
customs, 277. Women in the
poetic age, 278. Peculiarity of
Greek feelings on the position
of women, 280, 281. Unnatural
forms assumed by vice amongst

them, 294
Gregory the Great, his contempt for

Pagan literature, ii. 201, note.

His attitude towards Phocas, 264
Gregory of Nyssa, St., his eulogy of

spheres, 288.
Gnostics, accusations against the, by

the early Fathers, i. 417. Their

tenets, ii. 102
God, the Utilitarian view of the

goodness of, i. 9, and note. Ques-
tion of the disinterestedness of
the love we should bear to, 18.
Our knowledge of Him derived
from our own moral nature, 55.
Early traces of an all-pervading
soul of nature in Greece, 161, 162,
170. Philosophic definitions of the
Deity, 162, note. Pantheistic
conception of, by the Stoics and
Platonists, 163. Recognition of
Providence by the Roman moral-
ists, 196. Two aspects under
which the Stoics worshipped the
Divinity-providence and moral

goodness, 198
Gods, the, of the ancients, i. 161, et

seg. Euhemerus' theory of the
explanation of the prevailing
legends of the gods, 163. Views
of Cicero of the popular beliefs,
165. Opinions of the Stoics, of
Ovid, and of Horace, 166. Na-
ture of the gods of the Romans,
167. Decline of Roman reverence

for the gods, 168, 169
Good, pleasure equivalent to, accord-

ing to the Utilitarians, i. 8,

note, 9
Gracchi, colonial policy of the, i. 233
Grazers, sect of, ii. 109
Greeks, ancient, their callous murder

of children, i. 45, 46. Low state
of female morality among them.
Their enforcement of monogamy,
104. Celibacy of some of their
priests and priestesses, 105. Early
traces of a religion of nature, 161.
Universal providence attributed
to Zeus, 161. Scepticism of the
philosophers, 161, 162. Import-
ance of biography in the moral

virginity, ii. 322
Gregory of Tours, manner in which

he regarded events, ii. 240–242,

261, 277
Grotesque, or eccentric, pleasure de-

rived from the, compared with

that from beauty, i. 85
Gundebald, his murders approved

of by his bishop, ii. 237
Gunpowder, importance of the in-

vention of, i. 126
Guy, Brother, his society for pro-

tection and education of children,
ii. 33, and note

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