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contemplated would be materially di- not to stand in the way of real and minished by proper exertions on the needful improvement. So much repart of the magistracy; and the com- gard should be paid to the influence munity should be made to feel an in. of habit, that the reform of bad institerest in the subject. It would seem tutions should commonly be carried right that a certain proportion of the forward by degrees, varying according loss, not less than half, should imme to the nature of the subject and to diately be restored, upon conviction, the circumstances connected with it. to the party injured, upon the order But it is incumbent upon those who of the judge without suit, out of the would oppose every change professing funds of the county where the crime to be an improvement, by the declarawas committed ; provided the claim- tion," nolumus leges Angliæ muant had not been remiss in bringing tare,” to prove that legislators never the offender to justice. Frivolous, make a bad law, and that laws origiindeed, would be the objection that nally good, can never become bad by with such claims to indemnity, men lapse of time and alterations in the would not have a sufficient induce. state of society. In the reform of our ment to guard their property from penal laws it seems that much may be violence or fraud. An inducement done at once, and a foundation laid would remain quite as powerful, as for all that should follow, without apparently ought to exist in any well. danger or material inconvenience. To governed state. Loss would in nearly make sure provision for the universal every instance be sustained after all; instruction of the children of the poor, and the inevitable trouble and vexa. attending, especially to the means of tion of prosecutions would not appearfixing religious and moral impressions as things to be courted or lightly rea on their minds, is the first, though in garded. Many a person is robbed or one view a collateral, step in this great defrauded to an extent either ruinous work. Measures directly bearing or most grievous to him ; and shall upon the subject, and immediately resociety sternly leave him to suffer, quired, are, to amend a large propor. under the unfounded pretence, that tion of our penal statutes, and to estato afford relief would be to give a pre- blish a regulated system of punishmium upon the comunission of crimes ? ments, consonant in essential points Unfeeling avarice alone could suggest to justice, humanity and religion ; so such pleas and such practices, which that the law should no longer utter an Alfred would no more have suffer- violent denunciations in terrorem, but ed at this period than in his own age. should speak in the simple, impressive As to the criminals, even if it should language of certainty, prescribing peprove impossible to draw much profit nalties which, not being excessive, from their labour, still they ought to should be enforced as a matter natulabour with that view, either for life rally consequent upon the conviction or for a definite period, according to of offenders : and" to mention last the nature of the offence. Justice and what is of primary importance, the policy seem loudly to demand that remodelling of most of our prisons, this should be a part of the sentence for the proper classification, discifor felony, larceny, fraud and every pline, separation and employment of crime admitting of compensation; and criminals. In dealing with actual crias proving to the criminal that his minals here, we must look for the pursuits were likely to be in every chief means of repressing crime; and view unprofitable, it would not be here the mighty mass of existing evil without a salutary effect.

will demand ail the wisdom and enerLate, and not without reluctance, gy and perseverance of the supreme we appear to be entering upon the re- and local authorities. * The 24th form of our criminal code. The reluctance manifested in relation to this work proceeds indeed, generally, from

*My pen would fail to express the a principle, which well directed, we

sense which I entertain of the high desert

of Mrs. Fry and those who have co-opecould not censure—the principle of rated with her, of Mr. Buxton and Mr. attachment to established laws and Gurney, in their endeavours to effect the usages. But dislike of innovation reform of prisons and of their inmates ; ought to have reasonable bounds, and but posterity will not be silent in their

Geo. III. c. 54, and other existing good evidence: the hand-writing of a statutes have been referred to from father in a family-bible or pocket-book the Bench, as providing a remedy for has been received: and it cannot this evil; but it is to be remembered therefore be that so regular and forthat these statutes in their most ma- mal a registry as that at the Library, terial points are not imperative; they in Red-Cross Street, should be invapermit very much to be done, but lid. At the same time, it behoves they actually require very little. The the Deputies to obtain and make expense of money that may be need- known some competent legal opinions ful in the first instance to make our upon the case, for their own justificaprisons what they ought to be, de- tion, and for the satisfaction of every serves not to be mentioned as an im. one who, like myself, is pediment or objection. Shall we ex

A DISSENTER AND A PARENT: pend 50 millions in a year for the operations of war; for works of destruction; and shall we grudge perhaps Dr. John Jones on the Proposition five millions for permanent works of that the Divinity of Christ was dicjustice and mercy, tending in the high- tated by Heathenism, in order to est degree to correct and restrain vice, account for his Miracles. ties of a nation? " Those who would The fifus pace is, That such was answer in the affirmative, must be prepared to say in plain terms that they the genius of Heathenism, that its voprefer evil to good.

taries, as soon as they had heard of The eyes of contemporary millions the miracles of Jesus, and had reason are fixed upon the British Legislature to believe them to be true, were unaon this occasion, and generations to voidably led to consider hiin as a God. come will review their proceedings.

The Heathens, it is well known, beMay their acts be such as to merit lieved in the existence and agency and obtain the applause of the present of many gods. These, as they supand of future ages!

posed, often appeared in the shape, or entered the bodies, of men. The Greek and the Roman writers abound

with instances of their interposition "HE opinion or rather judgment in both these respects ; and the notion of

was as familiar as that of ghosts or ter of the Rolls, on the insufficiency evil spirits, entertained by the vulgar of the Register of Births kept by the in modern days. When Christ apDissenting Deputies, at Dr. Williams's peared and exhibited in the miracles Library, (as reported by your corre- which he performed the proofs of his spondent, A. B., XVII. 728,) may divine mission, the conclusion was possibly disturb the minds of some of natural that he was himself one of the your readers. I am persuaded, how, gods, acting by virtue of his own ever, that the dictum of the learned power, and not with the authority of judge is of little authority, and would a higher Being. I will illustrate this have no influence in any other Court. by two examples of unquestionable It has been again and again laid down authenticity. When Paul miracuin law, that any register of a birth_lously healed the infirm man in Lysmay be, under certain circumstances, tra, Acts xiv. 11, “the people," we

are told, “ lifted up their voice in the

language of Lycaonia, The gods are praise; (if that poor meed could be of come down to us in the likeness of importance to them;) and what these men.” If Christ had been the author private individuals have effected may of this miracle, the people of that surely encourage others, and shew that place would doubtless have said the our object in its full extent is by no

The inhabitants means impracticable. And our hopes of same thing of him. success may be strong when we consider of other places would certainly have that in the present administration there drawn a similar inference, differing is unquestionably a large portion of bene- only as to what god he might be, each volence, and of an upright disposition to supposing him to be that divinity to promote the public welfart.

which he was most particularly deVOL. XVIII.


TF sipithomas Prather, he want

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voted; and if they would suppose him condemned. His acquittal is an une-
to be a god from this miracle, they quivocal fact that he negatived it, as a
would, à fortiori, have bad recourse to were dictate of Heathenism.
the same supposition from all his mi. The conclusion on which I here in,
racles, and especially from the stu. sist, is directly asserted by Eusebius
pendous miracle of his resurrection. in his Ecclesiastical History, lib. i.
Another example, illustrative of the 13. The divinity of our Lord and
genius of Paganism, presents itself in Saviour Jesus Christ was celebrated
the discourse of Paul at Athens. His among all nations by means of his
hearers immediately concluded that wonderful power; an immense nune
he was "a setter forth of new gods;" ber, even of foreigners, being attract-
and the sacred historian subjoins the ed to him, in the bope of being healed
reason, “Because he preached Jesus by him of the various diseases which
and the resurrection.” Acts xvii. In afflicted them." Here, it is asserted
the estimation of a Heathen, superio- that all nations celebrated the divinity
rity to death was the most decisive of Christ, and that the grounds of
proof of divinity; so that in their opi- this celebration were the wonderful
nion, to assert that Jesus survived works performed by him. It is clear,
death, was the same thing as to assert therefore, that, according to the sur.
that he was a god. To introduce a rounding nations who heard the fame
new god_at Athens was a capital of Jesus, he was a supernatural be
crime, Three centuries before, So- ing, because he did things above the
crates was put to death under that course of nature,
very charge; and they instantly con- A well-known passage of Tertullian
ducted the apostle to the Areopagus in his Apology, cap. 6, (see Lardner,
to have him condemned for the same Yol. VII. p. 243,) draws the same
offence. Paul effectually sets aside conclusion, Tiberius, in whose
the charge, by holding forth Jesus as reign the Christian name appeared in
a man appointed of God to judge the the world, having received from Pales-
world, and raised from the grave by tine, in Syria, an account of the works
the power of the Almighty. The no- which revealed and verified the divi.
tion of .one Supreme God, as the Cre- nity of Jesus, proposed him to the
ator and Governor of the universe, Senate, with the privilege of his own
was not unknown to the Athenian vote in favour of his deification. The
philosophers; but lest the preaching Senate, because he had himself refused
of this Great Being should be made that honour, rejected the proposal ;
the grounds of a new accusation Cæsar remained of the same opinion,
against the apostle, he, with admira- and threatened to punish the accusers
ble wisdom and presence of mind, of the Christians. Here, again, it is
precludes it by an appeal to their own asserted that the works of Jesus pror-
writers, and especially to an altar ed his divinity. The conduct of Tibe-
erected to the unknown god in that rius, who was a Heathen, in propose
very city. Here, we are presented ing the deification of Jesus, proves
with a very remarkable fact, most wors that he drew the same inference. But
thy the notice of those who believe it is remarkable that Tertullian, who
that Paul taught the Godhead of our was a Christian, and who had oppor-
Saviour. The people of Athens, mis- tunities to know better, should assert
led by polytheism, charged that apos- that the miracles of our Lord verified,
tle with holding forth the divinity of not indeed his divine mission, but his
Christ as an object of their accept- divine nature. This 'shews that Ter-

And what did this great cham- tullian and Eusebius reasoned exactly
pion of the religion of Jesus do, in con- as the Heathens did respecting the
sequence? Did he meet the charge nature of Christ, and that the real
and avow it? This he certainly would source of their belief in his divinity
have done, had it been well-founded, was Heathenism.
even at the risk of his life. On the Eusebius and Orosius have related
contrary, he cuts up the charge by the this fact nearly in the words of Ter-
roots as grounded in misconception; tullian. The words of Orosius are the
and he was accordingly discharged. following : “Tiberius proposed to the
Had he attempted to justify that doc- Senate that Christ should be made a
trine, he would have been instantly god, with his own vote in his favour.


The Senate, moved with indignation publish an edict in Rome and in the that it had not been, as usual, prói provinces to protect the Christians, posed to them to determine respect that is, the Jews who believed in ing the reception of his religion, re. Jesus (for the Christian name was jeeted his deification, and decreed by not yet in existence): and yet Philo, an edict that the Christians should be who nourished at the time, not only banished from the city, especially as bears his testimony to this edict, but Sejanus, the minister of Tiberius, quotes the substance of it to the folobstinately resisted the reception of lowing effect : “All nations, though his faith.” Orosius, lib. vii. c. 4. The prejudiced against the Jews, bave been fact here recorded has been rejected careful not to abolish the Jewish rites : by most learned men as atterly incre- and the saine caution was preserved dible, for is it to be believed that Ti. in the reign of Tiberius ; though, ina berius could be induced to think that deed, in Italy the Jews had been disman to be a god, whom his viceroy tressed by the machinations of Sejain a remote province had crucified as nus. For after his death, the emperor a malefactor? Or, if he heard any became sensible that the accusations thing of the fame and character of alleged against the Jews in Italy were Jesus, is it credible that, selfish, sloth. calumnies, the inventions of Sejanus, ful and negligent as that emperor was who was eager to devour a nation, of the affairs even of the einpire, he who he knew opposed his impious des should yet interest himself in the case signs. And to the constituted authoof an obscure Jew, and that Jew exe- rities in every place, Tiberius sent or: cuted for treason against himself, so ders not to molest in their several far out of the common course of cities the men of that nation, except' things as to propose his deification, ing the guilty only, (who were few,)

and thus to place him in the same and not to suppress any of their instirank with the tutelar divinities of tutions, but to regard as a trust com: Rome? On the contrary, it may be mitted to their care, both the people asked, is it at all eredible that Tertul. themselves as disposed to peace, and lian who flourished so near the time, their laws which, like oil, brace them and who withal was very learned, with firmness and magnanimity.” would have dared to hazard such an Philo, Vol. II. p. 569. Josephus's assertion, if it were not founded in account of this transaction is as foltruth? Is it within the compass of lows : “A Jew resided at Rome, moral possibility, that a respectable who was in every way wicked, and writer, engaged in hostility with men who, having been accused of transgresof rank, talents and learning in the sing the laws, fled from his country to state, should virtually appeal to the avoid the punishment which threatenarchives of the empire for the truth ed him. During his residence in of an incident which he knew did not Rome, be pretended to unfold the exist there, and which he knew too, wisdom of the law of Moses, in conhis enemies on inquiry would not faií junction with three other men, who to negative, and thus overwhelm him in every respect resembled himself. and his cause and his brethren through- With these men associated Fulvia, a out the world, with the fabrication of lady of rank, who had become a cona palpable falseliood ? Amidst these vert to the Jewish religion, and whom improbabilities, this curious and im- they prevailed upon to send, for the portant question has been left by Teinple at Jerusalem, presents of learned men undecided; and if no new purple and gold. Having received light could have been thrown apon it, these, they appropriated them to their in this undecided state it must fot own use ; which, indeed, was their ever have remained.' But, fortunately motive at first in making the request. for the interest of truth, Philo, José Tiberius (heing informed of this bý plus, Plutarch, not to mention Taci. Saturninus, who was his friend, and ius and Suetonins, by a new and ad- the husband of Fulvia,) commanded ditional evidence, enable us to decide the Jews to be expelled from the city. the question. The most improbable The young inen, to the annount of part of the story is, that Tiberius, 4000, were forced to enlist, by a defrom being an enemy, should have cree of the Senate, and sent to the become a friend to Christ, and thus island of Sardinia. But most of them, being determined to preserve

• The Jew whom Josephus stigmatheir privileges as Jews inviolate, re- tises as in every way wicked, was, as fused to become soldiers and were put we shall see hereafter, one of the to death. And thus for the wicked framers and teachers of the Gnostic ness of four men, the Jews were dri- system, the principal object of which ven from the city.” Antiq. Jud. lib. was to sink Christianity in Heathenxviii. cap. 3, 6.

ism, by placing the founder with the Now, if we compare the narratives Heathen gods. Tiberius, though a fataof Tertullian, Philo and Josephus, the list, was extremely superstitious; and whole affair will become plain, con- Jewish magicians, Egyptian priests sistent and credible. The Jewish be- and Chaldean astrologers formed his lievers at Rome, hating the despotic most intimate associates. These men character of Sejanus, and penetrating he consulted respecting Jesus; and his ambitious project of becoming there is no room to doubt, but at their emperor in the room of Tiberius, op- instigation he proposed his deificaposed his cruel measures, and arraign- tion to the Senate. It was very naed him as a conspirator. Feeling tural that the Senate and people of their enmity against himself, he, with Rome should form their ideas of Jesus the usual adroitness of wicked minis- from those impostors who pretended ters, represents them as enemies to to abet his cause. This circumstance the emperor and to the state. This, led, his enemies to speak of him as if at first, Tiberius must have been ready he were a magician and an artful deto believe; and, actuated by resent- ceiver. It was this imputation which 'ment, quickened by the complaint induced the Jewish historian to state, of Saturninus, he cruelly banishes all in the context, the real character and the Jews resident in Rome, compel- claims of Jesus Christ. With a comling such young men as were of age prehension yet brevity characteristic to become soldiers, in direct violation of this writer, he gives the whole subof the rights which they had hitherto stance of the four Gospels in one enjoyed. But the mask soon fell from short paragraph. He sets aside the the face of Sejanus, the great enemy doctrine of his being a god, and stigand accuser of the Christians; and matises the attempt at his deification the deadly hatred which rose in the by calling him a man, if indeed he breast of Tiberius towards the de- might be called a man ; thus using tected traitor, was now necessarily the language which he uses of Moses, followed by a change of sentiments and meaning that he was a man emiand conduct towards the persons who nently endowed with power from God. had previously opposed him. Thus He farther passes by in silence the the emperor, from a persecutor, be- story of his miraculous birth, as formcame inevitably the friend and pro- ing no part of his real history, a strong tector of the Christians. The evidence, presumption in itself of the authenbrought home to his own bosom, of ticity of the passage. Nor did the the falsehood of the charge urged writer rest in this negative testimony against the followers of Jesus, dis- to the falsehood of the miraculous posed him to consider their master as conception, but exposes, in the suba victim of a similar calumny in Ju- sequent paragraph, the abominable dea ; and taking into consideration deed, which, on inquiry, will be found his miraculous power, of which he to be the origin of it, and which in 'had, through various channels, un those times all readers knew to be the questionable evidence, he pitied his origin of it. unmerited sufferings, and wished to T'he advocates of Christianity mainatone for them, by consecrating him tained, and maintained with truth, among the gods of the Pantheon. that the vices and superstition which The Christian fathers, for obvious had hitherto debased the Pagan world, reasons, left the first impression of and which the erroneous philosophy Tiberius's resentment unnoticed, men- of the times imputed to the demons, tioning only his subsequent conduct were, in a great measure, swept away in behalf of the Christians. Hence by the religion of Jesus. The enethe improbability which loads their mies of the gospel felt the weight of narrative, and sinks it almost below this argument, and Plutarch wrote rational belief.

his treatise concerning the cessation

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