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probation—"Son, thou art ever with distinguished excellencies of the holy me," hast never departed from the way father Cyprian, the archbishop of our of my commandments, and “all that island, the government of which deI have is thine.” But, “ it was meet volved upon him in virtue of a privithat we should make merry and be glad, lege attached to our archiepiscopal for this thy brother was dead, and is see. His disinterested generosity, his alive again, and was lost, and is found.” genius, his ardent pursuit of every There is inuch and just cause for species of virtue, the austerity with gladness; this thy brother, who was which he exacted of himself the fuldead in sin, is become alive unto filment of his duties, and the conderighteousness. He who was lost in scending sweetness of his manners, the profligacy of vicious transgression, had rendered this extraordinary man in the regenerated state which humble an object not only of respect and reneand sincere repentance has brought ration
to the Christians, but of esteem about, is found again, and joyfully and affection to the Mussulmans themreceived into favour.
selves; for to them he had rendered MARY HUGHES. important services, having even saved P.S.J should scarcely have courage to the lives of many who had incurred tlie offer this paper for insertion, differing resentment of their rulers. He enwidely as it does from what I esteem joyed, as far as it was possible in our high authority, were I not well as unhappy country, the reward of his sured, that should it call forth any wise conduct; and the terrible events reply, it will be dictated in the true which had successively taken place in spirit of Christian meekness; and the capital of the empire, had failed were I not well convinced that the to disturb the tranquillity of our author of the tract before adverted to, island, in consequence either of the is as truly desirous as I can be, that pacific temper of the people, or of the the parables of our heavenly Teacher vigilant superintendence of the archshould be examined in every possible bishop. Suddenly, however, the Mulight, that we may be enabled with hassil (Turkish governor) presented more certainty to ascertain their true himself to the holy father, and on the meaning.
authority of the Sultan's firman, re
quired that he should cause all the Extract from a Letter, written by an The archbishop
immediately gave the
Christians to deliver up their arms. Inhabitant of the Isle of Cyprus, requisite orders for their delivery; and, who had escaped the Massacre of to prevent alarm and confusion, be the Christians.
sent his own officers to accompany the (Translated from the French, for the Turkish officers who were appointed Monthly Repository.)
to search the houses of the inhabitants. OUR beboerne centr
blood of our UR beloved country is stained A change of conduct was visible as
soon as the Muhassil was possessed of Christian brethren, shed by the hands the Christians' arms : assuming an air of barbarians ! It is the duty of such of authority, he deprived the Archof us as have been suffered, through bishop of his power. The Turks, the interposition of Divine Providence, excited by him, began to invent the to elude the tyrant's grasp, to conse- most atrocious calumnies against the crate the inemory of those illustrious Christians ; accusing them, for inwarriors, and to expose to the world stance, of having mixed the flesh of the inhumanity which has doomed swine with other provisions in dinners them to destruction. Every country of which they had invited them to parof Europe, every nation of the earth take five years before; of having had which still cherishes heartfelt religion, intercourse with the wives of the Turks; which has not utterly renounced the and of other crimes of a similar nature. venerable attribute of reason, must On the strength of these chimerical shudder whilst listening to a recital of charges, a considerable number of the horrible calamities that have be- Christians, many of them ecclesiastics, fallen the inhabitants of our island. were imprisoned. The Archbishop Not the tender and pitiful alone, but expostulated with the Muhassil, and the hardest heart must surely melt at demanded the enlargement of the priscenes of such overwhelming misery. soners. The Muhassil replied, that
You are well acquainted with ibe the greater part of them had been
as soon as
executed, and that those who remained most scrupulous obedience to them. bad with difficulty obtained the pro- The Archbishop answered, that he mise of their lives on condition of should erer continue to inculcate on paying a large sum of money. Al- his children the sentiments which he though the raising of this sum com- had invariably taught them. This depelled the relations of the imprisoned claration did not satisfy the Governor ; to make an extraordinary effort, they he gave the Archbishop to understand presented it immediately; but they that he must offer some guarantee for found that the promise of the perfidi- his own political conduct: with strong ous governor had been given merely feeling the venerable man replied, that to extort their money,
the esteem in which he had always he had received it, he gave orders for been held by the people, and even by the massacre of his unhappy prisoners. the Porte, who had entrusted to him
The Archbishop beheld with indig- the superintendence of the whole nation this union of fraud and cruelty, island, as well as the incontestable but far from obtaining satisfaction, he proofs which he had repeatedly given was fated to see his Archdeacon load- of attachment to the Sultan, suffied with irons, and a horrid persecu- ciently attested his loyalty and firmtion commenced against his nephew, ness ; nevertheless, to prevent any Cyprian Theseus. The latter, how- pretext for suspicion, he disdained not ever, by making immense sacrifices, to offer in favour of his own conduct obtained means to flee from his perse- the testimony of all the Mussulman cutors, and thus escaped the destruc- authorities of the island; these, froin tion with which he was menaced. The the Mufti down to the lowest class of fury of the execrable tyrant then public functionaries, eagerly came forburst on the head of Leondius, the ward to add weight to the protestasecretary of the late Grand Vicar, his tions of the Archbishop: The Muhasfather, who was put to the torture sil professed to be satisfied, and denine days successively, to compel him clared that, on his part, he would to discover the retreat of Cyprian The- never violate his promises; but to seus; and after nine days of martyrdom reward him for undertaking to render the venerable ecclesiastic died in the an account to the government of Conmost dreadful torment. The Arch- stantinople of the good conduct of bishop, agonized at the miseries to the Christians of Cyprus, he exacted which his beloved children were con- the moderate sum of 100,000 piastres; tinually exposed, remonstrated against and this demand could not be refused the conduct of the Muhassil, who con- at so critical a moment. He then sidered himself sufficiently excused by augmented with his own soldiers the protesting that, under the present number of the Archbishop's guards, circumstances, it had been impossible under the pretence of more firmly to avoid falling into some errors re-establishing the public tranquillity: specting the unfortunate sufferers ; thus this monster was preparing to and that Cyprian Theseus had been execute his villanous design. A few pursued only for the purpose of mak- days after, he requested the Archbiing him relinquislı some arms of great shop to convoke all the clergy, who value, which he was said to have re- were the principal persons of the tained when the others were delivered country, saying, that he had orders up. He now set at liberty the Arch- from the Sultan to communicate to deacon, after having extorted from them, and affairs of the highest politihim a present of 15,000 piastres. cal importance to consult them upon. Moreover, he gave the Archbishop a All who were convened well knew the solemn promise that the Christians perfidy of the barbarian, and suspected of the island should thenceforth enjoy the horrid act of treachery which he perfect tranquillity, adding, that he meditated; but how was it possible would personally guarantee the per- for them to escape, since he had placed formance of all that had been pro- in every port considerable bodies of mised. He, however, required of the troops, brought into Syria from St. Archbishop an assurance to the go- Jean d'Acre? Still they might hope, vernment, that the Christians should by means of further sacrifices, to allay make no insurrectionary movements the storm which was gathering over against the Turks; and that they were them ; especially as they were conready to pledge themselves to the vinced that the Turks must be satis
fied with the blameless conduct of the After the murder of his innocent superiors of the place : on the follow- children, the holy father himself was ing day, therefore, all the clergy as- led away to be sacrificed, whilst resembled, according to the orders of signing his soul into the hands of his the Muhassil, who, having placed a Creator. This horrid crime caused large number of foot-guards on all the most profound grief in every Christhe stairs of the palace in which they tian breast. In the mean time, the had met, gave the command for å Turks abandoned themselves to all general massacre, even in the presence sorts of debauchery, and committed of the holy father. That venerable the inost detestable crimes. The Chrisman, full of the courage resulting tians who had escaped the carnage from hopeless misfortune and from and taken refuge in their churches, the hatred of tyranny, addressed the found not their altars that inviolable impious governor in these terms :- asylum which religion, even amongst “Of what crime can you accuse the the least civilized of the human race, hapless victims whose blood you seek has always made them; those altars, to shed? If after obtaining from us so often sanctified by the most august unlimited sacrifices ; if after reducing mysteries, were defiled by every act of us to the most distressing indigence; the most brutal obscenity. Small is if after stripping our temples of their the number of those who escaped the most precious ornaments ; if after fury of the barbarians ; even the Eucompelling me to contribute to all the ropean Consuls were obliged to take necessities of the government, by hea- refuge on board their ships. vy exactions from my poor children, Such were the scenes which passed your fury is still insatiable, on me let in our isle on that fatal day; and such your wrath be turned, on my head the scenes daily passing in some part alone let your vengeance fall
, and of our country. The inemory of our spare, oh! spare the blood of these calamities will descend to the latest innocent men! Forget not,” conti- times, inspiring just and implacable nued he, “that there exists a God hatred of the cursed race of Mussulwho beholds the actions of man, and mans; and all the Christian world who judges with rigid equity!"- will pay the tribute of commiseration The barbarian, interrupting him, re- to those illustrious victims who fell in plied, “ Never has my heart been the cause of their religion and their more engaged in a work appointed country. for me; and I lament, profane wretch, These fearful events took place on that I cannot in this place, and at this the 9th of July, 1821. moment, before your eyes, subject every Christian to the same fate. I trust, at least, that not one of these
York, July 4, 1823. dogs that are present will escape me.”
VOUR correspondent Mr. Lucsainted bierarch stood, with paternal cock (pp. 286—292] has taken tenderness, commending his beloved occasion, from a remarkable incident sons to the mercy of the Eternal.
in Mrs. Cappe's Memoirs, to present Various questions were afterwards your readers with some observations addressed to the Archbishop, which on what has been called a particular he disdained to answer; but he de- Providence ;-a subject on which he clared that he had been guilty of no thinks the amiable and excellent aufault except a too invariable fidelity thor had formed very erroneous opito the Sultan, whom too late he ap- nions. The same passage has sugpreciated, and who had never merited gested a similar train of thought to a the homage he had paid him. Then writer in another valuable periodical with deep anxiety for the salvation of work, the "Inquirer,” whose remarks those over whom he had watched, he upon it closely resemble those of your humbly implored for them the mercy correspondent. As it appears to me, of God; and he prayed earnestly that notwithstanding the objections which the history of these calamitous events have been urged with such minuteness might rightly impress the heart of and variety of detail by these writers, every monarch who worshiped the true that Mrs. Cappe's argument is correct God.
and philosophical, and her application of the incident alluded co, peculiarly case, the doctrine of a Providence will striking and important, I hope you be entirely rejected; and if such senwill allow me room in your next timents are true, the universe is a Number for the insertion of the fol- chaos; the character of the Parent of lowing observations.
it is imperfect; all trust in him, and In the first place, I inust observe, all supplications to him are absurd, that both your correspondent and the and no part of practical religion has writer in the “ Inquirer" have singu. any good foundation.”. larly misconceived the doctrine of a If these views be correct, it follows particular Providence,-at least in the that every thing which has happened, shape in which it is maintained by the or is to happen in the universe, was excellent person who is the subject immediately contemplated by the Diof their remarks. According to Dr. vine mind, and formed from the beHartley, a general Providence implies ginning an essential part of the gethe adaptation of the circumstances of neral plan; that every individual enthe world to promote the happiness tered separately and distinctly into of the whole ;-a particular Providence the view of his Creator ; that not consists in the adaptation of these cir- merely our existence, not merely our cumstances with a view to the greatest welfare in general, but every moment's good of each individual. The latter, existence, every the minutest circumas well as the former, he thinks that stance which ministers to our welfare, sound philosophy and revelation equal- was foreseen and provided for before, ly require us to admit. The general time commenced his course. It also arguments for a divine moral govern- follows that the execution, as well as ment, says Dr. Price, (Dissertation the original design, is in the hands of on Providence, Sect. i.), prove what the same great and wise Being, and has been called a particular, in oppo- that in every event which happens we sion to a general Providence. We behold the immediate exertion of dicannot conceive of any reasons to in- vine power. Both those changes which fluence the Deity to exercise any pro- appear to us to involve extensive and vidence over the world, which are not important consequences, and those likewise reasons for extending it to which in our wisdom we denominate all that happens in the world. As trifling and insignificant, the bursting far as it is confined to generals, or of a bubble and of a world are equally overlooks any individual or any event, parts of one system, equally indispenit is incomplete, and therefore, un sable links of the great chain of events suitable to the idea of a perfect Being." by which the purposes of the Divine In conformity with the views here governinent are accomplished. stated, this eminent writer goes on to But the believer in a particular Prorepresent every creature in the universe vidence, thus defined, is not called as equally under the Divine care, and upon to suppose that there are freevery change that takes place as re- quent, or any, deviations from the sulting from the immediate exertion plan originally laid down; or that any of Divine power. Having adverted events, except those proper miracles, to the hypothesis of those who choose for the reality of which we have scriprather to suppose that the same per- tural evidence, are brought about in a fect direction of affairs takes place manner different from that which our in consequence of an original esta, observation of the ordinary course of blishment, without any subsequent nature would lead us to expect. So divine agency, he observes, “If an far from it, a belief in permanent and exact foreknowledge of all actions and uniform laws of nature, (considered, events, and such a perfect original however, not as operating causes, but establishment in consequence of it, merely as the modes in which the as I have mentioned, are thought by Divine agency is unceasingly exerted,) any to be impossible; and if, for this forms an essential part of his system. reason, no inore is supposed than that The notion that any interference takes powers were given to beings, and ge- place, to suspend or alter these geneneral laws settled, and then events ral laws, in order to prevent or mo. suffered to arise as they would, with. dify certain consequences arising from put any particular care or superinten- them which had not been foreseen or dency exercised over them; in this intended, he justly rejects, as unphi. Josophical and absurd; as unautho- is supposed to have an immediate rerized by any appearances, and incon- ference to some important purpose, sistent with those views which both as implying a miraculous interference. reason and revelation require us to If this be his definition of a miracle, form of the infinite perfections of the there is an end of the argument ; for Divine Nature. At the same time that his error will then appear to arise he considers every phenomenon which merely from that indistinctness of attracts his attention as arising from ideas which is the necessary consethe immediate exertion of divine quence of a vague and inaccurate use power, he perceives that the purposes of language. of infinite wisdom and goodness re- According to Mr. L. it was assumquire that these phenomena should ing an unwarrantable degree of persucceed each other according to uni- sonal importance in the author to form and invariable laws. If it were suppose that her preservation could otherwise, the experience of the past be an object of sufficient magnitude to could not form a rule for the future; attract the attention of the Almighty. and this world would no longer be It would so, if she had imagined that fitted for the education and discipline she was an object of divine superinof rational and moral creatures. tendence in any peculiar or exclusive
These are conclusions which are manner ;-but if she, at the same evidently as open to him as to the time, believed that every other human believer in a mere general Providence. being, nay, every other creature posAnd it is impossible, I think, to read sessed of life and sense, was an immethe passage referred to with the atten- diate object of its Creator's regard, it is tion which it deserves, without per- obvious that a complete check must ceiving that with the truth of these have been imposed upon all such feels conclusions Mrs. Cappe's mind was ings. For my own part, I should say fully impressed. Not a word do we it indicated a much more unwarrantathere find of any express or miracu- ble degree of presumption for a finite lous interference ;-on the contrary, mortal to pronounce what objects in every particular of the story, the were, and what were not, of' sufficient natural causes* of the circumstances, value to deserve the immediate atten(some of them such as we should call tion of the Supreme, or to limit either trivial and minute,) the combination the possible or the actual exercise of of which was necessary to bring about his infinite attributes in watching over the important consequence, are dis- the interests of all the creatures which tinctly related ;-so distinctly, indeed, he hath made. If it is not derogatory that I am at a loss to imagine how to his dignity to suppose that divine your correspondent, who has been at power was employed in the formation the pains of transcribing, and, there. even of a worm or an insect, surely it fore, must of course have read the cannot be unreasonable to believe that whole passage, should have so com- infinite wisdom and goodness are also pletely misconceived it. Mrs. Cappe displayed in providing for its sustehad too much humility and good sense,
nance and enjoyment. as well as sound philosophy, to sup- would it be irrational or presumptuous pose that a miracle was to be wrought to suppose, even if we had no better for her preservation. Nevertheless, ground than our own unassisted reathe whole of Mr. L.'s subsequent rea- son for the persuasion, that he will soning is founded on this false and much more care for the interests of gratuitous assumption. Or, perhaps, the children of men? Indeed, to suphe really considers every event, which pose otherwise would be to destroy
to every practical purpose the belief * It is scarcely necessary to observe, God over his creatures. If, then, Mr.
in a moral government exercised by that by this term I must be understood L. admits that any cases can be proin this place to mean, uot efficient, but physical causes only; or those antecedent posed in which the welfare or presercircunstances which uniformly and inva- vation of an individual human being riably precede the effect. Of efficient would be not undeserving of the Dicauses, properly and strictly so called, í vine regard, we are entitled, I think, acknowledge but one.
to presume, from the very high but
And if so,