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upon the rich members of a Christian likely that he who shed such a profucongregation the propriety of conde- sion of communications upon the priscension and courtesy to their poorer mitive Christians, as we see somewhat Christian brethren, I'might reason in exeinplified in the first Epistle to the this manner, “Know ye not that your Corinthians, would refuse to guard an poor brethren will sit with Abraham, apostle from error in an useful and Isaac, and Jacob, and Jesus, in ment ?” Surely in an age in which heaven, and if this be their destination, inspiration was communicated so coare they unworthy of your fellowship?" piously-an age in which the words Here would be an argument similar of the prophet Joel, as quoted by to that of the Apostle. Here a claim Peter in Acts ii., were applicable, an to an inferior would be deduced from apostle might expect, and would ex. destination to a superior honour. pect, à communication on every occa

A distinction has been made be- sion in which it would be niseful. tween the reasonings of the apostles Our Lord promised to liis disciples and the doctrines on which they are that the spirit of truth would abide founded; and it has been contended, with them, eis ton aiona. From this that the doctrines may be divine though spirit of truth, then, the apostles the reasoning should be inconclusive. would expect every assistance that Now I admit that the divinity of doc. would be beneficial to them and their trines is independent of the conclu- cause. They would never believe that siveness of reasonings. At the same that spirit would desert them at a time time, however, it appears to me that when they were in danger of making there was a necessity for guarding the mistakes in their reasonings, apostles from error in reasoning as It is true that the apostles do not well as from error in doctrine, " and say that they are divinely inspired, or that, therefore, as whatever was ne- divinely guarded in their reasonings. cessary for the perfection of the Chris- But it was not necessary to say this tian dispensation would not be with in an age in which divine assistance holden from it, we may believe that was so common, and in which divine the apostles were guarded from error assistance on every suitable occasion in their reasonings as well as in their would be taken for granted. Those doctrines. If reasoning was necessary, whom they addressed would take this the conclusiveness of reasoning must for granted, without any special dehave been necessary. A necessity for claration respecting it. reasoning is just the same thing as a

ALIQUIS. necessity for conclusiveness of reasoning, und, therefore, if it was necessary SIR, to was ne

THE

D'Israeli’s Second Series of Cusively. Now, if reasoning had not riosities of Literature. (Vol. I. pp. been necessary, it would never have 65, 66.). Should you be able to give been used. It could be only a neces- the protest of Sir Isaac Newton's, to sity for it that could suggest the adop- which it alludes, entire to your readtion of it.

ers, it would, no doubt, be generally Perhaps, however, it will be said, acceptable.

A PURVEYOR. that the mere statement of the doctrines upon the authority of God was “When the fury of the civil wars sufficient—that reasoning was no fur- had exhaused all parties, and a breathther necessary than as suitable to ing time from the passions and madillustrate them that reasoning was ness of the age allowed ingenious men advantageous rather than necessary, to return once more to their forsaken and that independently of it the bare studies, Bacon's vision of a philosoword of God would have been enough phical society appears to have occuto establish the respective doctrines of pied their reveries. It charmed the Christianity. Well, let the premises fancy of Cowley and Milton ; but the be narrowed, and let it be allowed politics and religion of the times were that reasonings were only useful, not still possessed by the same phrenzy, necessary in the strict sense of the and divinity and politics were unani. word, it may still be asked, " Is it mously agreed to be utterly proscribed

cessary for them to reason concle

. The following morceau is from

OF GENERAL READING.

from their inquiries. On the subject the majority probably wished to pos. of religion they were more particularly sess the Exposition itself; some few alarmed, not only at the time of the I know, who already had the original foundation of the society, but at a work, subscribed for the sake of the much later period, when under the notes. Every subscriber will consider direction of Newton himself. Even himself as perfectly at liberty to withBishop Sprat, their first historian, oh- draw his name if he pleases : it will served, that they have freely ad- not however, be necessary for him to mitted inen of different religions, send ine any intiination on this subcountries and professions of life, not ject. When the new edition appears, to lay the foundation of an English, those who wish for it will be able to Scotch, Irish, Popish or Protestant obtain it, in the regular way, through philosophy, but a philosophy of man- the medium of their respective bookkind.' A curious protest, of the most sellers. illustrious of philosophers, may be

JOHN KENRICK.. found: when the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge' were de- GLEANINGS ; OR, SELECTIONS AND sirous of holding their meetings at the REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE house of the Royal Society, Newton drew up a number of arguments against their admission. One of them

No. CCCCVIII. is, that 'It is a fundamental rule of Napoleon's Estimate of Valne of the Society not to meddle with reli

Time. gion ; and the reason is, that we may All men that have done great things give no occasion to religious bodies to have made much of time. The late meddle with us.' Newton would not Emperor Napoleon was celebrated for even comply with their wishes, lest by punctuality and celerity of moreinent, this compliance the Royal Society and his faithful friend the Count de might dissatisfy those of other reli- las Cases has preserved some anecgions. The wisdom of the protest by dotes illustrative of his rules of conNewton is as admirable as it is re- duct in this particular. markable,-to preserve the Royal So- After having given any one an ciety from the passions of the age.” important mission, or traced out the

plan of any great enterprise, the EmSur,

peror used frequently to say, 'Come, S inquiries are occasionally made Sir, be speedy, use despatch, and do tion of the late Rev. T. Kenrick's Ex- in six days.' position of the Historical Writings of “On an occasion of this kind, he the New Testament, I have to request concluded by observing to the indiyour insertion of the following state- vidual whom he was addressing, ‘ Ask ment. More than two years have now me for whatever you please, except elapsed since the proposals for a new time; that's the only thing that is edition with additional notes were first beyond my power.' circulated, and the number of names “ On another occasion, Napoleon received has been so small that the commissioned a person to execute plan has been renounced as far as some important business, which he concerns the publication of additional expected would be finished in the notes. It is still, however, the wish course of the same day. It was not, of the author's family that the original however, completed until late on the work should be reprinted. This will following day. At this the Emperor be done as speedily as possible, and I manifested some degree of dissatishope that the new edition will be faction; and the individual, in the ready for delivery in the spring. The hope of excusing himself, said that price will be considerably less than he had worked all day. “But had that of the first edition.

you not the night also ? replied NaOf those who kindly gave me their poleon.” names as subscribers to the enlarged Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, Vol. IV. edition which I once contemplated, Pt. 7, p. 242.

A

REVIEW.

“ Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame."-Pope.

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pp. 69.

Arr. I.-A Course of Lectures, con- Now to this statement we cannot

tuining a Description and Syste- subscribe without reserve and explamatic Arrangement of the several nation. That arrangement” may be Branches of Divinity: accompanied the most satisfactory,” or, in other with an Account both of the princi- words, extremely commodious, to the pal Authors, and of the Progress instructor, which is far from being so which has been made at different to the reader or the hearer. For our Periods, in Theological Learning. selves, and on such a theme, we shall By Herbert Marsh, D. D. F. R. S. always prefer the order which best and F. A. S., Lord Bishop of Peter- accords with the nature of the queshorough, and Margaret Professor of tion, which is the fairest, the most, Divinity. Part. VII. On the Au- ingenuous and legitimate, and which thority of the Old Testament, Cam- shall be least exposed to objections bridge : printed by Smith; sold by from the impugners of Revelation. Deightons, &c.; and in London by But, says the Margaret Professor, C. and J. Rivington. 1823. 8vo, and he says, justly, “ the records

which contain the Mosaic and Chris"T

v believe the Christian reli- tian religions, must not be confounded

gion,” says Dr. Hartley, "is with the religions themselves." He to believe that Moses and the prophets,

further reminds us, that “the authoChrist and his apostles, were endued rity of the record which conveys the with divine authority, that they had Christian covenant, may be examined a commission from God to act and without reference to the record which teach as they did, and that he will conveyed the former covenant :” and verify their declarations concerning

hence he would infer, that as the aufuture things, and especially those thenticity and credibility of the New concerning a future life, by the event;

Testament were established by arguor, in other words, it is to receive ments which are wholly independent the Scriptures as our rule of life, and of the Old Testament, so we may the foundation of all our hopes and legitimately

reason from the authority fears.” Cordially assenting to the of the records of the Christian, to the justness and importance of these re authority of the records of the Jewish marks, we are happy that the subject dispensation. (2, 3.) of the Seventh Part of Bishop Marsh's of the two grand divisions of the

We adınit the mutual independence Course of Lectures is “the Authority of the Old Testament:" nor could we Scriptures : yet in the practical aphave objected to its having been made plication of the principle_ we differ the topic of a foregoing set.

from this writer. The Professor's The Professor's thirty-first lecture,

observations prove no more than that begins with a statement of his reasons

we may treat of the evidences of the for treating previously of the authen- authority of the Old and of the eviticity and credibility of the Christian dences of the authority of the New

Testament in an inverted order : but Scriptures :

he does not shew that this arrange“ When we undertake to establish ment ought to be adopted. Since the the authority of different records, the Jewish revelation was of far earlier question, which of them shall be first date than the gospel, its pretensions , submitted to examination, may depend on circumstances unconnected with priority seein to demand a prior examination : of composition: and that arrangement the rather, as the evidence is, for the must always be preferred, which enables most part, historical, and as the aid of us to conduct our proofs in the most sa. chronology must be extremely desiratisfactory manner."-P. 1.

ble, if not, indeed, absolutely requi

site. When a very young pupil is • Observations on Man, &c. Vol. II. introduced to an acquaintance with (1749,) 71, 347, 348.

languages, or with science, there may

VOL. XVIII.

4 G

be no impropriety, but even an advanced by the Bishop of Peterborough, tage, in pursuing a series of instruc- bis difficulty in respect of a definition, tions perfectly unconnected with the would not have been greater than it descent of those languages, or with is at present. It would still have been the periods of the several discoveries incumbent on him to state the meanand inventions of science. Yet in a ing in which he uses certain terms, course of lectures, delivered to an and to have employed no other words academical audience, and laying claim than what agree with the character to the praise of “ systematical ar- and circumstances of the records on rangement,” we might well expect which he lectures. the strictest regard to the order of We cordially wish that he had the Divine dispensations. Here, if judged it consistent with his underany where, we might suppose, that taking to give, in this part of his the “ stream which maketh glad the course, a repetition, or, at least, an city of our God,” would be regularly ample summary, of those arguments traced from its fountain head. We for the authenticity of the Pentateuch, can least of all overlook inattention which he delivered, from the pulpit to this kind of method, when num- of Great St. Mary's Church, more bers of young men are listening to a than thirty years ago, and the pamProfessor of Divinity, with the ex- phlet containing which has deservedly press view of qualifying themselves to reached a third edition. In the same instruct others. Bishop Marsh can

compass, scarcely any topic has been appeal, no doubt, to the example of better discussed. But we must follow eminent men, who have preceded him, in the path which the Professor himas lecturers and writers on the evi- self selects. dences of Judaism and of Christianity: To the greater part of the histori. we, too, should make a counter ap- cal books of the Old Testament the peal, did we place the issue of the term “ authenticity” is inapplicable. question on anthority, rather than on We cannot say, that a book is auprinciple.

thentic, or written by the author to Another reason for his “ beginning whom it is ascribed, 'when the writer with the New Testament (3), is, that of that book is unknown. Now by the proofs of authenticity and credi. whom the several books of Joshua, bility, in reference to individual books, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, and may be conducted more easily and Chronicles were composed, we, unmore intelligibly, than the similar questionably, are ignorant. Neverproofs in regard to the Old Testament.” theless, the term “credibility” is apIn somewhat different language, wri- plicable to them all. Even where we tings of high antiquity, are involved in cannot argue from the known situagreater darkness, with respect to the tion and character of the writer, we composers and occasions of them, may have reason to believe, that the than writings of a later date. This anonymous author wrote under cirmay readily be allowed: but the fact cumstances which enabled him to will not justify the deviation upon acquire a perfect knowledge of the which we have animadverted. Let facts recorded. There is nothing which the books of the Old Testament be more displays the accuracy of an hisexamined on their own ground ; and torian, or excites greater considence we feel not the slightest apprehen- in the truth of his narrative, than sions for the result of the investiga- references to books of authority, as tion: let them be considered in the vouchers for his own history. And order in which they claim to have it is worthy of notice, that such rebeen written ; and we entertain not a ferences occur chiefly, though not doubt of their authority being esta- solely, in the books of the Kings and blished. Had that order been adopt- of the Chronicles, where we are most

at a loss to discover the authors. * This is admirably done in Dr. John The fidelity of the sacred historians Taylor's Scheme of Scripture Divinity, &c., which a late Regius Professor (Bp. Watson) inserted as the first article in some account of a Course of Theological his Collection of Theological Tracts. Instruction, in which this order is ob+ See in Mon. Repos. XI. 406, 407, served.

of the Jews, is attested by the con- be applied.” This authority he finds sideration, that they could have had in the testimony of our Saviour, which no motive to write, as they did, if has been borne, in various ways, to their narratives were false : they have the books of the Old Testament. By not flattered the vanity of their coun- Jesus Christ the Pentateuch was trymen, and as their contemporaries quoted repeatedly, as the work of must have known the character of Moses. Next to the writings of that the ancient records to which those distinguished Lawgiver, he made the historians appealed, so their descend- greatest use of the book of Psalms, ants would not have received their one of which (the

he expressproductions, without a rational con- ly ascribed to David. Tbe fact is the viction of their being credible. same as to the books of Isaiah and of

To all the prophetic books the term Daniel: these he specifically attested. authenticity is applicable without ex. But the greater part of his quotations ception : for each of these books is from the Old Testament were made ascribed, and, we have reason to be without reference to the particular lieve, justly, to a particular author. book, from which the passages were In estimating the credibility of the taken. This mode of quotation was prophetic writings, we should remem- agreeable to the practice of the Jews. ber, that as a history may be true, Whenever he appealed to the Scripthough the author is unknown, so a tures, that is, to the Scriptures of the prophecy may be true, even though Old Testament, he appealed to the it proceeded not from the author to Hebrew Scriptures without distincwhom it is commouly ascribed. Two tion: all of them, as they existed in questions must here be asked : the his time, received the sanction of former, Do the words of the alleged his authority. They were then, as prophecy, according to their plain they are at present, divided, by the and literal meaning, relate to that Jews, into three classes : and this distant event, to which they have threefold arrangement of thein our been subsequently applied ? The se Lord observed; his appeal to them cond, Was that prophecy delivered corresponding with the appeals of so long before the event predicted, as Philo and Josephus. Should it be to place it beyond the reach of human objected, that, according to the Jew. foresight? (4-14.)

ish reckoning, the three classes conWith the Margaret Professor we tained twenty-two books, whereas the think that a prophecy may be literal canonical books of the Hebrews, as and divine, whether it be an authentic arranged in our Bibles, amount to part of the book which contains it, thirty-nine, a slight attention to the or not. There is an obvious impor- manner of computation will convince tance, however, in ascertaining, if we us that the dissonance is only appacan, the name and history of the rent and not real. A difficulty so writer ; for the purpose of better den removed, is converted into a proof. termining on the age and character of (17-31.). the alleged prediction.

Throughout this lecture the MarBishop Marsh concludes his thirty- garet Professor reasons with intellifirst lecture with some very general gence and strength. His argument remarks on the antiquity and nature will be satisfactory to those persons of the remaining books of the Old who, like ourselves, are already perTestament; on Job, the Psalms, Prosuaded of the truth of Christianity. verbs, Ecclesiastes, and Solomon's Nevertheless, for the sake of others, Song.

we should bave preferred his treating In the thirty-second lecture he of the two Revelations in the order of takes a different view of all the Jewish their dates. Scriptures, and considers them not The object of Bishop Marsh's thirindividually, but collectively. To the ty-third lecture, is to prove, that the whole of them he applies the term Hebrew Scriptures which received the “ authority,” which, he observes, sanction of our Saviour, contained the “ may include both authenticity and same books which are now contained in credibility, where both terms are ap- our Hebrew Bibles. Of this identity, plicable, and denote credibility or however, direct historical evidence truth, where the other term cannot cannot, at present, be obtained. Ac

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