Page images

cordingly, the Professor endeavours sephus himself, in a well-known pasto establish the fact by induction ; a sage of his treatise against Apion, mode of reasoning, which, in many though he has not enumerated the instances, is perfectly legitimate, and seventeen books which composed the which is here pursued with consider- two last classes, has given a descripable ingenuity and force. From se- tion of those books; and this descripveral particular propositions he de- tion exactly corresponds with the induces that general proposition which ference deduced from a comparison he sets out with enuntiating : by of his account with Jerom's. To the steps he arrives at the final conclu. third class the book of Proverbs, and sion, that the Hebrew canon in the the book of Ecclesiastes, as well as time of our Saviour was the same the book of Psalms, have been reHebrew canon, which is now repre- ferred by the Jews of every age : to sented by our Hebrew Bibles; and the same class Jerom, in his catathat we have his sanction for every logue of the Hebrew Scriptures, has canonical book of the Old Testament. referred the book of Job and Solo

For this purpose, the learned Pre- mon's Song; though it be probable late attempts to connect the catalogue that by Josephus they were somewhat of the Hebrew Scriptures, which Je- differently arranged. Nor is it a sorom has given in his Prologus gale- lid objection against the accuracy of atus, with the account which Jose- this reasoning, that later Jews have phus has given of those Scriptures, referred to the third class various in his treatise against Apion. Jerom, books, which are here referred to the like Josephus, divides them into three second class of Josephus; the remoclasses, which he calls, the Law, the val of such books from the class in Prophets, and the Hagiographa. He which they were originally placed has further enumerated the several being well explained by history. books of which each class consisted : The Margaret Professor's concluand it appears from this enumeration, sions are, that the Hebrew Scriptures that the books which were then con- which received the sanction of our tained in the Hebrew Bible, were the Saviour were the same Hebrew Scripsame books which are noro contained tures which were kuown to Josephus ; in it. In regard to the first class, that they contained the same books or the Pentateuch, the enumeration which were enumerated by Jerom, made respectively by Josephus and by and still constitute our Hebrew BiJerom, is, beyond dispute, the same. bles; and that the authority of the The only difficulty which attends the Old Testament, according to the cacomparison of their accounts, is that pon of the English church, though which relates to the two other classes. not according to the canon of the Yet, if we take those two classes to- church of Rome, rests upon a basis gether, both writers agree as to the which cannot be shaken. We recomtotal number of the books comprised mend his argument to the careful in them: and the sole difference con- attention of students in theology and sists in the partition* of the books in logic. (31-50.) between the two classes. Now, as Of his thirty-fourth lecture the obwe know that the Jews have been ject is to establish the integrity of gradually augmenting the number of the Hebrew Bible, to shew that the books in the third class, by a pro- books which compose it have descendportionate diminution of the numbered to the present age without material in the second, we need not wonder alteration. With this view, he diif the third class, which in the first vides his inquiries into two periods ; century contained only four books, the one extending from the time of contained nine at the end of the fourth Moses to that of our Saviour, the century, and that the books of the other extending from the time of our second class had been proportionally Saviour to this day.. Here he makes reduced from thirteen to eight. Jo- a very fair and judicious use of several

historical facts: nor, in any part of

his reasoning, is he more successful We employ this word, in preference than in his proofs that the Jews have to Bishop M.'s repartition, which is a French, and uot an English, noun.

not wilfully corrupted their Scriptures. As a specimen of his manner

of arguing, two extracts shall be laid Reverend Prelate should be silent conbefore our readers :

cerning Sir Isaac Newton,* H. Owen, “ The authentic books of Ezra and Graves, &c., the arguments of some Nehemiah afford us no reason to supo others he impugns! He will not do

of whom he adopts, while those of pose, that the law of Moses had been so destroyed, as is represented in that apo- justice to his subject and to himself, cryphal book, called the second book of unless, in a subsequent part, he treat Esdras (xiv. 21). From the eighth chap. of the Hebrew Scriptures in detail. ter of Nehemiah it is evident, that the Generally speaking, his style is book of the law (whether the Temple. pure as well as clear. In p. 65, howcopy or not) was preserved during the ever, he uses the word operate in an period of the Babylonish Captivity. For unwarrantable, that is in a transitive when the worship of God was restored at Jerusalem, they spake unto Ezra the

signification. scribe, to bring ihe book of the law of Moses, which the Lord had commanded to Art. II.— The Claims of the Clergy Israel. Aud Ezra the priest brought the to Tithes and other Church Rerelaw before the congregation.' Nehemiah nues, so far as they are founded on viii. 1, 2. The prophet Daniel must the Political Expediency of supalso have had a copy of the law, for he

porting such a Body; on Divine appealed to it, and quoted it. Daniel ix.

Right; on History; or on the No13."-Pp. 57, 58.

tion of Unalienable Property, ex

amined. 8vo. pp. 40. Liverpool the charge of corrupting the

printed; sold by Hunter, &c., LonHebrew Scriptures, though it has been

don. 1823. repeated in modern times, had its origin in the ignorance of those who introduced THE question of " Church Reveit. The Greek and Latin Fathers were for the most partuuacquainted with more interesting, and it is extremely Hebrew, though Origeo and Jerom were desirable that the public should be in illustrious exceptions. The Greek Fa possession of full information upon thers quoted from the Septuagint; the the subject. The author of this pamLatin Fathers from the Latin version, phlet has done his part towards this They had no Latin translation from the great object, under the persuasion that Hebrew till the time of Jerom : and even how much soever the fear of change, his translation was not immediately attachment to custom, respect for inadopted as the authorised version of the dividuals and motives of personal inLatin church."-P. 64.

terest may retard the progress of opi

nion, truth, justice and public good Even theological students, who are will finally prevail

, and it must be of considerable standing, inay read honourable to be, in whatever degree, with great pleasure and advantage an instrument in promoting them. this part of Bishop Marsh's lectures. (P. 40.) To young men who are preparing The subject is treated in this pamthemselves for the exercise of the phlet under the four heads of—The Christian ministry it will be espe- expediency of a publicly endowed cially and highly useful. At the same clergy; the divine right of tithes; the time, it has obvious defects. Of these history of Christian tithes; and the not the least is the arrangement. The right to tithes as being the property order and the method of proof which of the church. These are arguedably, a well - informed Jew would pursue and boldly argued, and the writer's in laying before the world the evi, conclusions are, that an established dences of the authority of his sacred church is unnecessary, unchristian, books, are what the Margaret Pro- and of injurious influence; that the fessor ought, on every account, to claim of tithes universally, as by dihave preferred. Another glaring im- vine right, is the imposition of priestperfection (we have formerly com- craft on ignorance and superstition; plained of it), is the extreme scanti, that the history of the Christian Church ness of reference to “ the principal proves that tithes belong, if to any authors” on this branch of divinity. How strange that, in the pulpit of the University of Cambridge, the Right • On the Prophecies, Part I. Ch. i.

body, to the poor ; and that the pre- his owu acknowledgment, this owner and sent right of the clergy in tithes is all others (or rather their tenants) were at created, and may be destroyed by an that time obliged by law and custom to pay act of the Legislature.

tithes, though they might then pay them Some remarks are made in the pam- that William de Walley ouly provided for

to what religious house they pleased ; so phlet on the publications of the Rev. the tithes he could not help paying, being Aug. Campbell, Rector of Wallasey, made useful to his own estate. The the champion of tithes," and trusting, glebe fields only he gave freely

out of his as we confidently do, in the quotations own property to the church. This glebe, here made, we cannot but be surprised and all other church lauds which have at the frankness and courage of that been given by their owners in former divine. He is said to have called on times, certainly do not belong to the dethe Gentlemen of England, in a recent

scendants of those owners; but before work addressed to them, * (p. 26,) to

we decide that they do belong to the support tithes for the purpose of present clergy, beyond the just controul

keeping sixteen or seventeen mils of the Legislature, we must consider a lions of RAGAMuffins in order, by little the nature of the gift. The owners the awful terrors of an invisible gave these lands, as any other lands are

left iu charity, for certain special parworld." Again, this Christian minis

poses. Now amongst these purposes was ter is represented (p. 39 of this pam- ihe support of the poor; for the lands phlet, Note,) as saying in his Appeal, were all given before the support of the p. 15, “ It is for iheir dinners that I poor out of the parochial income had wish to interest some of the Gentlemen ceased: and farther, these lands were of England: when the people have given with an inımediate view to the supemancipated themselves from the ty- port of the ceremonies and worship of the ranny of the priests, is it to be sup- corrupt Catholic Church of the dark ages, posed that they will submit to the

on the performance of which the girers tyranny of the game-laws ?

relied for salvation; and, therefore, since

Mr. Campbell' is right: tithes and game are the rites performed which the girers

neither the poor are now sharers, por laws stand on the same ground, that deemed necessary, the present holders ground not justice; and when the peo- cannot certainly found their right on the ple have rid themselves of one of these original gift. All the lands of the church abuses of power, they will not be very were given to the Roman Catholic Church, patient under the other.

and the kind of right by which they are Our anonymous author (known, now held is, that that church ceasing to however, to us, and not unknown, be the religion of the country, and being under his real name to the religious discountenauced by the Legislature, its public) thus satisfactorily disposes of forfeited possessions were given by Parlione of this plain-spoken' clergyman's ament, that is, by the public, to the prearguments for church-property :

sent establishment ; aod the same publie

may differently appropriate them by the “ That zealous advocate of tithes, the same right whenerer it shall seem expen Rev. Augustus Canspbell, in his · Appeal dient. Church lands are precisely in the to the Gentlemen of England,' seems

same situatiou with estates left for a disposed to rest the right to tithes as, charitable parpose which would now be property on the gift of King Ethelwulph; thought absurd, or cannot be fulfilled, but in a previous pamphlet (“The Rights and which estates are, therefore, applied of the English Clergy asserted') he seems to some other useful purpose, to be deto prefer resting it on the gifts of indivi. termined by the proper authorities : dor duals in later times : as an example he can any one doubt, but that in such a brings forward the case of his own parish, case as that now before us, the only right Wallasey, in the county of Chester, which authority is vested in Parliament. Whathe says was endowed by a certain Wil. ever right, either to tithes or estates, is liam de Walley, before the year 1182, founded on their being the gifts of indiwith the title and glebe, and he wishes viduals, is unsatisfactory; because the to know what possible right the people gifts are not employed as originally incan have to what an ancient owner gave tended, and because the public have alto the church? According, however, to ready interfered to alter their destina

tion; so that the present Church of

England holds its property merely by act .“ Appeal to the Gentlemen of En- of Parliament, and it is no more secure gland in behalf of the Church of En- from reformation or abolition by the pub. gland."

lic will, than any other of the pablie

institutions of the country: it has no of their own; for unless the most untepretensions whatever to a right similar stable and gloomy doctrines of orthodoxy to that of private property; and the cry be first admitted as true; such an atone. against the violation of property raised, ment was never needed by man, nor could whenever its reformation is proposed, is have been accepted by God. It is little vo more thau the cant of an interested better than sophistry, therefore, to charge party.”—Pp. 31–33.

our representation of Christianity 'with being defective, because it contains no

reniedy for an evil which, if this repreArt. III.—Zeal for the Revival and sensation be correct, never existed. The

Diffusion of Pure Christian Truth, truth, we humbly presume, is, that our a Duty arising from Belief in its brethren, by their misinterpretation of Divine Authority. A Sermon, the Sacred Writings, first plunge the preached at the Unitarian Chapel, whole human race into an imaginary in Parliament Court, Artillery abyss of guilt and woe; and next, by Lane, London, on Wednesday, May

further misinterpretation, discover an 21, 1823, before the Supporters and imaginary method of delivering some few

out of this abyss, which they then call Friends of the Unitarian Fund,

upon us to admire as a peculiar excelBy Henry Acton. 12mo. pp. 32. lence of their system. . 'They first, by Hunter; Eaton ; and Fox and Co. their own vain imaginings, cast over THIS is an able and judicious the whole face of human existence a thick

argumentative discourse. The darkness, which shuts out every ray of proposition which forms its title is hope from the bosom of man, and then deduced from 1 Thess. ii. 13, and is reproach us that we have no doctrine amplified in the following remarks : gloom which they themselves have cre

purposely revealed to dispel the withering “ 1. That since Christian truth is the ated. But for every moral and spiritual word of God, the more nearly that it want with which man really becomes acshall be professed in its genuine pu- quainted from nature or from revelation, rity, the greater, 'we are bound to assuredly Unitarian Christianity affords a believe, will be its efficacy in answer. sweet and abundant supply. To the peing the important purposes of Divine bitent sioner it poiuts out

a sure way by Providence.” “ 2. Christian truth, which he may attain to the forgiveness being the word of God, is undoubtedly and favour of God, and this in a pathi of infinite value to all mankind, and expressly consecrated for the purpose by essentially conducive to their highest

the mercy of Heaven, even in the broad moral improvement and happiness." them that be slow to the practice of vir

way of repentance and reformation. To “ 3. From our conviction that Chris- tue and piety, it brings all the pleasing tian truth is the word of God, we have and all the awful motives to righteousgood reason to anticipate its generaluess, arising from the great themes of diffusion in the world.” “4. Per· future judgment, eternity and the Divine súaded that Christian truth is the word favour. To the mouruing children of of God, we must hold ourselves bound affliction it affords an inexhaustible foun. to receive it as a sacred trust, coin

tain of consolation and peace, by giving mitted to us not for our own benefit them faith in the coustant providence of only, but that we may do all in our

a heavenly Father, whose dispensations power to dispense its heavenly truths are all mercy and truth. To them whose abroad.”

eyes are closing in the darkness of death,

it reveals the light of life and immorta. Under the second head, the preach- lity. And if men have been brought to er thus vindicates “the efficacy of suppose that they need any thing of relithe simple doctrines of the gospel :" gion further than this, they are misled

“ Our particular views, indeed, have by false views of their own condition, or been commonly denounced by our Trini- of the character and government of God.” tarian brethren as being wholly deficient-Pp. 17, 18. in moral value, especially because they In the following passage, Mr. Acton make us acquainted with no atonement makes an animated appeal to the exfor the supposed original and infinite perience of the church, in confirmation guilt of our fallen nature, without which of his third remark : atonement, it is said, we can have no sure hope of the mercy and favour of “ And has not Christianity, in the God. But this is plainly nothing less triumphs which it has already effected, than to raise an objection to our views given us a glorious pledge of its future upon a gratuitous assumption of the truth conquests? The Heathen are fast be

[ocr errors]


coming the inheritance of the Son of God, congregations in the celebrating of and the uttermost parts of the earth have that truly Christian, but too much long been his possessiou. Some Bel or neglected rite, have long been a deNebo of idolatry is daily compelled to sideratum among Unitarians ; and the bow down at the rising of the Sun of body is, we think, obliged to Mr. FulRighteousness, and to stoop .his proud lagar, for having endeavoured to supforehead to the very dust at the proclamation of the gospel. The many cor- ply this deficiency. For the observance ruptions that have so long impeded the of this institution, Mr. F. appears to march of Christian truth, are giving way be a strenuous advocate. In his Prebefore the influence of extended inquiry; face he says, and as the vain traditions of men pass on, “ It is possible, that, without being one after another, to that grave of obli- aware of it, I may attach more than proviou from which they shall experience no per importance to it, from my feeling, resurrection, the pure Christiau religion what some may regard, an undue precontinues gradually to assume in the eyes ference for revelation over natural reliof men that form of heavenly beauty and gion. The more I reflect on the subject, splendour by which it shall finally capti. the more am I convinced that the advate all minds, and establish its righteous mirers of the latter owe their knowledge dominion in every heart.”—Pp. 27, 28. of the Deity, and of human duty and The preacher concludes this unpre

expectations, almost entirely to the for

The natural man receiveth not the tending, but interesting and excellent things of the spirit of God; for they are sermon, with modestly, stating the foolishness unto him; neither can he knou ground of the Christian duty which he them, because they are spiritually disrecommends :

cerned." “ Persuaded that, in the course of

The Addresses contain a great vaDivine Providence, it has fallen to our riety of sentiment and remark. Suitlot, owing to the wise dispensations of able prayers are subjoined to them, God, and not to any merit of our own, breathing a highly devotional spirit, to be favoured with more correct views and also hymns, which are judiciously of Christian truth than generally prevail, selected. We certainly would recomwe shall feel that we are discharging at mend this publication to those socieonce a duty of piety and a duty of bene- ties among us, where recourse is freutmost means for diffusing this truth and quently had to lay-preachers ; for we its attendant blessings.”—Pp. 32.

see no reason why such persons should We cannot dismiss our brief notice do not know that we can urge upon

not administer the ordinance, and we of Mr. Acton's sermon without expressing the conviction which we have forcibly than by the description of it,

congregations to attend to it more felt in perusing it, that in the new contained in the third service : and important charge which, in the course of Providence, he has been

“ This ordinance recalls to our minds called to undertake, that of one of all that Jesus did, all that he suffered for the ministers of the respectable Uni- us, and thereby teuds to awaken our gratarian congregation at Exeter, he will to fix our obedience to his precepts. In

titude, to fan our love, and consequently, be eminently useful in maintaining sitting around this board we appear not and promoting the cause of Christian like the Corinthians, to drink or to riot truth.

to excess : we come uot like the Catho.

lic to partake of a wafer disgraced by Art. IV.--Six Addresses, adapted to priestly munmery: we are not come to the Ordinance of the Lord's Supper. not come to weaken our minds by mys

indulge our lusts or our palate : we are By John Fullagar, Minister of the tery, or to make our appearance bere Unitarian Chapel, Chichester. Hun

our passport to worldly emolument: neiter and Eaton.

ther do we come, as some of our DissentTE feel some apology to be al. ing. brethren, with the idea that the most necessary to the worthy

individual brought to our midds by this author of this unassuming but useful ordinance was ordained to receive the publication, and indeed also to the weight of the vengeance of an infuriated public, for having delayed the notice we come, as Unitariaus, to dwell for a

God, hurled against our devoted heads. of it so long. Addresses adapted to while in grateful meditation on the love the Lord's Supper, to assist small of our heavenly Father, who remembered


« PreviousContinue »