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capable of a more elevated range in in- angels, that their punishment is the tellectual and moral attainments than same : indeed, many of the goats were human beings, they must of course be themselves the angels of Diabolos, or the proportionably more culpable in the ne. Roman civil power. But, it leing the glect and abandonment of them than punishment of human beings and for a human beings can be. For these super- part of their conduct only, both the re. human beings, and such beings as are ward and the punishment must be of a included under the term goats, to be temporary nature. The sheep would be consigned to the same degree or kind of protected and preserved amidst the dread. punishment would, therefore, be manifest ful havoc, devastation and unparalleled injustice. And God, we know, cannot barbarities of these times, while the other be unjust. The punishment, too, is said two parties, Diaboloz and his angels, to consist of fire ; can spirits he acted would miserably suffer during those hor. upon by fire? Does fire appear to be a rible conflicts."-Pp. 125–129. punishment equally congenial to such
The Lecturer seems to be fully heaven-born spirits and 10 mortals ? “ There is another consideration which
aware that his explanation of the apstrongly militates agaiust the opinion of pellation Devil, in John viii. 44, (the our Lord's referring in this passage to
text of the VIIth Lect.,) as referring the day of general judgment or retribu- to the Sanhedrim, will appear harsh tion. It is not the general conduct of to his hearers, and therefore he takes the whole lives of the sheep, which is the great pains in its vindication. How object of reward in the parable. The far he has been successful, we will not reward is confined to the exercise of undertake to say; but we acknowthose virtues only, which led them to ledge that there is great weight in succour, to relieve, and to protect, such some of his critical remarks : e. g. disciples of Christ as they knew to be in sickness or distress, or persecuted. It “ When Jesus, therefore, tells the was, the exercise of particular virtues Pharisees in the text, that Diabolos was towards a particular class of men, and in their father, who had been a murderer a particular situation. It was not the from the beginning, he repeats what he general tenor of their conduct, in all the had said before, that they were seeking relations and duties of life, which was some plausible pretext for taking his life. then to be the subject of investigation; in doing this, they were the active and it cannot, therefore, include the future faithful spies of their employers, the Jew. general day of judgment or retribution, ish rulers : ' Ye are the willing perpebut refers to a reward for the discharge trators of their machinations, whose of certain specified and peculiar virtues, intention has been murder from the be. arising out of peculiar circumstances. ginning of my ministry among you.' CouThe punishment awarded is considered sidering all the malicious lies which these only as that of certain specified parts of Pharisees propagated concerning bim, as their conduct who were to be punished. originating with the Jewish rulers, as a They had neglected to practise certain body, he here calls them liars, and hesivirtues, which they ought to have prac- tates not to declare his belief that they tised towards those of their own nation ; were the father of them, agreeably to they had wilfully omitted certain duties the sense in which the term father is which, as men and as fellow-worshipers frequently used in the Hebrew Scriptures. of the same God, they ought to have Thus Jabal, who projected the plan of exercised towards their country-men; having moveable dwellings, for the greater and for this part of their couduct and no convenience of attending their Bocks, is other was their punishment assigned to called the father of such as live in tents. them. This punishment was to be the (Gen. iv. 20.) His brother Jubal, who saine as had been prepared for Diabolos was the inventor of string and wind maand his angels : this Diabolos and his sical instruments, is called the father of messengers, therefore, must have been the harp and the organ (rer. 21). Joguilty of siınilar crimes, or else their pu. seph, (chap. xlv. 8,) who by his judicious nishment would not have been similar administration of the governinent of Diabolos, the common adversary of the Egypt, had raised it to great prosperity, Jews and Christiaus, had greatly perse. tells his brothers that God had made him cuted and oppressed the latter, ihrough a father to Pharaoh. Job, who kuew the the instrumentality of his angels, who value and blessing of rain and dew, speaks were continually seeking them as objects or God as the father of them. (Chap. of their fury and hatred. The conduct xsxviii. 28.) And Huram is called the of the goats towards the Christians, for father of Hiram, king of Tyre, (2 Chron. this is the specified point of offence, is ii. 13.) because he was the best workman, so similar to that of Diabolos and his in bis dominions, in brass and copper. This same person is also called the father his father also is a liar.'. The Pharisees of Solomon, (chap. iv. 16,) because the in conjunction with their rulers, were the king of Tyre sent him to Solomon, to determined opposers, from the beginning, fabricate for hin, in those branches, the of Christ and his doctrine ; and they vessels and ornamental parts of the Tem. would not believe him, although he so ple. Thus, the Sanhedrim was the father repeatedly declared that he told Then the the fabricator of all the malicious truth, and the truth from God, appealing falsehoods circulated concerning Jesus ; to the testimony which God bore to him the father-the source of all the opposi- by the miracles which he enabled him to rion which bad been made to the truth. perform.”—Pp. 145–147. When any of the Pharisees uttered these Jies, Jesus tells them, they only spoke in
The VIIIth Lect. is upon the use of character, as closely connected with the the word Devil in the Epistles; the rulers, the father and origin of all: following is the scheme of interpreta* When any oue speaketh a lie, he speak- tion here adopted : eth according to his own kindred; for
“ This term is used eight times by Paul :
slanderers. 2 Tim. ii. 26,
false accusers. Titus ii. 3,
pride and revenge.
We think our author peculiarly un- the Jewish Sanhedrim acting under happy in his exposition of Heb. ii. the sanction of the Roman Govern14. Heathenisin” might by a per- ment. Paul is said to refer, in Ephes. sonification be styled the Devil, the ii. 2, under the phrase “ Prince of Accuser or Tempter; but in what the power of the air," to some fanci. scose could Heathenism be said to ful being in the theory of the Gnoshave the power of death” ? A tics, against whom he is writing; writer to the Hebrews was not likely and in 2 Cor. iv. 4, under the phrase to expatiate upon the deliverance of God of this world,” or age, to the the Gentiles from their bondage and idolatry of the Heathens. We quote fear, and verse 16th of the chapter at length the remarks upon some expressly confines his reasoning to other supposed appellatives of the « the seed of Abraham.” There is Evil Spirit in the Apocalypse : evidence in the passage itself that
“ 'The eleventh verse of the ninth the Devil, as he is cominonly conceived, is not and cannot be intended ; (Revelation) is said to be prolific in its
chapter of the book of the Revelations," this Mr. Scott satisfactorily shews : supply of names for the Devil, having no but the whole and true sense does less than three ; the Angel of the botnot appear to us to have been yet tomless pit," • Abaddon,' and ' Apollyon.' discovered. Can the writer inean by John does not say the pit is bottomless ; the Accuser, who had the power of he calls it. the pit of deepness,' as Wickdeath, the Law, agreeably to John liff translates the word abuore. The pit v. 45, and Rom. vi. 13 and 20? or is on the earth, since the star, or mesdoes he refer to some Jewish hypo- senger of heaven, came to the earth, and thesis or fable which is not pre- It could not be hell, as its inhabitants
had the key given him to open this pit. served ? Lect. IX. einbraces the explana
are said to be confined there in adation of other expressions in the New mantiue chains, whereas these were let
out for five months. The inhabitants of Testament besides the Devil and Satan this visionary pit were the enemies of the which are supposed to refer to a gospel, and are represented under the inighty evil Spirit. “ The Prince of this world,” in John xii. 31, (the text of this Lecture,) is explained of . Wakefield's trapslation,
emblem of locusts; a very appropriate nace; but that it resembled a smoke emblem of the enemies and persecutors from a great furnace. The vision cou. of the primitive Christians, for it is a tained in the twelve first verses of this mnost destructive insect ; hence, the leader chapter appears to me to refer only 10 has the name of Abaddon, or Apollyon, some severe, though not a loug persecugiven him, for they both mean a destroy- tion of the Christians, since John coner ; indeed, the one is merely a transla- cludes it by saying, the first woe was tion of the other. In Judges, chap. vi. 3, over, and it had continued only fire we read, that 'the Midianites, the Ama- months ; 'Behold! two more are yet to lekites, and other eastern nations,' i. e. come.' No such superhuman, malerothe various Arab tribes, came against lent spirit, as the advocates of the Devil the Israelites, encampiug on their terri- believe him to be, is described in this, tory, ravaging the whole produce of the or in any other of the visions of Joha." ground, as far as Gaza, leaving them nei. -Pp. 193–196. ther provisions, flocks nor herds. They came with their cattle and their tents, Scott examines five passages of this
In concluding this Lecture, Mr. like a multitude of locusts without number, laying waste the land.' The prophet book in which the term Diabolos or Joel (ii. 3—5) speaks of the locusts, and Devil occurs, and contends that in describes the devastation they make in all of them none but a human adverthe following expressive language : Be- 'sary upon earth is meant ; a position fore them the land is as the garden of which will scarcely be disputed by Eden, and behind them a desolate wil. any who have inquired into the sense derness. He compares them to the of the Apocalypse and endeavoured! appearance of horses, and like horsemen
to find a clue to guide the mind they run ; their leap is like the sound of through this labyrinth of oriental chariots on the tops of the mountains, vision and Jewish allegory. and like the sound of a flame of fire, which devoureth stubble. After giving
[To be continued.) a further account of them, which, in many respects, resembles those mentioned by John, and of their rapid, irregular, Art. II. - The Mutuul Relation of destructive and overwhelming march, he the Unity of God and the Humasays, 'Before them the sun and the moon nity of Christ, as Doctrines of the are darkened, and the stars withdraw Gospel: a Sermon, preached July their shining. These locusts are used 9, 1823, at Bristol, before the Sofiguratively to denote the misery, distress ciety of Unitarian Christians, esand ruin, occasioned by an irresistible tablished in the West of England, attack of a numerous host of enemies. This king of the locusts and his subjects
for promoting Christian Knowwere not, however, utterly to destroy
ledge and the Practice of Virtue, Christianity, nor to consign those who
by the Distribution of Books. By
John Kentish. embraced it to the eternity of hell tor
12mo. ments, which, as the king of hell, he Birmingham, printed and sold by would have done had he been the Devil ; J. Belcher and Son; sold also by but to harass and persecute the Christians R. Hunter, London. for a limited time-five months ; upon [has been answers to the time that locusts generally make their appearance and commit their judicious and candid advocate of Unidepredations—from the beginning of April tarian Christianity, and the present to the end of August. To whatever, discourse lays the denomination in therefore, John referred by this deep pit, which he occupies an important stathis abyss, he could not intend to desig- tion under new obligations to hitn. nate by'it the future abode of the wicked, The Unity of God and the Humanity nor the residence of the Devil, as must of Christ have been often well as. appear from the nature of the inhabitants serted and satisfactorily proved from of this pit; who were, probably, from the Scriptures ; but we know of no the description of the locusts, military sermon or treatise in which “ the men, employed in the work of persecu- mutual relation” of these principles tion and death.
“Smoke, in the language of Scrip- as “. doctrines of the gospel" is so ture, does not necessarily imply the pre. concisely stated and argued, and so sence of fire, as its cause, (see Deut. clearly established as in the present xxix. 30; Psalm xviii. 7, 8, lxxiv. 1, discourse. It adds to the merit of civ. 32, cxliv. 5): nor does John inti. the Sermon that the whole argument mate that the smoke arose from a fure is deduced from and supported by
the text. On this account, as well and destroyed the reigning polytheism, as from its temperate language and by disclosing not only one eternal charitable spirit, and from the prac
God,' the sole Lord of nature and Obtical use made of the argument, this ject of prayer, but one mediator, the discourse may be recommended to
man Christ Jesus;' his rank being strictly
human, while his mission was divine and young preachers as a model of controversial sermons.
his endowments were supernatural. Here The text, already referred to, is you discover a key to the apostolic state1 Tim. ii. 5, which lays down in the Timothy, you will recollect, was now at
ment, upon which I am discoursing. plainest terins the two doctrines main. Ephesus, the metropolis of idolatry for a tained by the preacher; the Unity of large tract of Asia : * in writing to him, God and the humanity of Christ. his venerable friend virtually addressed The union of these truths, in the the inhabitants of that city. "To the original system of Christianity, Mr. Ephesians he represents the unity of the Kentish shews, 1. presented a bar- Creator. Yet, seasonable and important rier against Heathen idolatry. 2. It
as was the lesson, there is one God,' was opposed to a species of grossly something more was requisite as a remedy erroneous worship, of which Christi- and antidote of dæmon worship, and, ans were even at that time in danger, between God and men.' But who was
therefore, it is added, “and one mediator and which prevailed afterwards in the this mediator ? Not a deified human apostate church. And, 3, it was re- being, a demigod, or a hero; not, to quisite for the developement of the borrow the language of the same import, extensive plan of redemption by yet proceeding from a much later school, Christ, as well as, 4, for the promul. au incarnate divinity, or a god-man, but gation, stability and moral triumphs simply the man Christ Jesus. Had of the doctrine of the Cross.
Paul contented himself with asserting Under the first head are the fol. the unity of the Supreme Being, the case lowing judicious and instructive re
of dæions, and of the religious services anarks :
paid to them, would have been left un
touched. If, again, he had only atfirmed, “ Heathen idolatry begun in assigning there is one mediator,' this assertion, to the one God’ subordinate agents, however pertinent and momentous, bad, who first shared in the worship presented in like manner, been insuflicient; since to him, and afterwards engrossed it. he would have passed in silence the docSuch were the deified men of antiquity, or trine of one God, nor even intimated an its dæmons : I employ the term by which opinion with regard to the superior dei. Paul characterizes them, in his speech at ties of the Pagan world. As it is, he Athens, and with which the title lords' aims a deadly blow at the Gentile superis synonymous. For these, astonishing to stition, by statiug what was directly and relate! altars blazed and temples were completely to his purpose. He combines erected. To the notions, whether right tenets, which, in reason, cannot be disor wrong, entertained of dæmons by the joined, and the mutual union of which later Gentiles the statement there is one is everlasting. To the enlightened Chrisgoediator between God and men, the man tian it must always be a subject of the Christ Jesus' very pointedly applies. The most gratifying reflection, that, delivered dæmons of our Saviour's age, were hu- from the darkness of Heathen idolatry, man beings, exalted, on some account, he adores a single and a spiritual Being ; after their decease, to a sort of middle and this in the name of the one mediarank between earth and heaven, between tor,' the Great Revealer of his will, to mänkind and the primary divinities, of whom the Universal Father has entrusted whom they were regarded as the media commissious and powers unspeakably surtors, or instruments, in transacting mor- passing in dignity those bestowed on any tal affairs. It was a sentiment fruitful other individual of our race, and, as far iu error, and even in crime; being often as we are informed, of any creature, of productive of the most vicious and de- any order."— Pp. 11-15. basing homage-as in much later times it has been of many a superstitious prac
The preacher makes a happy use tice and fancy. Since it could only be of his text, in reference to his arguchecked by means of sensible miracles, ment, under the second head: it demanded the controul of revealed “ A little leaven leaveneth the whole religion. Much had been done under the lump. The accumulation and the estaJewish dispensation to weaken iis power : blishment of gigantic errors, are the work far more was effected by the progress of the spiritual worship and holy doctrine inculcated in the gospel, which subverted
• Acts xix, 26, 31.
of Time. If a capital article of Revela- or of keeping either out of sight."—Pp. tion be in any degree corrupted, we may 21-24. justly fear, that the corruption will ex.
He sums up in the following ob. tend, in the same measure, to some other revealed tenets ; especially should the servations, the argument from the two propositions relate severally to God language of Paul, under the third and Christ. I evtreat you to read again
head: Paul's memorable statement. How de- “Let us pause, my brethren, and look void is it of obscurity; how entire a cou back, for a moment, on the train of his trast with werely human creeds, terms thoughts and reasoning. Christianity is and phrases ! We, iny brethren, I speak designed to be the religion of nen of without hesitation, we, and they whose every tongue and kindred. Our common adoration is directed as ours is, are the Maker and Father will have all of them only persons in the Christian world, who to be saved, and to come unto the knowcau employ this lauguage, as the apostle ledge of the truth. To illustrate and employed it, literally and verbally, with- establish this proposition, Paul alleges out the smallest niental additiou or re- the Unity of God and the Humanity of serve. The distinction made between the our Lord. The force theu of ibe writer's Beings whose deeply interesting names argument, depends on the literal, unreare introduced, is the clearest which can served acceptation of his words, on God's be conceived. They are distinguished, in being strictly Onli, on the mediator's respect of the nature of each, as God being absolutely man. His lauguage, and man : they are distinguished, with again, must be interpreted by facts, not regard to their characters under the gos- by an arbitrary bypothesis ; by its coupel, as the fountain and the channel of text, not by the creeds of later agesall spiritual blessings in heaveuly places. and it is conclusire no less against erery Add to these clauses, or take any thing theological system, which destroys or froin them, and you are instantly lost in impairs the paternal character of the a labyrinth of error : you exchange apos. Deity, thau against the doctrines of a tolic simplicity for the dialect of the conjunction of vatures in Jesus Christ schools. Receive the words without a
and a plurality of persons in the God. gloss : adhere to thew strictly, in your head. If the Gospel be glad tidings of speculations and your practice, and you great joy for all people, it is because will neither exhibit nor countenance any there is, without any qualification, approach to idolatrous devotion. If there
one God, and one Mediator-the man be one God,' and the Messiah be dis. Christ Jesus.' Thus, the argument for criminated from himn as the man Christ
the Divine Uuity, from the Scriptures, Jesus,' it is evident that Deity belongs
and, I humbly think, that from creation, not to the Lord of Christians in any of goes further than to “ an unity of counthe modifications or qualifications with sel :'it establishes an unity of PERSON." which some hold that he is of diviue —Pp. 35,
36. rauk : it is equally certain that he cannot be the just object of religious homage.
The nutnal relation of the tenets From the declaration that he is a humau here asserted is shewn, in the last being, it, again, follows undeniably, that lead, to be proved by the instruction, he is not a pre-existent spirit ; and thus comfort and hope, wbich they jointly the uuity of the Great Supreme is still impart to the sons of men. They further guarded. Were Jesus a super- represent God as a Father, and the human or angelic spirit ; were he, under Mediator as a brother. Christ's sameGod, the Creator of the world; were be, ness of nature to man in general is though inferior to the Father, yet, ju the ground of his compassion for some way, uudetined and incxplicable, mankind; it makes him a fit pattern of identical glory with him, how casily of duty and reward; it constitutes and insensibly would men heuce be led to ascribe to our Saviour essential Deity, his resurrectiou a pledge of the genethe very nature that he disclaimed, the ral resurrection ; and it qualifies him very honours that he prohibited! The to be the Judge of quick and dead. inind that duly reflects ou the iustructions In applying his discourse to the of Scripture, and ou thc analogy and occasion of the meeting, Mr. Kentish course of Providence, finds no resting. takes a brief review of the history of place, in its meditations upon the Au. the Western Unitarian Society, and ihor of the blessings of the Gospel, and presents an animated picture of the the instrument of communicating them, triumphs of Christian truth, at home from the one God' 10 the 'mas Christ and abroad. He then proceeds and Jesus :' and Paul writes, as though he beheld with a prophetic eye the sad efect
concludes, of mutually separating those doctrines, " Why, my brethren, do I remind you