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See there the olive


of Academe, Plato's retirement, where the Attic bird 245 Trills her thick-warbled notes the summer long; There flow'ry hill Hymettus with the found Of bees industrious murmur oft invites


rere verum :

the life of Plato. The Academy is Improba Cecropias offendit pica always described as a woody shady querelas. place, as here in Laertius, and in

Ludovicus de la Cerda in his notes Horace, Ep. II. II. 45.

upon Virgil observes, how often Atque inter sylvas Academi quæ- the comparison of the nightingale ;

the ancient poets have made use of

Sophocles has it no less than seven but Milton distinguishes it by the times, Homer twice, and Euripides

and several others : and we ob. particular name of the olive


served of Academe, for the olive was par- much Milton was delighted with


the Paradise Lost, how ticularly cultivated about Athens, the nightingale; no poet has inbeing facred to Minerva the God

troduc'd it so often, or spoken of dess of the city, and he has besides the express authority of Aristopha- perhaps there never was a verse

it with such rapture as he ; and nes NEPERQ. Act. 3. Sc. 3.

more expressive of the harmony of Αλλ' εις Ακαδημιαν κατιων, , UTTO this sweet bird than the following, ταις μοριαις αποθρεξεις. .

Trills her thick-warbled notes. Sed in Academiam defcendens, the summer long. fub facris olivis spatiaberis.

So that upon the whole I believe Where the Attic bird, the nightin- it may be asserted, that Plato's Acam gale, for Philomela, who accord- demy was never more beautifully ing to the fables was changed into described than here in a few lines a nightingale, was the daughter of by Milton. Cicero, who has laid Pandion king of Athens, and for the scene of one of his dialogues the same reason the nightingale is there, De Fin. Lib. V. and had been called Atthis in Latin, quasi Attica himself upon the spot, has nos avis. Martial Lib. 1. Ep. 46. Edit. painted it in more lively colors. Westm.

247. There flow'ry hill Hymettus Sic, ubi multisona fervet facer &c] And so Valerius Flaccus calls Atihi de lucus, it Florea juga Hymetri, Argonaur,

To studious musing; there Ilissus rolls
His whisp’ring stream: within the walls then view
The schools of ancient sages; his who bred 251
Great Alexander to subdue the world,
Lyceum there, and painted Stoa next;


Orat. I. 7.


344. and the honey was so ting on a green bank shaded with much esteem'd and celebrated by a {preading plantan, of which the Ancients, that it was reckon'd Cicero hath said very prettily, that the best of the Attic honey, as the it seemeth to have grown not so Attic honey was said to be the best much by the water which is dein the world. The poets often fcribed, as by Plato's eloquence ; speak of the murmur of the bees quæ mihi videtur non tam ipfa as inviting to sleep, Virg. Ecl, I. aquula, quæ defcribitur, quam 56.

Platonis oratione crevisse. De Sæpi levi somnum suadebit inire fufurro:

253. Lyceum there, and painted

Stoa next :] Lyceum was anobut Milton gives a more elegant ther gymnasium of the Athenians, turn to it, and says that it invites to and was the school of Aristotle, ftudious musing, which was more who had been tutor to Alexander proper indeed for his purpose, as the great, and was the founder of he is here describing the Attic the sect of the Peripatetics, so learning

το σεριπα?εινfrom his 249.

there Ilisus rolls walking and teaching philosophy, His whisp'ring stream:] Mr. Cal- Stoa was the school of Zeno, whose ton and Mr. Thyer have observed disciples from the place had the with me, that Plato hath laid the name of Stoics; and this Stoa or fcene of his Phædres on the banks portico, being adorn'd with variety and at the spring of this pleasant of paintings, was called in Greek river.-χαριενία γεν και καθαρα και Iloixian or various, and here by διαφανη τα υδατια φαίνεται. Νonne Milton very properly the painted hinc aquulæ puræ ac pellucidæ Stoa. See Diogenes Laertius in jucundo murmure confluunt ? Ed. the lives of Aristotle and Zeno. Serr. Vol. 3. p. 229. The philofo- But there is some reason to queftion, phical retreat at the spring-head whether the Lyceum was within the is beautifully describ'd' by Plato walls, as Milton asserts. For Suiin the next page, where Socrates das fays expressly, that it was and Phædrus are represented fit- place in the fuburbs, built by Pe

call'd ATO


There shalt thou hear and learn the secret

power Of harmony in tones and numbers hit

255 By voice or hand, and various-measur’d verse, Æolian charms and Dorian lyric odes, And his who gave them breath, but higher sung,


εις το Λυκειον ει-



ricles for the exercising of soldiers: of poetry. Such wise men as. Dioand I find the scholiaft upon Ari- nysius the Halicarnassean, and Pluftophanes in the Irene fpeaks of tarch, have attempted to show, going into the Lyceum, and going that poetry in all its forms, traout of it again, and returning back gedy, comedy, ode, and epitaph, into the city :

are included in his works. See σιούλες

παλιν εξιουλες εκ the ingenious author of the Inquiry το Λυκεια, και απιουλες εις την πο into the life and writings of Homer awy.

inlarging upon this subject. Sect. 257. Æolian charms and Dorian

Blind Melefagenes thence Homer

our author here follows lyric odes,] Æolian charms, Æolia carmina, verses such as those Herodotus in his account of the of Alcæus ard Sappho, who were

life of Homer, that he was born both of Mitylene in Lesbos, an

near the river Meles from whence iland belonging to the Æolians. he had the name of Melefigenes, Hor. Od. Ill. XXX, 13.

τιθεται ονομα το παιδι Μελεσιγενεα,

απο το ποταμω την επωνυμιαν λαβασα, Princeps

Æolium carmen ad Italos and because he was blind, thence he Deduxisse modos,

was called Homer ó per ofer, sylez Ozy Od. IV. III. 12.

δε και τενομα ΟμηρG- επεκράτησε το

Μελησιγενει απο της συμφορης" οι γαρ Fingent Æolio carmine nobilem. Κυμαιοι της τυφλες ομηρους λεγεσιν. Dorian lyric odes, such as those of Wboje poem Phæbus challeng’d for

bis Pindar, who calls his Awprar oop epigram in the firit book of the

a Greek

own, alluding to Mesfaye the Dorian harp, Olymp. I. 26. Asfów w Dorian buti Anthologia, kin, Olymp. III. 9. Awpret koju

Ηειδον μεν εγων, εχάρασσε δε θες Dorian hymn, Pyth. VIII. 29.

Ομηρος. . 258. And his who gave them which Mr. Fenton has inlarged

breath, &c] Our author agrees and applied to Mr. Pope's Engih with those writers, who speak of Iliad. Homer as the father of all kinds

262. Ix

Blind Melesigenes thence Homer callid,
poem Phæbus challeng’d for his own.

Thence what the lofty grave tragedians taught
In Chorus or Iambic, teachers best
Of moral prudence, with delight receiv'd
In brief sententious precepts, while they treat 264
Of fate, and chance, and change in human life;
High actions, and high passions best describing :


262. In Chorus or lambic,] These who preferred Pericles, Hyperides, may be said to be the two consti- Æschines, Demosthenes, and the tuent parts of the ancient tragedy, orators of their times to Demetrius which was written either in lam- Phalereus and those of the subsebic verse, or in verses of various quent ages. See Cicero de claris measures, whereof the Chorus usu. Oratoribus. And in the judgment ally consisted. And the character of Quintilian Demetrius Phalereus here given of the ancient Greek was the first who weaken'd elo. tragedy is very juft and noble; and quence, and the last almost of the the English reader cannot form a Athenians who can be called an better idea of it in its highest beauty orator : is primus inclinasse eloand perfection than by reading our quentiam dicitur- ultimus est fere author's Samson Agonistes. ex Atticis qui dici possit orator. 267. Thence to the famous orators De Instit. Orat. X. 1.

repair, &c.] How happily does Milton's versification in this 270.- and fulmin' d over Greece, ] and the following lines concerning Alluding (as Mr. Jortin has likethe Socratic philosophy express wise observed) to what Aristophanes what he is describing ! In the first has said of Pericles in his Acharwe feel as it were the nervous ra nenses. Act. 2. Scene 5. pid eloquence of Demofthenes, and the latter have all the gentle

Ηραπλεν, εβρουλα, ξυνεχυκα την Ελ

λαδα. . ness and softness of the humble modeft character of Socrates. Since I have mentioned this pas

Thyer. fage, I will add that Cicero has al.. 268. Those ancient,] For Milton luded to it in his Orator 9, speakwas of the same opinion as Cicero, ing of Pericles. Qui fi tenui ge


Thence to the famous orators repair,
Those ancient, whose resistless eloquence
Wielded at will that fierce democratie,
Shook th' arsenal and fulmin'd over Greece, 270
To Macedon and Artaxerxes throne :
To fage philosophy next lend thine ear,
From Heav'n descended to the low-rooft house
Of Socrates; see there his tenement,


nere uteretur, nunquam ab Aristo 271. To Macedon, and Artaxerxes phane poeta fulgere, tonare, per- throne :? As Pericles and others miscere Græciam dictus effet. Dio- fulmin’d over Greece to Artaxerxes dorus Siculus has quoted it like throne against the Persian king, so wise Lib. 12. and ascribed it to Demosthenes was the orator par, Eupolis the poet, the same who is ticularly, who fulmin'd over Greece mention'd by Horace,

to Macedon against king Philip in Eupolis, atque Cratinus, Ari- his orations therefore denominated ftophanesque poetæ,


273. From Heav'n defcended to the και παλιν εν αλλοις Ευπολις ο ποιητης low-rooft house

Περικλεης ευλυμπιος Ηραπ7', , Of Socrates;] Mr. Calton thinks ειρουλα, συνεχυκα την Ελλαδα. Cicero the author alludes to Juv. Sat. XI. had at first fallen into the fame 27. mistake as Diodorus, which is often the case of writers who quote

e cælo descendit gowls by memory; and therefore desires Atticus to correct the copies, and as this famous Delphic precept was for Eupolis to put in Aristophanes. the foundation of Socrates's philoCic. ad Att. XII. 6. mihi erit fophy, and so much used by him, gratum, fi non modo in libris that it hath passed with some for tuis, sed etiam in aliorum per li- his own. Or as Mr. Warburton brarios tuos Aristophanem repo- and Mr. Thyer conceive, the aufueris pro Eupoli. The mistake thor here probably alludes to what was corrected according to his de- Cicero fays of Socrates, Socrates fire ; at least it is so in all the re autem primus philofophiam devomaining copies and editions. cavit e cælo, et in urbibus colloca



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