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in conversion; to the idea, that the human will, although not idle, contributed nothing towards the formation of the act itself; yet their very rejection of it satisfactorily proved the nature of that doctrine, which they conceived it to inculcate. Let it not however be supposed, that because they denied, in a very important point of view, the agency of the human will, they on that account were disposed to patronise the Calvinistical system of Predestination. On the contrary, they beheld it with abhorrence; nor did they scruple to express their disapprobation of it in language, which a modern Arminian would scarcely adopt, or a modern Calvinist endure.

Page 96, note (15). Deinde, ut palam fiat quam longe aberraverint a veritate coeci isti et cæcorum duces, et quam ista sua impia et blasphema doctrina non solum obscuraverint, sed simpliciter sustulerint Evangelium et Christum obruerint. Si enim ego existens in peccato mortali possum facere aliquod opusculum, quod non solum secundum substantiam sit gratum Deo, sed etiam possit mereri gratiam de congruo, et ubi habuero gratiam, possum facere opera secundum gratiam, id est, delectionem, et acquirere de jure æternam vitam, quid jam opus est mihi gratia Dei, remissione peccatorum, promissione morte et victoria Christi ? Christus jam plane mihi otiosus est; habeo enim liberum arbitrium, et vires faciendi bonum opus, per quod gratiam mereor de congruo, et postea æternam vitam de condigno..... Quare cum Paulo in toto negamus meritum congrui et condigni, et certa fiducia pronunciamus, istas speculationes esse mera ludibria Satanæ, nunquam facta aut exemplis ostensa. Nemini enim unquam dedit Deus gratiam et vitam æternam pro merito congrui et condigni. Sunt ergo illæ disputationes Scholasticorum de merito congrui et condigni tantum inania figmenta et speculabilia hominum otiosorum

somnia de rebus nihili. Super quæ tamen universus papatus fundatus est, et adhuc hodie his nititur. Opera Lutheri, vol. v. p. 307. Ea enim inanissima somnia homines securi, qui nullis unquam tentationibus, et veris pavoribus peccati et mortis exercitati sunt, e suo capite finxerunt. Ideo non intelligunt quid loquantur, aut de quibus affirment. Deinde nullum exemplum operis ante gratiam et post gratiam potest dari. Sunt igitur nugacissimæ fabulæ, quibus Papista seipsos et alios deludunt. Ibid. “ Ut maxime sim peccator, nihil ta“men periculi est; facile huic malo remedium inve“niam, si fecero hoc aut istud opus in Dei gloriam, si “tot Missas celebravero, aut audiero, si a carnibus ali

quot diebus abstinuero, si pensum precularum mea

rum absolvero, &c. Hæc opera mea Deus respiciet, “ et propter ea peccata remittet."

Sed longe secus se res habet, O miser. . . . . Etenim, , si nos viribus humanis peccata expiare, et mortem abolere, possemus, nihil fuisset necesse Christum fieri hominem, baptizari, et mori propter peccata nostra. Id. vol. vii. p. 375.

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NOTES

ON SERMON V.

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Page 101, note(). WHEN the Lutherans withheld from the Heathen world the security derivable from a participation of the Christian Covenant, they never meant to withhold from it (as I have previously remarked in the case of infants) a claim to the uncovenanted mercies of God. They excluded it from the certainty, but not the probability, of salvation. Aurifaber, in his “ Colloquia, oder Lischreden, “ D. Mart. Lutheri,” states, that Luther expressed himself upon the point in the following unequivocal language, thus translated from the German; “ Cicero, a 6 wise and good man, suffered and performed much. 66 I hope, said Luther, God will be merciful unto him, 66 and to such as he was. Howsoever it is not our duty “ to speak certainly touching that point, (Wiewol uns “ nicth geburet dass gewiss zu sagen, noch zu definiren und schliessen,) but to remain by the word revealed “ unto us, namely, 'whosoever believeth and is baptized, the same shall be saved. Yet, nevertheless, God is " able to dispense, and to hold a difference among the “ nations and the Heathens; but our duty is not to 66 know nor to search after time and measure. For 66 there will be a new heaven and a new earth, much

larger and more broad than now they be: God can “ give to every one according to his pleasure.” Col

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loquia Mensalia of Luther, translated by Capt. H. Bell, ed. 1652. p. 509. Luther therefore seems both to have hoped and believed, that God would be merciful to the Heathen world; but, as nothing had been clearly revealed upon the subject, he thought it not his duty to speak positively upon it.

Page 101, note (?). The sentiments of Zuingle upon this interesting topic may be collected from the extracts already given in note 17. Serm. III. His works indeed abound in passages tending to prove, that the virtuous heathen, who fulfils the law of God written in his heart, is equally to be enumerated among the elect, as the virtuous Christian : “ Nihil enim vetat, quo minus inter gentes quoque Deus “ sibi deligat, qui sese revereantur, qui observent, et post “ fata illi jungantur. Libera est enim electio ejus. Ego “ certe malim, si optio detur, Socratis aut Senecæ sortem eligere, qui, ut numen unum agnoverunt, ita mentis “puritate sategerunt illud demereri, quam aut Pontificis Romani, qui tamen se Deum vel ipse indicaret, si lici“ tator adsit, aut cujusquam regis, imperatoris, ac principis, qui hunc ficulnum Deum tuetur. Illi enim, ut reli

gionem ad verbum, et quod ad Sacramenta pertinet, “ non agnoverint, attamen quod ad rem ipsam aio reli"giosiores ac sanctiores fuisse, quam omnes unquam Domi6 nicastri et Franciscani.Opera Zuinglii, vol. ii. p. 371. 6 Ista in hunc usum argumentati sumus, ut osten“ deremus toto errare coelo, etiamsi sint non modo

magna, sed vetera quoque nomina, qui damnationi " æternæ solent adjudicare nunc Christianorum infantes, os cum non sint baptismo tincti, nunc vero eos omnes,

quos Gentiles vocamus. Quid enim scimus, quid fidei quisque in corde suo Dei manu scriptum teneat? Se“ necæ viri sanctissimi fidem, quam epistola ad Lucilium “ 34. prodit, quis non admiretur? Cum ait, Sic certe • vivendum est, tanquam aliquis in pectus intimum pro

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