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of each engine is estimated at 1500l., including wear and tear, and fuel and attendance.

In speaking of the comparative performances of locomotive engines and horses on railways, Mr. Wood says:

“ The least performance of a locomotive engine will be equal to that of eighteen horses, supposing that an average velocity of twelve miles per hour for eight hours in the day be attained. Much of this will depend upon the length of the railway, and the nature of the traffic in which they are employed: in short lines of road, where the delays in changing, &c., produce considerable stops, this performance will be diminished ; but still their performance will equal that of a considerable number of horses. The relative cost will, of course, depend much upon the situation of the district in which they are used, with respect to the price of fuel, and other circumstances; and their performance, upon the length and features of the railroad on which they are made to travel. In a general way, perhaps, at the rate of speed above assigned, we may state the cost of one locomotive engine equal to that of four horses and their attendants. So long, therefore, as the performance of a locomotive engine exceeds that of four horses, the economy of transit will be in favour of engines ; and where


the length of the railway, and the nature of the traffic, will allow of a maximum performance, then their relative utility, compared with horses, will be as four and a half to one.”.

From actual experience, however, it will be found that the expense of locomotive engines, travelling at a velocity of ten to fifteen miles per hour on the Manchester and Liverpool railway, far exceeds what was contemplated; but the period is so short since they first commenced running, that it is impossible, as yet, to say what the ultimate expense may be ; for, at present, all the works and machinery are new, and will, of course, have cost less for repairs during the first few years than they will hereafter.

The annual expense of working a locomotive engine on the Liverpool and Manchester railway is stated, by Mr. Grahame of Glasgow, to be 21071. 14s., instead of 270l. 12s. 10d., as first supposed it would have been. He says, “ Previous to

“ opening the Liverpool railway, Messrs. Stephenson and Lock, engineers to the railway, judging from various trials and experiments made on the railway, calculated the expense of an engine

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* Wood on Railways, p. 434.

doing nine hundred and thirty-seven trips yearly, or three trips per day at the rate of fifteen miles per hour, dragging a dead weight of thirty tons, at 324l. 12s. 10d., including a sum of 54l. laid aside each year for the replacement of the engine, and interest on cost; or the cost of the motive power of each trip was calculated by them at a sum something under six shillings and sixpence.

“ It does not appear by the Liverpool and Manchester railway reports what number of engines they had in employment during the year 1831 : but this is of little importance, as the number of thirty-mile trips performed by the engines is specially stated, with the costs of these trips; and this cost includes merely the price of coke consumed, the cost of repairs, and the engine men's wages,



allowance whatever for interest of capital, or replacement of the engines themselves.

“Now, the exact number of thirty-mile trips made by the Liverpool railway engines in the six months of the year 1831 was 5392, of which 2944 were with carriages and passengers ;

the gross weight dragged not exceeding fourteen tons. The expense or cost of these 5392 trips, for coke, wages, and repairs alone (allowing nothing for replacement), was 12,2031. 58. 6d., or a little above 21. 58. 3d. per trip; or the bare cost of one engine doing nine hundred and thirty-six trips was 21071. 14s., instead of 2071. 12s. 10d.

The plan of constructing a railway should be arranged so as to be adapted to the purposes for which it is intended. If for local or private purposes, the same expense is not necessary as when

, the railway is for general and public traffic.

In the former case, the rails should not be so heavy, so strong, or so expensive as when employed for the latter, and the blocks may be of much less weight, and the fastenings less perfect.

To form a perfect railway for general traffic, on which locomotive engines are to be employed, the surface of the ground over which it is to be made should be reduced by cutting, filling, or tunnelling, to rates of inclination not exceeding one in 300. The rails should be of wrought iron of not less than fifty pounds to the yard, and they should be laid on blocks of hard solid stone, each of not less than five cubic feet.

These blocks should be set on a firm, solid foundation of hard broken stones, at least two feet thick, technically called ballasting. The space between the blocks should be filled


with rubble stones, and the whole should be covered

with gravel up to the level of the bottom of the rails.

What has been said in the fourth chapter, relating to the draining of a turnpike road, should be strictly attended to in constructing railways.

Railroads, on which locomotive engines are employed, should not be carried across a turnpike road on the same level with the road, but by tunnels or viaducts. When horses are employed, it is not so objectionable to cross roads on the same level; it should, however, if possible be avoided : when it is impossible, great care should be taken to keep the top of the rails on a level with the surface of the road, or rather below it, and the space between the rails should be kept always filled to the same level.

Notwithstanding it seems to be universally believed, that the practicability of making use of locomotive steam engines on railroads has been established by what has taken place on the Manchester and Liverpool railway, there are many competent judges who are of opinion that it would not have succeeded, had it not been for the peculiar circumstance of its forming a direct communication between two such very populous, opulent, and enterprising trading towns as Manchester and Liverpool.

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