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paving for that time amounting to 10s. 10d., and a yard of macadamised road for the same period costing 21. 10s. 10d.
“ Mr. Johnson, an eminent pavior and stone merchant, stated before their Lordships that he had been a contractor for St. George's, St. Ann's, St. Giles's, and other parishes, and for some parts of the city, which enabled him to
, make very accurate calculations.
He proved that the
best pavement would cost 13s. per square yard, which would require no repair for the first year certainly, and, in most cases, would cost nothing in repair for the first three years; that the expense after the first year would be about 4d. per yard per annum for ten years, after which the pavement as laid down would be worth 8s. per yard to the parish ; thereby reducing the expense of a square yard of pavement in ten years to 10s. 10d., as under :
d. First cost, per superficial yard 13 0 Ten years' repairs, at 4d. do.
4 Ditto cleansing at 3d.
18 10 8 0
Deduct value of old stone
“ The old stone might last twenty years longer ; but, at all events, would be worth 8s. per yard after ten years' wear. That statement was made on a calculation of using the very best material ; but most of the pavement is laid down at from 7s. to 10s. per yard.
“ A macadamised, or broken stone road, requires for keeping in repair the first year, and every year after, two coats of three inches thick, to allow for wear : the coating costs 1s. 9d. each yard; the cleansing and scraping cost 10d. each yard, as under :
£ s. d. First cost, per superficial yard ..0 on 6 Two coatings, at ls. 9d. each per yard, for ten years
1 15 0 Cleansing, at 10d. per yard, for ten years
0 8 4
“ The surveyor to the Commissioners of Westminster Bridge stated that the expense of paving and keeping in repair the bridge for twenty-two years (from 1802 to 1824) was 34941., including 11651. for new pavement
in the first year, making an annual expense of 1591. About two years ago the bridge was macadamized, and the year after cost 15071. 12s. 6d. There was a covering ordered in June, 1825, which cost 1721. 10s., besides Mr. M'Adam's annual charge of 300l. The surveyor said, he thought it now required another covering like that of last year, at the expense of 4701. 10s., as he had examined the road, and found the broken stones, on an average, not more than three inches thick.”
The following is also taken from a London paper, and shows what was the result of converting the pavement over Blackfriars' Bridge into a broken stone roadway :
Blackfriars' Bridge. “ The report presented to the Court of Common Council, last week, from the General Purpose Committee, relative to Blackfriars' Bridge, stated, that the City Surveyor having declared Mr. M‘Adam had completed his contract for macadamizing the same, the Committee had subsequently employed him to keep the bridge in repair, and that he had since delivered in a bill to them for no less than 4731. odd, for such repairs, during a period of only eighteen weeks.
The Committee further stated, they had advertised for tenders to keep the said bridge in repair for twelve months, and several offers had been made them ; one offering to do the same at between 3001. and 4001., while a second tender was so high as 9001. In fact, it appears that the traffic over this bridge, which has greatly increased since it has been macadamized, is now to that amazing extent, that the new granite is ground to powder almost as quickly as it is laid down. It being thus evident that, to keep it in a proper state, the bridge would cost 10001.
per annum, and the City having no separate funds for that purpose, the Committee recommended that it should be repaved on its present surface, on an estimated cost of 1500l. The expense of keeping which in repair used to average under 120l. per annum. The report further stated, that Mr. M‘Adam offered, at the time of the alteration being effected, to keep the bridge in repair for 1301. per annum.”
ROADS PARTLY PAVED AND PARTLY MADE
WITH BROKEN STONES.
To make a road of this kind, sixteen feet of the middle should be perfectly well paved, according to the rules already laid down, and the
remainder of it on each side of the pavement should be made with small broken stones. The advantages that would be derived from such a road would be — 1st, the saving of the labour of horses, as before explained in treating of pavements; and, 2dly, the diminishing of the expense of repairs.
If a road of this description be constructed with good materials, and in a workmanlike manner, it will require but a moderate expense to maintain it in excellent order ; but constant attention will be necessary to keep the part where the pavement and the broken stones join from being cut into ruts.
Whenever the traffic of a road is so great as to wear down three inches of hard broken stones in a year, the middle part of it should be paved. At this rate of wear half a cubic yard of materials will be requisite for every lineal yard of eighteen feet of the breadth of the road.
This will make the expense of new stones alone, for a road thirty-six feet wide, per mile per annum, (supposing the cubic yard of broken stones to cost twelve shillings,) amount to 10561. If the middle twenty feet of the broken-stone streets in London, where the traffic is