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of loose soil, it must be compressed by means of water, or shall be left through a part of the winter to receive the snows and rains; but no soft, boggy, or peat substance is on any account to be laid behind the retaining walls. Where the cutting on the upper side consists of rock rubbish, gravel, or mountain clay, it will only require to be properly levelled as the work is carried on.”
The following specification has been successfully acted upon in forming a road over a peat bog in Ireland :
“ When the line of the road has been traced out to the exact width and line of direction, main drains are to be cut on each side eight feet wide at top, four feet deep, and eighteen inches wide at bottom ; the peat dug out of these drains is to be spread over the surface of the roadway in form of a ridge, taking care to previously cover all the very soft and swampy places with dried peat, sods, or brushwood : numerous drains are to be cut across the roadway from the one main drain to the other; they are to be three feet deep at the centre of the roadway, and four feet deep at the main drains : after the whole have remained in this state for two summer months, the bed for the roadway is to be neatly formed, with the sides on the same level, and with a convexity of half an inch in the yard.
“ The carriage-way is then to be covered with six inches of clay, laid on evenly, and firmly compressed by stampers or rollers; it is to have a fall of one inch in the yard from the centre towards the sides : over the clay is to be put four inches of small gravel ; it is to be frequently rolled, and, when solid and compressed, the foundation will be formed for the reception of the road materials.”
So much depends upon the proper draining of a road, that too great attention cannot be given to this part of the business of road-making.
This operation should be carried on at the same time with the forming of the road. When a road is to be made over flat and wet land, open main drains should be cut on the field side of the road fences : these drains should communicate with the natural watercourses of the country; their size should depend upon the nature of the country and the local circumstances of the road.
In general, these side drains should be cut at least three feet deep below the level of the bed of the road; they should be one foot wide at bottom, and five feet wide at top.
drains cannot be formed, in consequence of the road running along the side of a hill, or of its passing through a cutting of a hill, or of buildings or other obstructions lying close
If main open
to the road, it then becomes necessary to make covered drains on each side of the road. These should be formed of stone or brick, and be strongly and substantially built. If built with stone, they should be constructed as shown in Plate II. fig. 10. A flat stone should be laid at the bottom of the drain, the side walls should be not less than twelve inches thick, and built in regular level courses; they should be eighteen inches high, and twelve inches apart.
Particular care must be taken that the covering stones have a bearing of at least four inches on the side walls. They should have a layer of brushwood put over them ; and the drain should then be filled up with gravel, or small stones. In gravel countries, or where stone is difficult to be procured, it will be necessary to build the main-side drains of brick; the side walls should be four inches thick, and three bricks high, and five inches apart, and covered with brick on the flat : these covering bricks should not be laid close together ; an interval of at least half an inch should be left between each, to allow the water to enter the drain from above. Plate II. fig. 11.
In very wet clay soils, a flat tile should be
laid at the bottom of the drain, sufficiently large to extend two inches under each side wall ; a layer of brushwood, or straw, should be put over the bricks, and then the drain should be filled
up with cleansed gravel or small stones.
In some cases it will be necessary to build circular brick drains twelve or eighteen inches in diameter, according to circumstances; but they are expensive, and require inlets, built with brick, with iron grates. In consequence of its being necessary to build these drains with mortar, they are not so good as the open-jointed drain last described, unless there is a considerable run of water. Plate II. fig. 12.
If springs rise in the site of the road, or in the slopes of deep cuttings, stone or tile drains should be made into them, so as completely to carry away all the water.
In cuttings it is necessary to make drains of small dimensions from the centre of the road to the side drains. These drains should form an angle in the centre of the road, in the shape of a V, technically called mitre drains : the angle or splay of these drains should depend upon the inclination of the road ; it should not make the inclination of the drains exceed one inch in 100; for if it be greater, the run of