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lines of character, and who, with all his ferocity in war, had still, with a cultivating hand, preserved to his country the riches which it derived from benignant skies and a prolific soil, if this stranger, ignorant of all that had happened in the short interval, and observing the wide and general devastation, and all the horrors of the scene-of plains unclothed and brown-of vegetables burnt up and extinguished-of villages depopulated and in ruin-of temples unroofed and perishing-of reservoirs broken down and dry,-he would naturally quire what war has thus laid waste the fertile fields of this once beautiful and opulent country-what civil dissensions have happened, thus to tear asunder and separate the happy societies that once possessed those villages—what disputed succession-what religious rage has with unholy violence demolished those temples, and disturbed fervent, but unobtruding piety in the exercise of its duties?
2. What merciless enemy has thus spread the horrors of fire and sword-what severe visitation of Providence has dried up the fountain, and taken from the face of the earth every vestige of verdure?—Or rather, what monsters have stalked over the country, tainting and poisoning, with pestiferous breath, what the voracious appetite could not devour?
3. To such questions what must be the answer? No wars have ravished these lands and depopulated these villages-no civil discords have been felt-no disputed succession-no religious rage-no merciless enemy-no affliction of Providence, which, while it scourged for the moment, cut off the sources of resuscitation-no voracious and poisoning monsters-no, all this has been accomplished by the friendship, generosity, and kindness, of the English nation.
4. They have embraced us with their protecting arms, and lo! these are the fruits of their alliance. What, then, shall we be told that under such circumstances the exasperated feelings of a whole people, thus goaded and spurred on to clamor and resistance, were excited by the poor and feeble influence of the Begums?
5. When we hear the description of the paroxysm, fever, and delirium, into which despair had thrown the natives, when on the banks of the polluted Ganges, panting for death, they tore more widely open the lips of their gaping wounds, to accelerated their dissolution; and while their blood was issuing, presented their ghastly eyes to heaven, breathing their last and fervent prayer that the dry earth might not be suffered to drink their blood, but that it might rise up to the
a Pes-tif-er-ous, noxious, malignant. 5 Ex-as-pe-ra-ted, provoked to anger.
c De-lir'-i-um, derangement.
d Ac-cel'-e-rate, to hasten motion.
throne of God, and rouse the eternal Providence to avenge the wrongs of their country,-will it be said that this was brought about by the incantations of these Begums in their secluded Zenana? or that they could inspire this enthusiasm and this despair into the breasts of a people who felt no grievance, and had suffered no torture? What motive, then, could have such influence in their bosom?
6. What motive! That which nature, the common parent, plants in the bosom of man, and which, though it may be less active in the Indian than in the Englishman, is still congenial with, and makes part of his being-that feeling which tells him that man was never made to be the property of man; but that when through pride and insolence of power one human creature dares to tyrannize over another, it is a power usurped, and resistance is a duty-that feeling which tells him that all power is delegated for the good, not for the injury of the people, and that when it is converted from the original purpose the compact is broken, and the right is to be resumed that principle which tells him that resistance to power usurped is not merely a duty which he owes to himself and to his neighbor, but a duty which he owes to his God, in asserting and maintaining the rank which he gave him in the creation!-to that common God, who, where he gives the form of man, whatever may be the complexion, gives also the feelings and the rights of man-that principle, which neither the rudeness of ignorance can stifle, nor the enervation of refinement extinguish!-that principle which makes it base for a man to suffer when he ought to act, and which, tending to preserve to the species the original designations of Providence, spurns at the arrogant distinctions of man, and vindicates the independent qualities of his race.
Mr. Burke's description of Junius.Þ
1. WHERE, then, sir, shall we look for the origin of this relaxation of the laws, and of all government? How comes this Junius to have broken through the cobwebs of the law, and to range uncontrolled, unpunished through the land? The myrmidons of the court have long been, and are still pursuing him in vain. They will not spend their time upon me, or you, or you: no; they disdain such vermin when the
a Con-ge'-ni-al, partaking of the same nature.
b Jun-ius, the signature of a severe commenter on the acts of the British ministry.
c Re-lax-a'-tion, a slackening.
mighty boar of the forest, that has broken through all their toils, is before them.
2. But, what will all their efforts avail? No sooner has he wounded one, than he lays down another dead at his feet. For my part, when I saw his attack upon the king, I own my blood ran cold. I thought he had ventured too far, and that there was an end of his triumphs; not that he had not asserted many truths. Yes, sir, there are in that composition many bold truths by which a wise prince might profit. It was the rancor and venom with which I was struck. In these respects the North Briton is as much inferior to him, as in strength, wit, and judgment.
3. But while I expected from this daring flight his final ruin and fall, behold him rising still higher, and coming down souse upon both houses of parliament. Yes, he did make you his quarry, and you still bleed from the wounds of his talons. You crouched, and still crouch beneath his rage.— Nor has he dreaded the terror of your brow, sir; he has attacked even you,-he has,-and I believe you have no reason to triumph in the encounter.
4. In short, after carrying away our royal eagle in his pounces, and dashing him against a rock, he has laid you prostrate. King, Lords, and Commons, are but the sport of his fury. Were he a member of this house, what might not be expected from his knowledge, his firmness, and integrity! He would be easily known by his contempt of all danger, by his penetration, by his vigor. Nothing would escape his vigilance and activity; bad ministers could conceal nothing from his sagacity; nor could promises or threats induce him to conceal any thing from the public.
Mr. Burke's compliment to Mr. Fox in support of his India Bill.
1. AND now, having done my duty to the bill, let me say a word to the author. I should leave him to his own noble sentiments, if the unworthy and illiberal language with which he had been treated, beyond all example of parliamentary liberty, did not make a few words necessary, not so much in justice to him, as to my own feelings:-I must say then, that it will be a distinction honorable to the age, that the rescue of the greatest number of the human race that ever were so grievously oppressed, from the greatest tyranny that was ever exercised, has fallen to the lot of abilities and disposi
tions equal to the task; that it has fallen to one who has the enlargement to comprehend, the spirit to undertake, and the eloquence to support, so great a measure of hazardousa benevolence.
2. His spirit is not owing to his ignorance of the state of men and things. He well knows what snares are spread about his path, from personal animosity,b from court intrigues, and possibly from popular delusion. But he has put to hazard his ease, his security, his interest, his power, even his darling popularity, for the benefit of a people whom he has
3. This is the road that all heroes have trod before him. He is traduced and abused for his supposed motives. He will remember that obloquyd is a necessary ingredient in the composition of all true glory; he will remember, that it was not only in the Roman customs, but it is in the nature and constitution of things, that calumny and abuse are essential parts of triumph. These thoughts will support a mind which only exists for honor, under the burden of temporary reproach.
4. He is doing, indeed, a great good; such as rarely falls to the lot, and almost as rarely coincides with the desires, of any man. Let him use his time. Let him give the whole length of the reins to his benevolence. He is now on a great eminence, where the eyes of mankind are turned to him.~ He may live long, he may do much. But here is the summit. He never can exceed what he does this day.
5. He has faults; but they are faults that-though they may in a small degree tarnish the luster, and sometimes impede the march of his abilities-have nothing in them to extinguish the fire of great virtues. In those faults, there is no mixture of deceit, of hypocrisy, of pride, of ferocity, of complexional despotism, or want of feeling for the distresses of mankind.
Extract from Mr. Curran's Speech, at the Court of King's Bench, in Ireland, in defense of Mr. Rowan, charged with having published a Seditious Libel.
1. Gentlemen OF THE JURY— -When I consider the period at which this prosecution is brought forward,-when I behold the extraordinary safeguard of armed soldiers resorted
a Haz-ard-ous, exposed to danger.
b An-i-mos'-i-ty, extreme hatred.
c Tra-du'-ced, defamed.
d Ob-lo quy, slander.
to, no doubt for the preservation of peace and order,-when I catch, as I cannot but do, the throb of public anxiety, which beats from one end to the other of this hall,-when I reflect on what may be the fate of a man of the most beloved personal character, of one of the most respected families of our country, himself the only individual of that family-I may almost say of that country-who can look to that possible fate with unconcern,-it is in the honest simplicity of my heart I speak, when I say, that I never rose in a court of justice with so much embarrassment as upon this occasion.
2. If, gentlemen, I could entertain a hope of finding refuge for the disconcertion of my mind, in the perfect composure of yours,-if I could suppose that those awful vicissitudes of human events, which have been stated or alluded to, could leave your judgments undisturbed, and your hearts at ease, -I know I should form a most erroneous opinion of your character.
3. But I entertain no such chimerical hopes; I form no such unworthy opinions; I expect not that your hearts can be more at ease than my own; I have no right to expect it; but I have a right to call upon you, in the name of your country, in the name of the living God, of whose eternal justice you are now administering that portion which dwells with us on this side of the grave, to discharge your breasts as far as you are able of every bias of prejudice or passion; that, if my client be guilty of the offense charged upon him, you may give tranquillity to the public by a firm verdict of conviction; or if he be innocent, by as firm a verdict of acquittal; and that you will do this in defiance of the paltry artifices and senseless clamors that have been resorted to, in order to bring him to his trial with anticipated conviction.
4. Gentlemen, the representation of your people is the vital principle of their political existence; without it they are dead, or they live only to servitude; without it there are two estates acting upon and against the third, instead of acting in co-operation with it; without it, if the people be oppressed by their judges, where is the tribunal to which their judges can be amenable ? Without it, if they be trampled upon, and plundered by a minister, where is the tribunal to which the offender shall be amenable? Without it, where is the ear to hear, or the heart to feel, or the hand to redress their sufferings?
5. Shall they be found, let me ask you, in the accursed band of imps and minions that bask in their disgrace, and
a Chi-mer'-ic-al, imaginary, fanciful. bClient, the employer of an attorney.
c Ver'-dict, determination of a jury.