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3. But who are they that our dastardly enemies thus despise?-the consuls, or you, Romans? If we are in fault, deposeb us, or punish us yet more severely. If you are to blame-may neither gods nor men punish your faults! only may you repent!-No, Romans, the confidence of our enemies is not owing to their courage, or to their belief of your cowardice: they have been too often vanquished not to know both themselves and you.
4. Discord, discord is the ruin of this city! The eternal disputes between the senate and the people, are the sole cause of our misfortunes. While we set no bounds to our dominion, nor you to your liberty; while you impatiently endure Patrician magistrates, and we Plebeian; our enemies take heart, grow elated and presumptuous. In the name of the immor tal gods, what is it, Romans, you would have? You desired Tribunes;—for the sake of peace, we granted them. You were eager to have Decemvirs ;d. -we consented to their creation. You grew weary of these Decemvirs ;—we obliged them to abdicate.
5. Your hatred pursued them when reduced to private men; and we suffered you to put to death, or banish, Patricians of the first rank in the republic. You insisted upon the restoration of the Tribuneship ;-we yielded we quietly saw Consuls of your own faction elected. You have the protection of your Tribunes, and the privilege of appeal; the Patricians are subjected to the decrees of the Commons. Under pretense of equal and impartial laws, you have invaded our rights; and we have suffered it, and we still suffer it. When shall we see an end of discord? When shall we have one interest, and one common country? Victorious and triumphant, you show less temper than we under defeat. When you are to contend with us, you can seize the Aventine hill-you can possess yourselves of the Mons Sacer.
6. The enemy is at our gates,-the Esquiline is near being taken, and nobody stirs to hinder it! But against us you are valiant; against us you can arm with diligence. Come on, then, besiege the senate-house, make a camp of the forum, fill the jails with our chief nobles, and when you have achieved these glorious exploits, then, at last, sally out at the Esquiline gate with the same fierce spirits against the enemy.
7. Does your resolution fail you for this? Go, then, and behold from our walls your lands ravaged, your houses plun
a Das'-tard ly, cowardly, meanly.
b De-pose', to lay down, dethrone.
c Tribunes, keepers of the liberties of the people against the encroachments of the Senate.
d Dec-em'-virs, ten men who governed the commonwealth instead of consuls. e Ab-di-cate, to abandon an office.
dered and in flames, the whole country laid waste with fire and sword. Have you any thing here to repair these damages? Will the Tribunes make up your losses to you? They will give you words as many as you please; bring impeachments in abundance against the prime men in the state; heap laws upon laws; assemblies you shall have without end;-but will any of you return the richer from those assemblies?
8. Extinguish, Romans! these fatal divisions; generously break this cursed enchantment, which keeps you buried in a scandalous inaction. Open your eyes, and consider the management of those ambitious men, who, to make themselves powerful in their party, study nothing but how they may foment divisions in the commonwealth.-If you can but summon up your former courage, if you will now march out of Rome with your consuls, there is no punishment you can inflict which I will not submit to, if I do not in a few days drive those pillagers out of our territory. This terror of war, with which you seem so grievously struck, shall quickly be removed from Rome to their own cities.
Extract from Judge Story's Centennial Address, delivered at Salem, Mass. Sept. 18, 1828.
1. WHEN we reflect on what has been, and is now, is it possible not to feel a profound sense of the responsibleness of this Republic to all future ages? What vast motives press upon us for lofty efforts. What brilliant prospects invite our enthusiasm. What solemn warnings at once demand our vigilance, and moderate our confidence.
2. The old world has already revealed to us in its unsealed books, the beginning and end of all its own marvelous struggles in the cause of liberty. Greece, lovely Greece, "the land of scholars and the nurse of arms," where sister republics in fair processions chanted the praises of liberty and the gods; where and what is she? For two thousand years the oppressor has bound her to the earth. Her arts are no more, The last sad relics of her temples are but the barracks of a ruthless soldiery; the fragments of her columns and her palaces are in the dust, yet beautiful in ruin.
3. She fell not when the mighty were upon her. Her sons were united at Thermopyle and Marathon; and the tide of her triumph rolled back upon the Hellespont. She was conquered by her own factions. She fell by the hands of her own
Fo-ment, to cherish with heat, to bathe.
a Im-peach'-ments, accusations by autho
people. The man of Macedonia did not the work of destruction. It was already done by her own corruptions, banishments, and dissensions. Rome, republican Rome, whose eagles glanced in the rising and setting sun, where, and what is she? The eternal city yet remains, proud even in her desolation, noble in her decline, venerable in the majesty of religion, and calm as in the composure of death.
4. The malaria has but traveled in the paths worn by her destroyers. More than eighteen centuries have mourned over the loss of her empire. A mortal disease was upon her vitals, before Cæsar had crossed the Rubicon; and Frutus did not restore her health by the deep probings of the senate chamber. The Goths and Vandals and Huns-the swarms of the north-completed only what was already begun, at home. Romans betrayed Rome. The legions were bought and sold; but the people offered the tribute money.
5. And where are the republics of modern times, which clustered around immortal Italy? Venice and Genoa exist but in name. The Alps, indeed, look down upon the brave and peaceful Swiss, in their native fastnesses; but the guaranty of their freedom is in their weakness, and not in their strength. The mountains are not easily crossed, and the valleys are not easily retained.
6. When the invader comes, he moves like an avalanche, carrying destruction in his path. The peasantry sink before him. The country is too poor for plunder, and too rough for valuable conquest. Nature presents her eternal barriers on every side, to check the wantonness of ambition; and Swit zerland remains with her simple institutions, a military road to fairer climates, scarcely worth a permanent possession, and protected by the jealousy of her neighbors.
7. We stand the latest, and, if we fail, probably the last experiment of self-government by the people. We have begun it under circumstances of the most auspicious nature. We are in the vigor of youth. Our growth has never been checked by the oppressions of tyranny. Our constitutions have never been enfeebled, by the vices or luxuries of the old world. Such as we are, we have been from the beginning; simple, hardy, intelligent, accustomed to self-government and self-respect.
8. The Atlantic rolls between us and any formidable foe. Within our own territory, stretching through many degrees of latitude and longitude, we have the choice of many products, and many means of independence. The government
a Ma-la-ri-a, ill air, peculiar to some parts of Italy.
Guaran-ty, a warrant
C Av'-a-lanche, a vast body of snow sliding down a mountain.
d' Aus-pi"-cious, lucky, favorable.
is mild. The press is free. Religion is free. Knowledge reaches, or may reach every home. What fairer prospect of success could be presented? What means more adequate to accomplish the sublime end? What more is necessary, than for the people to preserve what they themselves have created?
9. Already has the age caught the spirit of our institutions. It has already ascended the Andes, and snuffed the breezes of both oceans. It has infused itself into the life-blood of Europe, and warmed the sunny plains of France, and the low lands of Holland. It has touched the philosophy of Germany and the North, and, moving onward to the South, has opened to Greece the lessons of her better days.
10. Can it be that America, under such circumstances, can betray herself?-that she is to be added to the catalogue of Republics, the inscription of whose ruin is, "they were, but they are not." Forbid it, my countrymen; forbid it, Heaven.
11. I call upon you, fathers, by the shades of your ancestors, by the dear ashes which repose in this precious soil, by all you are, and all you hope to be,-resist every project of disunion,-resist every encroachment upon your liberties,— resist every attempt to fetter your consciences, or smother your public schools, or extinguish your system of public instruction.
12. I call upon you, mothers, by that which never fails in woman,-the love of your offspring,-teach them, as they climb your knees, or lean on your bosom, the blessing of liberty. Swear them at the altar, as with their baptismal vows, to be true to their country, and never to forget or to forsake
13. I call upon you, young men, to remember whose sons you are-whose inheritance you possess. Life can never be too short, which brings nothing but disgrace and oppression. Death never comes too soon, if necessary in defense of the liberties of your country.
14. I call upon you, old men, for your counsels, and your prayers, and your benedictions. May not your gray hairs go down in sorrow to the grave, with the recollection that you have lived in vain. May not your last sun sink in the west upon a nation of slaves.
15. No-I read in the destiny of my country, far better hopes, far brighter visions. We who are now assembled here, must soon be gathered to the congregation of other days. The time for our departure is at hand, to make way for our
a En-croachment, unlawful intrusion. b In-her'-it-ance, hereditary estate.
c Ben-e-dic-tions, blessings, acknowled
children upon the theater of life. May God speed them and theirs. May he, who at the distance of another century shall stand here to celebrate this day, still look round upon a free, happy, and virtuous people. May he have reason to exult as we do. May he, with all the enthusiasm of truth, as well as of poetry, exclaim, that here is still his country;
"Zealous, yet modest; innocent, though free;
On the Formatian of Character, and the attainment of knowledge:-Addressed to the American Youth.
1. A GOOD name is in all cases the fruit of personal exertion. It is not inherited from parents; it is not created by external advantages; it is no necessary appendage of birth, or wealth, or talents, or station; but the result of one's own endeavors, the fruit and reward of good principles, manifest in a course of virtuous and honorable action. This is the more important to be remarked, because it shows that the attainment of a good name, whatever be your external circumstances, is entirely within your power.
2. No young man, however humble his birth, or obscure his condition, is excluded from the invaluable boon." He has only to fix his eyes upon the prize, and press toward it in a course of virtuous and useful conduct, and it is his. And it is interesting to notice how many of our worthiest and best citizens, have risen to honor and usefulness by their own persevering exertions. They are to be found in great numbers, in each of the learned professions, and in every department of business; and they stand forth, bright and animating examples of what can be accomplished by resolution and effort,
3. Indeed, in the formation of character, personal exertion is the first, the second, and the third virtue. Nothing great or excellent can be acquired without it. A good name will not come without being sought. All the virtues of which it is composed, are the result of untiring application and indus try. Nothing can be more fatal to the attainment of a good character, than a treacherous confidence in external advantages. These, if not seconded by your own endeavors, will drop you mid-way, or perhaps you will not have started, when the diligent traveler will have won the race."
4. Thousands of young men have been ruined by relying
a Boon, a gift, favor.