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removal is recommended, or by the decision of a court ma tial, pursuant to law. The present officers of the militia shall hold their commissions, subject to removal as before provided.

5. In case the mode of election and appointment of militia officers hereby directed, shall not be found conducive to the improvement of the militia, the legislature may abolish the same, and provide Ly law for their appointment and removal if two thirds of the members present in each house shall concur therein.

6. The secretary of state, controller, treasurer, attorney general, surveyor general, and commissary general, shall be appointed as follows:-The senate and assembly shall each openly nominate one person for the said offices respectively: after wh, they shall meet together, and if they shall agree in their nominations, the person so nominated shall be appointed to the office for which he shall be nominated. If they shall disagree, the appointment shall be made by the joint ballot of the senators and members of assembly. The treasurer shall be chosen annually. The secretary of state, controller, attorney general, surveyor general, and commis sary general, shall hold their offices for three years, unless sooner removed by concurrent resolution of the senate and assembly.

7. The governor shall nominate, by message, in writing, and, with the consent of the senate, shall appoint all judicial officers, except justices of the peace, who shall be appointed in manner following, that is to say: The board of supervisors in every county in this state, shall, at such times as the legislature may direct, meet together: and, they or a majority of them so assembled, shall nominate so many persons as shall be equal to the number of justices of the peace, to be appointed in the several towns in the respective counties. And the judges of the respective county courts, or a majority of them shall also meet and nominate a like number of persons: and it shall be the duty of the said board of supervisors, and judges of county courts, to compare such nominations, at such time and place, as the legislature may direct; and if, on such comparison, the said boards of supervisors and judges of county courts, shall agree in their nominations; in all or in part, they shall file a certificate of the nominations in which they shall agree, in the office of the clerk of the county: and the person or persons named in such certificates, shall be justices of the peace; and in case of disagreement in whole, or in part, it shall be the farther duty of the said boards of supervisors and judges, respectively, to transmit their said

nominations, so far as they disagree in the same, to the governor, who shall select from the said nominations, and appoint so many justices of the peace, as shall be requisite to fill the vacancies. Every person appointed a justice of the peace, shall hold his office for four years, unless removed by the county court, for causes particularly assigned by the judges of the said court. And no justice of the peace shall be removed, until he shall have notice of the charges made against him, and an opportunity of being heard in his defense.

8. Sheriffs, and clerks of counties, including the register, and clerk of the city and county of New York, shall be chosen by the electors of the respective counties, once in every three years, and as often as vacancies shall happen. Sheriff's shall hold no other office, and be ineligible for the next three years after the termination of their offices. They may be required by law to renew their security, from time to time: and in default of giving such new security, their offices shall be deemed vacant. But the county shall never be made responsible for the acts of the sheriff. And the governor may remove any such sheriff, clerk, or register, at any time within the three years for which he shall be elected, giving to such sheriff, clerk, or register a copy of the charge against him, and an opportunity of being heard in his defense, before any removal shall be made.

9. The clerks of courts, except those clerks whose appointment is provided for in the preceding section, shall be appointed by the courts of which they respectively are clerks; and district attorneys, by the county courts. Clerks of courts, and district attorneys, shall hold their offices for three years, unless sooner removed by the courts appointing them.

10. The mayors of all the cities in this state shall be appointed annually by the common councils of their respective cities.

11. So many coroners as the legislature may direct, not exceeding four in each county, shall be elected in the same manner as sheriffs, and shall hold their offices for the same term, and be removable in like manner.

12. The governor shall nominate, and, with the consent of the senate, appoint masters and examiners in chancery; who shall hold their offices for three years, unless sooner removed by the senate, on the recommendation of the governor. The registers, and assistant registers, shall be appointed by the chancellor, and hold their offices during his pleasure.

13. The clerk of the court of oyer and terminer, and ge neral sessions of the peace, in and for the city and county of

New York, shall be appointed by the court of general sessions of the peace in said city, and hold his office during the pleasure of said court; and such clerks and other officers of courts, whose appointment is not herein provided for, shall be appointed by the several courts; or by the governor, with the consent of the senate, as may be directed by law.

14. The special justices, and the assistant justices, and their clerks, in the city of New York, shall be appointed by the common council of the said city; and shall hold their offices for the same term that the justices of the peace, in the other counties of this state, hold their offices, and shall be removable in like manner.

15. All officers heretofore elective by the people shall continue to be elected; and all other officers, whose appointment is not provided for by this constitution, and all officers, whose offices may be hereafter created by law, shall be elected by the people, or appointed, as may by law be directed.

16. Where the duration of any office is not prescribed by this constitution, it may be declared by law; and if not so declared, such office shall be held during the pleasure of the authority making the appointment.


Sec. 1. The court for the trial of impeachments, and the correction of errors, shall consist of the president of the senate, the senators, the chancellor, and the justices of the supreme court, or the major part of them: but when an impeachment shall be prosecuted against the chancellor, or any justice of the supreme court, the person so impeached shall be suspended from exercising his office, until his acquittal; and when an appeal from a decree in chancery shall be heard; the chancellor shall inform the court of the reasons for his decree, but shall have no voice in the final sentence; and when a writ of error shall be brought, on a judgment of the supreme court, the justices of that court shall assign the reasons for their judgment, but shall not have a voice for its affirmance or reversal.

2. The assembly shall have the power of impeaching all civil officers of this state for male and corrupt conduct in office, and for high crimes and misdemeanors; but a majority of all the members elected shall concur in an impeachment. Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the court shall take an oath or affirmation, truly and impartially to try and determine the charge in question, according to evidence; and no person shall be convicted, without the concurrence

of two thirds of the members present. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend farther than the removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office, of honor, trust, or profit, under this state; but the party convicted shall be liable to indictment and punishment, aecording to law.

3. The chancellor, and justices of the supreme court, shall hold their offices during good behavior, or until they shall attain the age of sixty years.

4. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two justices, any of whom may hold the court.

5. The state shall be divided, by law, into a convenient number of circuits, not less than four, nor exceeding eight, subject to alteration by the legislature, from time to time, as the public good may require; for each of which, a circuit judge shall be appointed, in the same manner, and hold his office by the same tenure, as the justices of the supreme court; and who shall possess the powers of a justice of the supreme court at chambers, and in the trial of issues joined in the supreme court, and in courts of oyer and terminer and jail delivery. And such equity powers may be vested in the said circuit judges, or in the county courts, or in such other subordinate courts, as the legislature may by law direct, subject to the appellate jurisdiction of the chancellor.

6. Judges of the county courts, and recorders of cities, shall hold their offices for five years, but may be removed by the senate, on the recommendation of the governor, for causes to be stated in such recommendation.

7. Neither the chancellor, nor justices of the supreme court, nor any circuit judge, shall hold any other office or public trust. All votes for any elective office, given by the legislature or the people, for the chancellor, or a justice of the supreme court, or circuit judge, during his continuance in his judicial office, shall be void.


Sec. 1. Members of the legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial, except such inferior officers as may by law be exempted, shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation:

I do solemnly swear, (or affirm, as the case may be,) that I will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of New York; and that I wil faithfully discharge the duties of the office of

according to the best of my ability.

And no other oath, declaration, or test, shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust.


Sec. 1. No member of this state shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment of his peers.

2. The trial by jury, in all cases in which it has been heretofore used, shall remain inviolate forever; and no new court shall be instituted, but such as shall proceed according to the course of the common law; except such courts of equity, as the legislature is herein authorised to establish.

3. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this state, to all mankind; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this state.

4. And whereas the ministers of the gospel are, by their profession, dedicated to the service of God, and the care of souls, and ought not to be diverted from the great duties of their functions; therefore, no minister of the gospel, or priest of any denomination whatsoever, shall, at any time hereafter, under any pretense or description whatever, be eligible to, or capable of holding, any civil or military office or place within this state.

5. The militia of this state shall, at all times hereafter be armed and disciplined, and in readiness for service; but all such inhabitants of this state, of any religious denomination whatever, as from scruples of conscience, may be averse to bearing arms, shall be excused therefrom, by paying to the state an equivalent in money; and the legislature shall provide by law, for the collection of such equivalent, to be estimated according to the expense, in time and money, of an ordinary able bodied militia man.

6. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion, or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.

7. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other infamous crime, (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases of the militia when in actual service; and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this state may keep, with the consent of Congress, in time of peace and in cases of petit larceny, under the regulation of the le gislature ;) unless on presentment or indictment of a grand

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