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sadly disposed to melancholy who could have doubted it would certainly be so. The mother and her female neighbour turned themselves to me to inquire about the country to which the young man's regiment was going, and listened to every thing I could remember about it, as if life and death were in my words. The object of all this solicitude was, in the mean time, closely engaged with the fair girl whose pretty form I had observed on entering, and who was obviously his sweetheart; and the sister was silently and busily employing herself in tying up in a handkerchief a variety of little articles which her affection for her brother had induced her to ransack together. As the time, however, for taking leave approached, every individual in the party seemed less inclined to talk, and I even felt myself partaking of the disinclination. Youth and age were before me, sharing in the same common hopes and common dread; suffering from the same sadness of heart that springs from a separation of either lover and mistress, or parent and child, and internally calculating how much of life would be taken up with these blanks in affection and happiness. I knew that the labours of the next day would brush


NEAR the summit of a hill, called Glodwick Loes, situated on the borders of Lancashire, near the populous town of Oldham, commanding a very extensive prospect, stands the solitary, yet celebrated hut of "Billy Butterworth." The eccentric being who bears this name, from the manner of his dressing, an immense beard reaching to his girdle, and many other singularities, has obtained the name of "the hermit ;" though, from the great numbers that daily and hourly visit him from all parts, he has no real claim to the title.

Billy Butterworth's hut is a rude

away the clouds that I saw gathering on the hearts of my rustic friends, and that the healthy breeze and cheering voices of nature, meeting with no contradiction in their free unburdened consciences, would make them happy as before. But I had oftener calculated the chances of human existence than they were ever likely to do, and I knew better what such a parting was.

The young soldier now rose and prepared to set out. His father took his hand, and God blessed" him, with a low and subdued voice, while the mother and sister hung on his neck, sobbing out their prayers that he might soon come back to them. Their neighbours looked as if their farewells would be out of place at such a time, and waited patiently by and the young girl, whose gushing tears showed how fondly her heart was longing to pour itself out, hung her head in silence. At length the door opened, and the lovers took farewell of each other, with as much true-hearted affection, I am persuaded, as lovers ever felt.

I now found it was time for me to pursue my own journey, and I left the cottage with many a wish that every hope of its simple inhabitants might be realized.

building of his own construction, a piece of ground having been given him for the purpose. In the erection of this hut, the rude hand of uncultivated nature laughed to scorn the improvements of modern times, for neither saw, nor plane, nor trowel, assisted to make it appear gracious in the eye of taste: a rude heap of stones, sods of earth, moss, &c. without nails or mortar, are piled together in an inelegant, but perfectly convenient manner, and form a number of apartments. The whole has the appearance of a heap of rocks thrown together, with trees and plants growing amongst them; and

its parts are so firmly united, that its tenant fears not "the pelting of the pitiless storm;" but, snug beneath his lowly roof, he appears equally content with the smiles or frowns of fortune.

To give a proper description of the hermit's hut, would be very difficult, but a brief sketch will communicate a pretty good idea of the object. The lodge is made of rude branches of trees, where the visitor has to bend, as he enters into the pleasure ground. It is surrounded by a fancy and kitchen garden, curiously decorated with rude seats, arches, grottos, &c.; a few plaster of paris casts are here and there placed, so as to have a pleasing effect. On the outer part of the hut formerly stood the hermit's chapel, in which was a half-length figure of himself; to this chapel he used to retire at certain hours, in devotion to his Maker; but as he makes little pretensions to religion, he has pulled it down besides, where stood the chapel is an observatory; and here the hermit amuses his numerous visitors by exhibiting a small camera obscura of his own construction, by which he is enabled to explain the surrounding country for four or five miles. Near the camera obscura is a raised platform, almost on a level with the roof of the hermitage; this he calls "the terrace." From the terrace there a beautiful view of the country. The towns of Ashtonunder-lyne, Stockport, Manchester, lie in the distance, with the adjacent villages, and the line of Yorkshire hills, from among which "Wila Bank" rises majestically above its neighbours. The hermit makes use of this situation, to give signals to the village at the foot of the hill, when he wishes to be supplied with any article of provision for the entertainment of his visitors, such as liquors, cream, sallads, bread, &c.: of confectionary, ginger beer, and peppermint, he has generally a good stock.

We next come to his summer arbours, which are numerous in his garden, and furnished with tables

and seats for parties to enjoy themselves separately, without interfering with others. He formerly had a dove-house in his garden, where he kept a few pairs of doves; but some unlawful wretch, in the absence of the owner, stole the doves,—which so offended the hermit that he took down the dove-house. Of the outbuildings, the last we shall describe, is the carriage-house. The reader may smile at the word "carriage" in such a situation, and would be more apt to believe me if I had said a wheel-barrow. But no! grave rea der, "Billy Butterworth" runs his carriage, which is of the low gig kind, drawn by an ass, and on extra occasions by two asses. A little boy, called Adam, is the postilion, as there is only seating for one in the carriage The boy acts as a waiter in busy times. In his carriage, "Billy Butterworth" drives to his wealthy neighbours, and meets with a gracious reception. He frequently visits the Earl of Stamford, Earl de Wilton, &c. &c. and, from his grotesque dress and equipage, excites mirth to a great degree.

The inner part of this hermit's hut consists of many different apartmeuts, all of which are named in great style: the east front enters into the saloon, in which are two half-length portraits of the hermit, painted by himself, and a great many other paintings, organ, jars, table, half-circle chairs, sofas, &c. From the saloon we enter the repository, where natural curiosities, such as mosses, shells, stones, coins, woodshoes, landscapes, &c. are so placed as to excite the admiration of the gazing multitudes. Next is the library, in which a few books are so placed as to correspond with the other parts of the hut. We next pass through the servants' hall, (in which is a turn-up bed, ancient chest, shelf, cupboards, sofas, a small oven, made of an iron pot turned on its side,) into the dining-room, through a narrow lobby, and painted door. From the dining-room we enter the drawing-room, which is covered with


Billy Butterworth has lived in this solitary abode for twenty-six years. His reasons for adopting this mode of life appear to be, in consequence of his residing in his younger days with a family of ladies, with whose retired habits he was so much captivated, that when he returned to live in his father's house, (his father is still living,) with his brothers and sisters, though he had been brought up with them, their manners so disgusted him, that, into the chamber in which he lodged, he made a way through the roof, and ascended and descended by a ladder; and it is called to this day, Billy's chamber." But the general opinion is, that a disappointment in love has been the cause; and which, in some degree, he acknowledges, as he says, the world will have it so. However, let that rest as it will, it is said he has accumulated, by these eccentric means, a handsome property; but he is so independent, that he will not receive a present from his friends. He is communicative to strangers; is polite, and well-informed on general topics, and has evidently read much. He was in his younger days a member of a corps dramatique.


a palm leaf, the gift of John Blackburn, Esq. M. P. The walls are lined with drapery, tastefully hung, and the furniture exhibits numerous specimens of ancient carved woodwork. Pictures of all sorts, from the genuine oil painting, and prints of good line engraving, down to the common caricature daubs, are numerously hung in every part of the hut.

"Billy Butterworth" is himself a tall man, of rather a commanding figure, with dark hair, and dark sparkling eyes. His countenance is of a pleasing but rather of a melancholy appearance, which is increased by an immensely long black beard.

On the whole, although he is now in the evening of life, the remains of a once handsome man are evident. His dress is varied according to the seasons; in winter he wears black cloth, in spring green, in summer red, in autumn yellow. He travels in black velvet, always resembling the costume of Elizabeth and Charles's days; a black cap, black ostrich feathers, and buckle, long waistcoat, jacket with silk let into the sleeves, small-clothes of the same, and over the whole a short mantle.


a formidable attack on the Ottoman Porte.

THE subjugation of Georgia, to the Russian sceptre, was attended with many interesting circumstances, which are as yet, either entirely unknown, or at least, known but very imperfectly in Europe. We have, however, met with an account in a German journal, of the removal from Tiflis, of the last individual of the Royal family, who attempted to recover the sovereignty which Russia had extinguished. An abstract of this story, which though romantic, is, we believe, substantially true, may be interesting at the present moment, when the powerful Autocrat of the North, is understood to have recommenced war with Persia, on the one hand, and on the other, to threaten 24 ATHENEUM, VOL. 9, 2d series.

It is well known, that, about the end of the last century, some of the principal tribes of Georgia, unable to repel the repeated attacks of the Turks and Persians, eagerly sought the assistance and protection of Russia. The appeal was not made in vain. The Russian troops marched into the country, and supported the Kings of Georgia, Imerthia, (called in the maps and gazeteers, Immeretia and Imiretta,) and the other chief Princes of the country. But it was soon found, that these independent Sovereigns quarrelled among themselves, and Russia was not slow in taking advantage of the dissensions,

Tyrannical Treatment of the Last Queen of Georgia.

which, it is alleged, she provoked. for this favour, as she suspected that Like the Greeks, the Georgians her sons, on approaching manhood, wished to be independent; but that would be taken from her and removwish did not coincide with the policy ed to Russia. She, therefore, reof the Cabinet of St. Petersburgh. solved to escape into her father's It was there determined, that the territory, where she expected to find several native Princes should be re- the means of making head against moved to a distance from their terri- the Russians. In the mean time tories, and allowed pensions for their General Tsitianoff, who was aware subsistence. Most of them submit- of the bold and decided character of ted quietly to the arrangement im- the Queen, kept a strict eye upon posed on them. Only one, Salomon her. All her movements were careII., King of Imerthia, rejected the fully watched, and at last the GeneRussian offer. He fled, placed him- ral thought it necessary to advise the self under the protection of the Russian Government to withdraw the Porte, and died at Trebisond, in permission for her residence in Georgia. But this was not sufficient; the Queen might take some important step before the decision of the Russian Government could arrive; and to guard against every accident, he gained over, by promises and bribes, Kalatusoff, a Georgian of noble family, who was in the Queen's household, and honoured with her entire confidence. This wretch, seduced by the offer of a brilliant reward, disclosed all the plans of the Queen.



The Princess, whose last unsuccessful attempt to throw off the Russian yoke we shall briefly relate, was Maria, the daughter of Prince George Tsitianoff, and the widow of George XIII., son of the celebrated Heraclius, King of Georgia. This last of the Georgian Kings died in December, 1800. His eldest son, David, ought then to have ascended the throne, but, in consequence of stipulations made by Russia in the Treaty of Tiflis, concluded in November, 1795, he was merely declared Regent, and was, finally, removed to Russia in the year 1803. The whole country was immediately converted into a Russian province. This change was chiefly brought about by Prince Paul Dimetrewitch Tsitianoff, who, though nearly relate ed to the royal family, was complete ly devoted to the interests of Russia. He had risen to the rank of general in the Russian army, and, for his services on this occasion, was appointed Governor-General of Georgia.

Prince Tsitianoff appeared to have now put an end to all idea of further resistance on the part of the country, and as no danger was apprehended from Queen Maria, she, without much difficulty, obtained permission from the Russian Government to remain in Georgia with her infant children, of whom she had seven, five male and two female. The Queen, however, did not feel much gratitude

Maria relied much on the Pshavi and Tushini, two Caucasian tribes, who inhabit the banks of the Yora to the north-west of Tiflis, and whose character and customs render them formidable to their enemies. Their laws incite to the most daring hardihood in the field, and they are taught to regard revenge as a duty. He who returns from battle wounded in the back is punished with death, and the beard must remain unshaved until the death of a relation be avenged. These mountaineers had from time immemorial, formed the body guard of the Georgian kings, and they had always been strongly attached to the Royal family. Maria determined in the first instance to take refuge among the Pshavi; but the plan of her escape was betrayed by Kalatusoff, at the moment when every thing was prepared for its execution.

One of the chiefs of the Pshavi, named Hadilla, remarkable for his courage and gigantic stature, was deputed by his tribe to conduct the


plan of escape. He had several conferences with the Queen on the subject, which were immediately disclosed by Kalatusoff. General Tsitianoff wished to verify the information he had received, and for that purpose ordered Hadilla to be summoned before him. There was with the General, only his interpreter, whom he thought proper to have present at this interview, though he knew the language of the Pshavi perfectly well. Kalatusoff was concealed behind a sofa. On Hadilla's entrance, he saluted the General in the manner of his country, and the following dialogue followed between them:

"What has brought you to Tiflis ?" "I have come here to purchase salt." "Do not attempt to deceive me, you have other reasons for being here." "I have come to purchase salt." "Your life is forfeited if you do not speak the truth. If you persist in concealment, I have power to order your head to be struck off instantly." What, order me to be beheaded immediately! By whom then? By that Armenian interpreter there, perhaps, (putting his hand in his bosom) but I have still a dagger ***."


The General perceived that he could not succeed by threats, and endeavoured to extract something by milder language. But his alteration of tone produced no effect. Hadilla's unvarying answer was, that he came to buy salt. The General then called Kalatusoff from his concealment, and confronted him with the Pshavi, who indignantly refused to answer any farther questions. Six Russian grenadiers were then introduced, who disarmed Hadilla, and conveyed him. to the fortress.

The General was now satisfied that the removal of the Queen was indispensable to the peace and tranquillity of the country. He, therefore, resolved to accomplish that object on the following day, the 12th of April, 1803. It was his wish, however, that nothing should seem to be done privately, but that it should appear that the Queen was proceeding of her own accord on a journey.

Every thing was, therefore, to be conducted with pomp and ceremony. Accordingly, at an hour of the morning rather too early for waiting on a Princess, Major-General Lazareff, in full uniform, accompanied by an interpreter, named Sorokin, having the rank of Captain, and followed by two companies of infantry, with military music, proceeded to the Palace. Lazareff went directly to the Queen's apartment, where he found her sitting, in the oriental manner, with her legs crossed under her, on an elevated cushion: She was surrounded by her seven children, the eldest of whom was barely seven years of age, and who were sleeping on adjoining cushions. Lazareff intimated that she must immediately prepare. to leave Tiflis. The Queen had for some days apprehended that a measure of this kind would be adopted before she could effect her escape. But, though she was not altogether taken by surprise, she did not fail to remonstrate against so precipitate an order. She pointed to her children, and said, that if she waked them rashly "it would turn their blood." This is a prevailing prejudice in Georgia. When Lazareff stated that he acted under the orders of General Tsitianoff, she merely said "Tsitsiano toofiani," i. e., "Tsitianoff is the disgrace of his family." Beside the cushion on which the Queen sat, and which covered a kind of state bed or throne, there was a pillow on which she used occasionally to recline her head, and which she now drew towards her knee, apparently resting her arm upon it. In this pillow she had, for some time, kept concealed the sword of her deceased husband. Lazareff perceiving no disposition to prepare for the journey, approached the cushion on the left, and stooped down with the intention of raising the Queen. Maria, who had by this time laid the pillow quite across her knee, suddenly drew the sword and plunged it into his side, exclaiming, "So perish all the agents of tyranny and dishonour." The wound was mortal, and the Russian, with a con

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