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V. 19. Through the peculiar blessing of God, we may suppose, that this was generally the case; yet not so but that the midwives might have had many opportunities of murdering the infants, had they been so disposed.-Provided we do not speak falsehood, the strictest veracity does not at all times require us to speak all that we know, though our silence should lead men into error; provided such error be no injury to them, or to others: and silence must still more evidently be allowable, when it prevents the commission of sin.-When, however, a measure of infirmity or error undesignedly attends the conduct of those, who uprightly fear God, and aim to do his will; he graciously pardons what is defective, and recompenses what is good: for in this case, there is no intention of "doing evil that good may come."

V. 21. God rewarded the midwives, for their concurrence in the increase and prosperity of Israel, by the increase and prosperity of their

own families.

V. 22. Probably Pharaoh proposed considerable rewards for these services. Thus the land would be filled with mercenary informers and murderers: numbers of infants would doubtless be slain in the arms, and before the eyes, of their distressed and almost distracted mothers; and had not he, who says to the swelling ocean, "Hitherto shalt thou go and no further," undertaken for the increase of Israel, they must have been desolated.-Pharaoh at this time, (as Herod did long after,) proved his relation to that great dragon, who sought to destroy the man-child as soon as it was born. (Rev. 12:4.)

PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS.

V. 1-7.

did their most rapid increase commence, till after the death of Joseph, their chief friend; for God will secure to himself the glory of fulfilling his own promises. Thus was the Christian church more especially increased after the death of Jesus; and thus hath vital religion, in all ages, most prospered under the pressure of severe persecutions. By this the Lord covers his enemies with confusion, and teaches his people "not to fear them who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do.”

V. 8-22.

It is an old practice of "the accuser of the brethren" and his servants, to vindicate their cruel treatment of God's people, by aspersing their characters, pretending to suspect them of bad designs, or averring that their increase would be dangerous to the state: they therefore should endeavor, by well-doing and patient suffering, to confute such calumnies, and prove themselves quiet and useful members of society But though we may suffer unjustly from men, God is just in all that he inflicts upon us by their hands: and it is a singular favor to be kept from sinful compliances, or conformity to the world, even by severe corrections. The word of God frequently calls that deceit, injustice, cruelty, yea folly, which men account acting "wisely," for such "wisdom is earthly, sensual, devilish," and such politicians are eventually "taken in their own craftiness."-There is no degree of treachery and inhumanity, to which the spirit of persecution will not prompt; and they who are actuated by it, seldom fail of finding instr.ments as destitute of honor and conscience as themselves. But if they meet with those who truly fear God, neither bribes nor terrors will prevail upon them to sin against him; and he The very titles of these first two books in the will plead their cause, and recompense their Bible remind us, that the history of man is little conscientious disobedience to the unlawful commore than a narrative of his beginning, and of mands of men.-But as we see, in this history, his departure. Thus one generation is swept the church of God groaning under persecution; away after another, and nothing remains except so we may, by viewing the object in another the names of a very few, and some of them cov- light, see the miserable condition of Satan's ered with infamy! Happy they, whose names wretched bond-slaves, who are so enslaved to are written in the book of life; and enrolled their lusts that they never can deliver them there as true Israelites, and heirs of Heaven!-selves, however miserable or affrighted, until the How soon may the sun of prosperity be darkened, by the deepest cloud of adversity; and the place of our refuge become the scene of our misery! our best friends succeeded by enemies, and our best services repaid with ingratitude! We should therefore trust the Lord alone: for as nothing can hasten the accomplishment of his purpose, before the appointed time; so nothing can retard it, when that season arrives.-For the space of above two hundred years, while Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and their families, lived at liberty, in peace, and in prosperity and affluence, they only increased to seventy persons: but afterwards in about the same number of years, under galling oppression and cruel bondage, they multiplied into a large nation! Nor

Lord sends them redemption by his word and powerful grace. Nor should we here forget, that this enemy, who by Pharaoh aimed to destroy the church in its very infancy, is equally busy to stifle the first risings of serious reflections in the heart of man; and thence to "take away the seed of the word, lest we should believe and be saved;" and lest these feeble beginnings should increase, and we grow strong enough to renounce his service. Let them therefore who would escape, "take more earnest heed to the things which they hear;" be afraid of sinning against the testimony of their consciences; and without delay cry fervently to the Lord for deliverance, and continue to pray with persevering constancy.

CHAP. II. Moses is born, and exposed in an ark among the flags, 1-4. He is found by Pharaoh's daughter, 5, 6; who employs his own

mother to nurse him, and brings him up as her son, 7-10. He

visits his brethren, slays an Egyptian who had injured one of them, and flees into Midian, 11-15. The priest of Midian entertains him, and gives him his daughter, of whom Gershom is

born, 16-22. The king of Egypt dies, and the Lord regards

the cry of the Israelites, 23-26.

ND there went a man a of the house

A
of Levi, and took to wife a daughter

of Levi.

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3 And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink. 4 And his sister stood afar off, to wit what would be done to him.

5 And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river, and her maidens walked along by the river's side: and when she saw the ark among

a 6:16-20. Num. 26:59. 1 e Gen. 6:14. 11:3. 14:10.
Chr. 6.1-3. 23:12-14.
f 15:20. Num. 2:1-15. 20:1.
26:59. Mic. 6:4.

b Acts 7:20. Heb. 11:23.
c 1:22. Matt. 2:13,16. Acts 7:19.
d Is. 18:2.

g 1 Kings 17:6. Ps. 46:1. 76:10.
Prov. 21:1. Jon. 1:17. 2:10.

NOTES.

CHAP. II. V. 2. Miriam, Moses's sister, must have been at least ten years older than he, as it is evident from the history in this chapter: and Aaron was three years older than Moses: but it does not appear that his preservation was attended with any peculiar difficulty; and from this we may infer, with some degree of probability at least, that the last bloody edict was not then enacted. Aaron was born eighty-three years before the Exodus, and Joseph died about a hundred and forty-five years before that event: the edict therefore could not be passed less than sixty-two years after the death of Joseph. But it is not known, how long that prince, "who knew not Joseph," had reigned before the edict was made. Moses when born appeared to be a goodly child; and the notice taken of this in several places, indicates that something extraordinary was observed in him, which was considered as an intimation of his future greatness. His mother therefore hid him three months, which the apostle informs us was done in faith. (Heb. 11:23.) Either she had some peculiar assurance given her of his preservation, or believing in general the promises of deliverance to Israel, she was encouraged to conceal her infant, in dependence on God, though perhaps at the hazard of her own life.

the flags, she sent her maid to fetch it. 6 And when she had opened it she saw the child: and behold the babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children.

7 Then said his sister to Pharaoh's

daughter, Shall I go, and call to thee a
nurse of the Hebrew women, that she
may nurse the child for thee?
8 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto
her, i Go. And the maid went and call-
ed the child's mother.

her, Take this child away and nurse it
9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto
for me, and I will give thee thy wages.
And the woman took the child, and nurs-
ed it.

10 And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, k and he became her son. And she call

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ed his name Moses: and she said, 'Because I drew him out of the water.

[Practical Observations.]

h 1 Kings 8:50. Neh. 1:11. Ps. 4:5. 1 John 3:1.
106:46. Acts 7:21.
*That is, Drawn out.
i Ps. 27:10. Is. 46:3,4. Ez. 16:8.1 Gen. 4:25. 16:11. 1 Sam. 1:20.
k Gen. 48:5. Acts 7:21,22. Gal. Matt. 1:21.

perished, or been devoured by the crocodiles with which the Nile abounds, if Pharaoh's ser. vants had not found him. But she acted in faith, and the Lord answered her expectation. -Perhaps she intended to take him home in the evening, if nothing had intervened; and to carry him out again in the morning, so that if sought after he might not be found.

V.5-9. Had any other persons found the exposed infant, they would scarcely have dared to preserve its life, even if they had been disposed to do so: but Pharaoh's daughter, with her attendants, passing near that part of the river, in going to some convenient place for bathing, (which was customary, not only for refreshment, but as a religious observance,) she discovered the ark, and sent for it. The beautiful babe weeping excited her compassion, so that she determined to bring him up: and when his sister, (probably after some delay, and observing that the company was at a loss how to proceed,) offered to fetch a Hebrew woman to nurse the child, she was sent for one: thus his own mother was employed to nurse him, and well rewarded for her pains!-The manner in which the great Ruler of the world accomplishes his secret purposes, without at all interfering with the free agency of his rational creatures, by imperceptibly leading V. 3, 4. It is probable, that the mother of them, in following their own inclinations and Moses had received some intimation, that she judgments, to such measures as coincide with was discovered, and expected that the execu- his plans, is very observable in all these cir tioners would come and murder the child in the cumstances.-With what admiring joy and house before her eyes. She therefore took for him gratitude must Moses's mother have engaged an ark, or a small basket, formed of rushes, and in her delightful office! And how must she have made water-proof, by being coated with a kind adored the hand of God, in so marvellously anof bitumen and pitch within and without. (Note, swering, and far exceeding, her believing ex1s. 18:2.) Expecting some providential inter-pectations!-A great variety of traditions are position in his behalf, and under the secret handed down to us concerning these events: guidance of the Lord, she placed Moses in this but as there is no certainty in any of them, and ark, concealed it among the flags on the side of the river, and set his sister to watch it. This expedient did not seem likely to answer for any time; as the infant must at length havell

they are neither interesting nor edifying, they may very properly be omitted. The narration as we have it is beautifully simple and concise. V. 10. After Moses had continued a proper

11 ¶ And it came to pass in ses fled from the face of Pharaoh; and 15. those days, when Moses was dwelt in the land of Midian; and sat grown, that he went out unto his breth-down by a well. ren, and looked on their " burdens: and 16 Now the priest of Midian had he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, seven daughters: and they came and one of his brethren. drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.

12 And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in

the sand.

13 And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together: P and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?

17 And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. 18 And when they came to Reuel their father he said, How is it that you are come so soon to-day?

19 And they said, An Egyptian dealivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock.

14 And he said, Who made thee prince and a judge over us? Intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known.

15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Mo

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b

20 And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? Why is it that ye have left the man? Call him that he bread.

с

s 4:19. 1 Kings 19:1-3,13,14.
Jer. 26:21-23. Matt. 10:23.
Acts 7:29.

t Gen. 25:2,4.

u Gen. 24:11. 3:2. John 4:6.
†Or. prince. Gen. 14:18, 41:45.
Marg.

x Gen. 24:14-20. 29:6-10. 1

Sam. 9:11.

may eat

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opportunity of delivering Israel: perhaps he intended openly to join their interests, expecting that they would cordially welcome him, and concur with him in suitable measures; and, considering himself as acting under a divine commission, in defence of the oppressed, he took an opportunity of executing just punishment on one cruel oppressor. In this he seems to have acted rather prematurely; for the spir its of the Israelites were sunk, their disposi tions become servile, and faith and hope were almost extinguished among them.

time with his mother, (from whom he no doubt learnt whose son he was, and received the general principles of true religion,) he was educated and provided for, as the adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter. Tradition reports that she was Pharaoh's only child, and had no offspring of her own, and that Moses was looked upen as presumptive heir to the crown; but all this is very doubtful.--We know however from better authority, that "he was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds." He was certainly much trusted and employed; and in Egypt he acquired those accomplishments, which were afterwards requisite for him, in the important services of standing before Pharaoh, and gov-couraged by finding that his brethren, in their erning Israel.

V. 13-15. When Moses had entered on the execution of his design, he seems to have intended daily to proceed in it: but he was dis

quarrels with each other, were no more disposed to submit to his authority or award, than the Egyptians were; and discovering that his conduct, in slaying the Egyptian, was known, he was aware that the Egyptians would deeply resent it. Perceiving also that the Israelites would not stand by him, and learning soon after that the king sought to slay him, his faith and courage failed him, and he too hastily concluded, that his only safety lay in leaving the country. Thus the deliverance of Israel was delayed forty years, because they rejected their deliverer. In the mean time Egypt filled up, and Canaan was filling up, the measure of their iniquities; the Israelites were rapidly increasing; and Moses was learning to endure hardship, to exercise faith, patience, and meekness; and to walk with God in the lowly and retired life of a shepherd.

V. 11, 12. (Note, Heb. 11:24-26.) During forty years Moses seems to have lived as an Egyptian, and as men of high rank generally do, and not particularly to have regarded his oppressed brethren; but at this time "it came into his heart to visit them," under a firm persuasion that "God by his hand would deliver them," and supposing they would thus understand it. He likewise deliberately purposed to renounce the honors, wealth, and pleasures of his rank among the Egyptians; to cast his lot among Abraham's seed, and to participate in their privileges, especially their relation to the promised Savior; for the sake of which he was willing to share in the reproach and affliction which they endured as the people of God. We suppose that his mother had informed him of his real descent and he would naturally feel an attachment to his people: but he was now made a partaker of that "faith which over- Reuel (18) was prince of a small district upon V. 16. Priest.] Or prince. (Marg.) Probably comes the world;" and, supremely valuing the the eastern shore of the Red Sea; and, still 'reblessings of the new covenant through the Re-taining among his people some knowledge of deemer, he was willing, not only to risk, but to renounce and suffer all for his sake; assured that Israel was the people of God, and that the promises made to them would certainly be accomplished. He therefore went out to seek an 1901

the true God, and regard to his worship, he acted also as a priest over them. The Midianites were the descendants of Abraham by Ke turah. (Gen. 25:2.)

V. 17. Perhaps these shepherds were the

e

Zip

k

21 And Moses was content to dwell of the bondage, and they cried; and their with the man: and he gave Moses cry came up unto God, by reason of the porah his daughter. bondage.

f

22 And she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land. 23 And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died; and the children of Israel sighed by reason

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servants of some other neighboring person, who was rich in flocks and herds.-The scarcity of water, in those hot and sandy regions, gave occasion to these contentions.

V. 21. Content.] This was a singular example of one, brought up as Moses had been, submitting cheerfully to so laborious a business, and to be a servant also in that employment. Yet without doubt these forty years were the happiest of his life.-The events of a long period are here very briefly touched on.-Probably Moses had lived a considerable time with Reuel, before he gave him his daughter; or else he was long married before Zipporah had any children; for after forty years one of his sons seems to have been very young. (4:25.)

PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS.

V. 1-10.

24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. 25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them.

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their very enemies, and their sharpest trials end most comfortably: and God takes care in his providence to qualify both them, and theirs, for whatever service or situation he intends for them. For he very often furnishes the minds of those whom he means to employ, even while inattentive to religion, with those acquisitions of knowledge, which afterwards prove very useful in fitting them for the services to which they are appointed; but which they would neither have had leisure nor inclination to attain, had they previously minded "the one thing needful."

V. 11-25.

How powerful a principle is true faith! How it overcomes the love of the world and the fear of the cross, even when they oppose it with their utmost force! The favor of God, an interest in Christ, and an inheritance among his people, We should take occasion from reading of the are the pre-eminent objects of every believer's cruel scenes, which these Hebrew parents wit- desire: this, joined to the love of Christ and atnessed, and the bitter sorrows which they felt, tachment to his cause, prepares him for making to be thankful that we can bring up our chil- every requisite sacrifice; and that faith which dren with security and comfort. Still howev- refuses to do this is not genuine.-But they, er they are exposed to so many perils, that the who boldly enter upon services for God, must heart of a tender parent must often heave with not only expect fierce opposition from his avowanxious sighs about them: except as enabled, ed enemies; but great discouragement from the by the prayer of faith, to commit them to the lukewarmness, contempt, cowardice, and incare of the Almighty; and to use all means gratitude of his professed servants. And while for their welfare, temporal and spiritual, in contentions among brethren, disgrace and dependence upon his providence and grace. weaken the common cause of religion; he that Then, indeed, we are prepared for every event: would "set them at one again," however gently, for if the Lord have any service for them to must expect to be reproached, as taking too perform, he will preserve their lives, though in much upon him: and this perhaps by both parthe midst of dangers; and surely every Chris- ties, but assuredly by the party which is most tian parent would rather resign the dearest in- in the wrong, and which is always the most imfant to death, than wish it to live wicked, mis-patient of control. These disappointments, chievous, and miserable. And methinks our however, help to correct the forwardness and gracious God says to the believer, when pre- self-sufficiency of hasty zeal, and to prepare senting his infant-offspring to him in baptism, men for their work in its due season.-But our or pouring out his prayers in its behalf: "Take impatience is apt to interpret delays, as deniale; home this child, and bring it up for me, and I to yield to discouragement, when we should will pay thee thy wages." In obedience then only be humbled; and from rash impetuosity to to his command and in expectation of his bless- sink into unbelieving negligence: and perhaps ing, let us bring up our children "in the nurture it requires stronger faith, to be contented in and admonition of the Lord," and cheerfully obscurity and neglect, cheerfully to labor withleave the event with him.-Even among the out any prospect of applause, and patiently to blood-thirsty Egyptians, we meet with a beauti- prepare and wait for future opportunities of ful example of humanity, which will rise up in service, without despondency; than to face judgment against numbers, who live under the danger, out-brave reproach, and suffer perselight of revelation, and are called Christians; cution in some eminent sphere of usefulness.but who are so far from compassionating the The providence of God will find a refuge, and children of others, that they are indolently and raise up friends, for his people; communion with negligently cruel to their own offspring!-They him sweetens every solitude and trial; and it is who carefully watch the conduct of God's prov- our wisdom to inure ourselves to self-denial, idence, experience many signal interpositions that we may be fit for whatever is before us.— in their favor, which excite their admiration To assist the weak, and vindicate the oppressand gratitude, strengthen their faith, and en-ed, to shew kindness and use hospitality, and courage their hope for the future, and thus well requite those who have been serviceable to us, recompense their attention. They frequently are always becoming; nor is modest diligence, find their wants supplied, perhaps even from in any business useful or lawful, a disgrace to

[191

CHAP. III.

Moses feeds the flock of Jethro, 1. God appears to him in a flame of fire in a bush; and sends him to deliver Israel, 2-12. Moses inquires, and is told, the name of God, 13, 14. He is instructed what to speak to Israel, and to Pharaoh, whose decided opposition is foretold, 15-19; and is assured that at last the people shall leave Egypt greatly enriched, 20—22.

NOW

3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.

am I.

4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him OW Moses kept the flock kept the flock of out of the midst of the bush, and said Jethro his father-in-law, the priesth Moses, Moses. And he said, Here of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to d Horeb. 2 And the Angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.

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k

5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.

6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

g Ps. 111:2-4. Acts 7:31.

Hos. 12:4,5. Mal. 3:1. Acts 7: Gen. 22:1,11. 46:2. 1 Sam. 3:

30-35.

f Gen. 15:13-17. Deut. 4:20.
Ps. 66:12. Is. 43:2. Dan, 3:27.
2 Cor. 1:3-10.

the daughters either of a prince or a priest.—|| When assistance appears to us most distant, and deliverance most improbable, they are often near at hand. To God all things are easy, and his whole plan lies before him: he remembers his holy covenant; and, for the purposes of his own glory, he will appear for his people, notwithstanding their sins. Even their groans, extorted by oppression, have a share of his compassionate attention; and in the darkest night of affliction, when they begin to cry to him, the day of deliverance will speedily dawn. -Finally, if Satan's work ceases nct, for want of a succession of instruments; the Lord in answer to our prayers, will certainly furnish laborers for his harvest, in all ages, unto the end of the world.

NOTES.

10. Acts 9:4. 10:3,13.
i 19:12,21. Lev. 10.3. Heb. 12:
20.

k Gen. 28:16,17. Josh. 5:15.
Ec. 5:1. Acts 7:33.
1 15.

Gen. 17:7,8. 28:13. 1
Kings 18:36. Matt. 22.32.

Acts 7:32.

instruct men in the knowledge and worship of the true God, and to withdraw them from idolatry of every kind; if we do not allow the doctrine of the coequality and deity of the Son of God, and that he is the Speaker in this place?Fire is a scriptural emblem of the divine holiness and justice; of that vengeance which, in his righteous indignation, God inflicts on sinners; of the afflictions and trials by which he proves and purifies his people, whether immedi ately, or by instruments; and even of that baptism of the Holy Ghost, by which the dross of sinful affections is consumed, and the soul transformed into its own nature and image. (Note, Matt. 3:11,12.)-This fire was seen in a bush, not in a cedar. A bramble or thorn bush is prickly, and of little use except for fuel, bat easily and speedily burnt; yet the bush was not consumed. The emblem was primarily intend

It has also been

meanness and unworthiness, their extreme dis-
tress, and their marvellous preservation by the
power and presence of God: but Israel was in
this a type of the Church, exposed to persecu-
tion; and of a believer, grievously harassed by
temptations and afflictions.
thought, that the fire in the bush represented
the manner in which the law would be given
from the adjacent mountain; the nature of that
law as given to sinners; and the deliverance of
the people from the destruction to which they
were thus exposed. The name Sinai scems de
rived from the word (D) rendered a bush,
either with reference to this bush, or to the
bushes which grew upon it.

CHAP. III. V. 1. Some expositors are of opin-ed to describe the state of Israel in Egypt; their ion, that Reuel, or Raguel, was grandfather to Zipporah, that Jethro was her father, and that Hobab, afterwards mentioned, was her brother: others suppose that Reuel was her father, and that Jethro was her brother, and brother-in-law to Moses, which the word may signify: but the Septuagint use the names Reuel and Jethro, indiscriminately, for the father-in-law of Moses. (2:18. Num. 10:29.)-Horeb was called "the mountain of God" by way of anticipation; as Moses wrote for those, who knew it by that title after the law had there been given.-Sinai and Horeb are supposed to be two summits of a mountain, which had the same base. It was situated in the interior parts of the desert, at some considerable distance from Jethro's habitation; and probably Moses led the flock thither for better pasturage. Moses was taken from 'the sheep-fold, (as David in after times,) to be 'ruler of God's people: 'for as hunting of wild beasts,' says Philo, 'is proper to men of a mar'tial genius, and fits men to be captains and 'generals of armies: so the feeding of sheep is the best exercise and preparation for a kingdom, and the gentle government of man"kind." Bp. Patrick.-These governors were also types of the "Good Shepherd who laid down his life for the sheep."

V. 2. This Angel is afterwards called JEHOVAH, and God (4, 6).-"God called to him out of the midst of the bush;" and he said, "I AM THAT I AM." With what propriety can this language be used, in a revelation expressly intended to 192]

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V. 4, 5. No appearance of the Lord is record ed since Jacob's descent into Egypt, above two hundred years before; and Moses, when addressed by name, must have been as much surprised by what he heard, as by what he saw.He might reverently at a distance contemplate the object before him, for his instruction and encouragement; but he must not presume to gratify his curiosity, by a nearer approach, or by particular examination. He was also direct. ed to put off his shoes, as an external token of humble reverence; for the spot became holy ground by this vision of the Almighty, and should thus be regarded by him. Probably, this was, at that time and in those countries, a customary expression of reverence and veneration(Note, Josh. 5:13-15.)-It is supposed by many learned men, that the priests officiated barefoot

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