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18 But with thee will I establish my covenant: and thou shalt " come into the ark; thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.

19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark to keep them alive with thee: they shall be male and female.

20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind: P two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.

21 And take thou unto thee of 9 all

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V. 18. This is the first place in which the word covenant occurs; and it seems to relate to the gracious assurance, which God gave Noah, that the earth should not be destroyed by a second deluge. (Marg. Ref.)-Sons.] None of Noah's sons were born a hundred years before the flood; but the command might be given prophetically in this respect as well as in others. It is however probable, that the first intimations of the approaching deluge were given some years, before the command for building the ark: yet this was a work of so great labor, that much time must have been employed

about it.


V. 1-7.

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In the worst of times, God hath "a remnant according to the election of grace:" and they who would please him must dare to be singular. These believe his truth, and obey his commandments; they hear his warnings, and fear, but do not despair; they embrace his promises, and hope, but do not presume; they stand in awe, and do not find fault; they expect safety upon There is scarcely a more lamentable proof of the warrant of his word; and they refuse no a decay in vital godliness, or a more effectual obedience, however burdensome, expensive, or means of hastening it, than intermarriages be- self-denying.-But in the warning to Noah, twixt professors of true religion and its avowed || there is one more solemn given to us, "to flee enemies. In all ages there seems to have been from the wrath to come," which, with tremena peculiar curse of God on them; the evil cx-dous efficacy, will sweep all unbelievers into ample of the ungodly party generally corrupts the other; family-religion is put an end to; and the children, almost universally, are trained up according to the maxims of the ungodly parent. If we profess ourselves to be "the sons and daughters of the Lord almighty," we must not marry in opposition to his will: and he will not allow us to prefer beauty, wit, wealth, or honorable alliances, to piety.-Though "the Lord is slow to anger and of great kindness," yet his "Spirit will not always strive with men;" and when they persist in sin, in defiance of his word, and the convictions of their own consciences, he will at length totally withdraw from them, and permit them to be hardened to their ruin. If he is so grieved by our sin, as to destroy the work of his own hands, how reasonable is it that we should mourn for it, and that we should show our repentance by seeking its destruction! They whom the world admires as "men of renown,' are often, in the judgment of God, and even of common sense, no better than cruel tyrants and oppressors: let us then desire that honor which cometh from God” on those who do good; not that which comes from man upon those who do mischief.-But, what is now become of "the image and likeness of God?" Doth man now merit to be pronounced VERY GOOD by the LORD himself? Alas! the old serpent, that proud ambitions apostate, rebel, liar, and murderer, hath filled the earth with his detestable progeny! Yet, how few are aware that the description here given of human

the pit of destruction. Christ (the true "Noah, which same shall comfort us,") hath, at infinite expense, already prepared the ark, and kindly invites us to enter in. Whilst the day of his patience continues, let us obediently hear his voice, and thankfully sue for admission, which will then be readily vouchsafed us.-But let it be observed, that they who "go about to estabish their own righteousness," act as Noah would have done, had he substituted a high tower on a mountain, according to his own wisdom, for his place of security, instead of the ||ark which God had appointed.

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CHAP. VII. V. 1. At the appointed time, when all needful preparations had been made, Noah was directed to enter with his family into the ark; because the Lord had "seen him righteous before him in that generation." The apostle says, that he "became heir of the righteousness which is by faith." (Notes, 6:8,9. Heb. 11:7.) The same principle which induced him to believe, on the testimony of God, and contrary to all human probability, that the deluge would come at the appointed season, would move him "to flee from the wrath to come:" and as he believed, that in the ark alone he could be safe from the approaching deluge; so he doubtless believed the revelation of a Savior, and sought and expected salvation through him alone. Thus he was "justified by faith:" and being likewise a partaker of that Spirit, whose

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4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights: and every living substance that I have made, will I destroy from off" the face of the earth.


5 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.

6 And Noah was six hundred years old, when the flood of waters was upon the earth.

7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.

8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth,

9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.

c 8:20. Lev. 11: Deut. 14:1- h 6:22. Ex. 39:42,43. Ps. 119:6.
21. Acts 10:11-15.
Matt. 3:15. Luke 8:21. John 2:
5. 13:17.

feb. seven, seven.

d Lev. 10:10. Ez. 44:23.

e 10. 6:3, 8:10, 12. 29:27,28. f 12,17.

g 21-23. 6:17.

Heb. blot out. Ex. 32:32,33. Ps. 69:28. Rev. 3:5.

i 5:32. 8:13.

k 1. 6:18. Prov. 22:3. Heb. 6:

12:19. Is. 11:6-9, 65:25. Gal.
3:28. Col. 3.11.

"fruit is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth;" he was righteous in his character and conduct; that is, devoted to God, and "walking before him in all his ordinances and commandments, blameless."

V. 2, 3. It is probable, that the clean beasts signify such as were not rapacious, and which were exclusively offered in sacrifice by the express appointment of God. They were also such as were most serviceable to man. The grant of animal food seems not to have been explicitly made before the flood; the distinction of meats could not therefore have been appointed. Seven couple of the clean beasts seem to have been preserved. Some indeed suppose that only three couple, and the seventh animal for sacrifice, were meant. (8:20.)-There inust have been a very extraordinary miracle wrought, perhaps by the ministration of angels, in bringing two of every species to Noah, and rendering them submissive to him, and peaceable with each other: yet it seems not to have made any impression on the hardened spectators! The suspension of the ferocity of the savage beasts, during their continuance in the ark, is generally considered as an apt figure of the change, which takes place in the disposition of sinners, when they enter the true church of Christ; (Note, Is. 11:6-9.) but it may also remind us of the hypocrite's external good havior, though his nature is not changed.

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10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.

11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were m all the fountains of the great deep bro ken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

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12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.

13 In the self-same day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark:

14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.

15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life.

16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had com

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ordinary occasion, was made to the original constitution of marriage, "they twain shall be one flesh:" a decisive proof that polygamy is contrary to the original institution of marriage, and not at all needful for the increase of the human species, or even conducive to it.

V. 10-12. "The long-suffering of God had waited" a hundred and twenty years; and, as many think, seven days more; but at length the days of vengeance arrived.-"Behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters on the earth," saith the LORD. Thus speaks the Almighty, and it is absurd to question whether Omnipotence could effect the deluge. Every attempt to explain the manner, in which the earth was overflowed, too much resembles the presumption of those who inquired, "How are the dead raised up? and with what body do they come?" It is no more incredible that God should drown the world, than that he should raise the dead: and, by his almighty power, he caused "the waters from above the firmament, and the waters under the firmament," which he had before separated, to meet together for that purpose. (Note, 1:9.) "The fountains of the great deep were broken up;" and, by some vast convulsions, the waters from the bowels of the earth and from the depths of the ocean, were forced upwards; while the windows or be-flood-gates of heaven "were opened,” and rain poured out impetuously in cataracts, or waterspouts, without intermission, for forty days and nights, in every part of the globe, till a universal deluge was effected.-Probably this commenced about the beginning of November; for the patriarchal year began in September.

V. 7. Sons' wives.] Though each of Noah's three sons was at this time nearly a hundred years old, and none of them had any children living; and the whole earth was about to be desolated: yet no exception, even on this extra

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manded him: and the LORD shut him


[Practical Observations.]

17 T And the flood was forty days upon the earth: and the waters increased, and bare up the ark; and it was lifted up above the earth.

18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth: and the ark went upon the face of the waters.

19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered.

20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. 21 And all flesh died that moved upon

P Ps. 91:1-10.


Matt. 25:10. Luke13:25. John 10:27-30. 1 Pet. 1:5.

q Job 12:15. Ps. 46:2,3. 104:6

4. 6:6,7. 2 Pet. 3:6.

V. 16. Shut him in.] No doubt this was done by the ministration of angels, and as an evident miracle in the view of all the spectators, of whom numbers, from different motives, might be collected.-Probably, the door of this vast structure was too massy, to be securely closed by the few persons within the ark. Thus the Lord gave Noah a pledge of his acceptance and his care of him; and by the same token he shut out all the rest of mankind, and sealed their condemnation.-But had Noah's preaching no effect? Were there no other believers upon the whole earth? We may probably suppose, that many had been previously taken away from the evil to come; for Methuselah is computed to have died the year before the flood, or in that very year. But it seems evident, that there were no godly persons among the survivors, however some might have been alarmed, affected, or convinced: for there was room enough in the ark; and it does not appear that any were refused admittance.-Indeed, our Lord has informed us of the real state of the case: "They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all." Luke 17:27. Thus they encouraged one another in contemptuous disobedience; and if any were at all disposed to pay regard to the divine warning, they either procrastinated, or were afraid of being singular. But what must have been their feelings, when, at the appointed time, it began to rain in so extraordinary a manner, and continued to do so from week to week incessantly; the waters still rising, and following them to the eminences on which they ascended! How much soever they had before despised Noah's madness, or pitied his weakness; they would now remember his warnings, admire his wisdom, and envy his happiness; while they cursed their own folly and impenitence.

V. 17-19. At the end of forty days the wafers were so raised, that the ark was afloat: but they increased exceedingly afterwards, by the continuance of the same causes, though perhaps with some intermission. Thus the deluge|| prevailed till "all the high hills under the whole heaven were covered." This decidedly proves the deluge to have been strictly universal; though some learned men have argued against this: but in eed traces of the deluge are found in all parts ofue earth, and some confused tradition of it every where prevails.

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V. 20-23. The waters at length arose to be above eight yards deep on the top of the highest mountains: so that every project for security was frustrated; every advantage of situation was unavailing. Some might escape longer than others; but, first or last, all men, except those in the ark, perished. And with the human species most of the animals perished also. (Is. 34:1-6.) Indeed, the faithful and powerful protection of God was Noah's only security, in this wild tumult of the elements: and the presence of God was his only comfort in this dreary confinement, and in witnessing the dire devastation of the earth and its inhabitants, and especially of the human species; of his companions, his neighbors, his relatives; of those, to whom he had preached, for whom he had prayed, and over whom he had wept, many of whom had even helped to build the ark. (2 Pet. 2:5.)


V. 1-16.

Numbers in every age "despise the riches of the goodness, and forbearance, and longsuffering of God, not knowing that his goodness leads to repentance: but after their hardness and impenitent heart they treasure up wrath against the day of wrath;" till judgment come upon them to the uttermost. But in all this the Lord's purposes are effected, his predictions accomplished, and his justice displayed.-Our short span of life will speedily come to a close, even though we should linger out our threescore years and ten. Yes, the last week, the last day, the last hour, will soon surprise us, if we be not always watching and ready; and with no less tremendous consternation and terrible destruction, than the deluge did those in the days of Noah. If when "the Master of the house has risen up, and shut to the door," we be found without, it will then be too late to knock for admittance. For the threatenings of the Lord, however now neglected or despised, will as certainly be fulfilled as his promises: and there is a time coming, when they, who have most affected to pity or deride the godly, will admire or envy them.

V. 17-24.

What a triumph was here of death, even "over those who had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression!" and how did the whole creation groan under man's sin: But, though we may indulge the hope that the

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God remembers Noah, and assuages the waters, 1-3. The ark
He leaves
rests on the mountains of Ararat, 4, 5. Noah sends forth a ra-
ven, and then a dove, to gain intelligence, 6-12.
the ark, offers sacrifices, and is accepted and encouraged, 13—



went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.

8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off

face of the ground.

9 But the dove "found no rest for the AND God remembered Noah, and the every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God sole of her foot, and she returned unto the face of the whole earth. Then he made a wind to pass over the earth, and him into the ark: for the waters were on the waters assuaged.

2 The fountains also of the deep, and the windows of heaven were stopped, and

e the rain from heaven was restrained.


3 And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters

were abated.

4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. 5 And the waters + decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month were the tops of the mountains seen.

6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made.

7 And he sent forth a raven, which
*Heb. in going and returning.

a 19:29. 30:22. Ex. 2:24. 1 Sam.
1:19. Neh. 13:14,22,29,31. Job
14:13. Ps. 106:4. 132:1. 136:23.
137:7. Am. 8:7. Rev. 16:19.

D Num. 22:32. Ps. 36:6. Jon. 4: 11.

c Ex. 14:21.

d 7:11. Prov. 8:28. Jon. 2:3.

e Job 37:11-13. 38:37. Matt. 8: 26,27.

f 7:24.

g 7:17-19.
h Jer. 51:27.

Heb. were in going and de


i 7:11.

k 6:16.

1 Lev. 11:15. 1 Kings 17:4,6 Job

put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark.

10 And he stayed yet other ¶ seven days, and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark.

11 And the dove came in to him in the

evening, and lo, in her mouth was an olive-leaf plucked off. So Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the


12 And he stayed yet other seven days, and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more.

13 And it came to pass in the "six hundredth and first year, in the first month, dried from off the earth: and Noah up the first day of the month, the waters were removed the covering of the ark; and looked, and behold, the face of the ground was dry.

Heb. in going forth and re-

m Cant. 1:15. 2:11,12,14. Matt.

n Deut. 28:65. Ezek. 7:16. Matt.
11:28. John 16:33.

o Ps. 116:7. Is. 60:8.
Heb. caused her to come.

Ps. 40:1. Is. 8:17. Rom. 8:25.
q 12. 7:4,10.

r Neh. 8:15. Zech. 4:12-14.
s Ps. 27:14. 130:5,6. Is. 25:9
26:8. Hab. 2:3. Jam. 5:7,8
t10. 2:2,3.

u 7:11.

takers of faith and holiness, they will not escape eternal destruction.-Finally, though there is great difference of character among men, and we are apt to imagine some favorable distinctions in our own case: yet, if we neglect, refuse, or abuse the salvation of Christ, we shall, notwithstanding such imaginary advantages, be overwhelmed in the common destruction of an unbelieving world.


multitude of infants, who died without their own actual sin, through the first Adam's transgression, obtained life without their own actual faith, through the second Adam's obedience; yet we are constrained to admit, that the same deluge, which swept the rest of that generation from the earth, swept their souls into the prison of hell. How tremendous then will be "the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men!" and what will be the feelings of those, who, in contempt of the divine testimony, treat the CHAP. VIII. V. 1-3. The flood continued "things not seen as yet" as unreal, though rea considerable time after the inhabitants of the vealed by the infallible testimony of God; when they shall at length be seen, but seen too late! earth were destroyed; and Noah might be Happy they, who are part of Christ's family, tempted to be weary of his confinement, and and safe with him in the ark! they may look almost to question whether "the LORD had not prayers, forward without dismay, and rejoice in the as- forgotten to be gracious:" but at length "God surance, that they shall triumph, when a deluge remembered" him, by hearing his of fire shall encircle the visible creation. But, preparing for the release of him and his family; and also of the animals which were with him in unless we dare to be singular, and renounce the favor, and venture the scorn and hatred of the ark, which is specially noted.-By a strong, the world; unless we are willing to exercise dry wind the clouds were dispersed, and so the self-denial and diligence; we can find no ad- || rain ceased; and the miraculous interposition mission into this ark. And, even in the ark, being withdrawn, things reverted to their forThus the waters, in going and rewhile in this world, we shall need faith and patience, and have much to try them.-Though turning, were in part evaporated, and in part ran off into the lower countries and the bed of we should lament, we need not wonder at, the prevalence of impiety; nor should faithful min- the ocean, or sunk into caverns in the bowels of isters despond, if their success be not so large the earth. as their expectations; for the most eminent and favored servants of God have experienced the same disappointments.-Ungodly children often receive temporal mercies for their parents' sake; but unless they themselves are made par

mer course.


V. 4, 5. On the seventeenth day of the sev enth month of the year, (as it is most probable, just five months, or a hundred and fifty day from the beginning of the flood, the waters were so far abated, that the ark rested on on?

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14 And in the second month, on the l seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.

15 ¶ And God spake unto Noah, saying, 16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee.

17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful and multiply upon the earth.

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18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him: 19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.

x 7:1,7,13. Josh. 3:17.4:10,16
13. Ps. 121:8. Dan. 3:25,26.
Zech. 9:11. Acts 16:27,28,37-

y 7:14,15.

z 1:22. 9:7. Ps. 107:38. 144:13,
14. Jer. 31:17,28.

*Heb. families.

of the summits of mount Ararat. This is sup-
posed to mean a ridge of mountains, extending
from Armenia eastward to a great distance.
The word Ararat is elsewhere translated Ar-
menia, but it is not agreed whether the ark
rested in Armenia, or more towards the east.
It was, however, no doubt on some lofty summit;
as it was almost three months longer before
the tops of the mountains were seen. (Marg.
Ref.) If we had been a long and dangerous
at sea, we should be better able to con-
'ceive of the joy which this sight must have oc-
'casioned.' Fuller.

V. 6-14. Forty days after the tops of the mountains became visible, Noah sent out a raven, in order that he might learn the state of the earth: but, as this bird was used to feed on flesh, it either returned no more; or, as some think, it continued to come back to the ark, and again to leave it, without being received into it, till the waters were dried up. After seven days therefore, as the subsequent language implies, (10,) he sent forth a dove which soon returned, and was taken into the ark; and on a second trial she brought an olive-branch in her mouth. This was a token that some of the fruitful plains were dried, and the vegetables preserved. On the third trial the dove returned no more. The repeated mention of seven days seems an intimation of the observance of the sabbath in the ark; after the ordinances of which, the dove was sent out.-The olive-branch, probably from some obscure tradition of this event, has generally been the emblem of peace. Thus also the Holy Spirit, whose emblem is a dove, by his consolations brings to the broken-hearted believer the olive-branch of peace and reconciliation with God.-According to the computation of time used in Scripture, Noah and his company continued in the ark a year and ten days. (7:11.)

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20 And Noah builded an altar unto
the LORD, and took of every clean beast,
and of every clean fowl, and offered
burnt-offerings on the altar.
21 And the LORD smelled a sweet
savor; and the LORD said in his heart, I
will not again curse the ground any more
for man's sake; for the imagination of
man's heart is evil from his youth: & nei-
ther will I again smite any more every
thing living, as I have done.




22 While the earth remaineth, seed-
time and harvest, and cold and heat, and
summer and winter, and day and night,
shall not cease.

a 4:4. 12:7,8. 13:4. 22:9. 26:25. | f 6:5. Job 14:4. 15:14-16 Ps.
51:5. Is. 47:12,15. 48:8. John
33:20. 35:1,7. Ex. 20:24,25.
3:6. Rom. 1.21. 8:7,8. Eph. 2:

24:4-8. Heb. 13:10,15,16.

b 7:2. Lev. 11:

c Lev. 1:

2 Cor. 2:15.
Amos 5:21,22.
d Lev. 1:9,17. 26:31. Ez. 20:41.
Eph. 5:2. Phil. 4:18.
Heb. savor of rest.

e 3:17. 4:12. 5:29. 6:17.
+ Or, though.

g 9:11-15 Is. 54:9,10.

2 Pet. 3:6,7.

Heb. As yet all the days of
the earth.

i 45:6. Ex. 34:21. Jer. 5:24.
Jam. 5:7.

k Jer. 33:20-26.

pear, that there had been any increase of them during that time.

V. 20-22. This is the first time that an altar is mentioned; and the word rendered burntseems to have been of the same nature, and was offerings here first occurs: yet Abel's offering probably laid on some kind of altar. By these burnt-offerings, Noah, in faith, ascribed his preservation to the mercy of God through the promised Savior; he rendered to him a tribute of fervent gratitude and adoration; he devoted himself and family to his service; and he sought further protection and blessing amidst the desolations which surrounded him.-The smell of burning flesh could in itself be no more pleasing to God, than "the blood of bulls or of goats:" but as it typified the sacrifice of Christ, and expressed Noah's obedient faith and grateful love, the Lord graciously accepted it, and promised that he would no more curse the earth; that is, curse was not removed, nor is it clear that it after the manner of the flood: for the original was mitigated. He added, "for," or though, (Morg.) "the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth." The flood washed away that generation of wicked men, but it did not remove depravity from man's nature; who, being conceived and born in sin, thinks, devises, and loves wickedness, even from his youth; and that as much since the flood as before. Other methods indeed would be used to repress wickedness, but a universal deluge should no more be employed for that purpose; nor should any other year, like the past, occur to the end of the world, in which there was neither sowing nor reaping.-Partial failures of seed-time and harvest, or other irregularities, are not inconsistent with this gracious assurance; according to which the heavenly bodies have ever since presions, and the earth hath produced its increase served their courses, the seasons their succesfor the use of man, notwithstanding his ingratitude. And on this word we depend, that thus it shall be "till the mystery of God is finished."

V. 15-19. Noah had made observations on the state of the earth, and preparations for leaving the ark; but he waited God's command PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. before he actually quitted it.-It seems that, by The Lord "knoweth how to reserve the wicka peculiar providential interposition, no animal [5" of any sort had died, though they had been shut up in the ark above a year! and it does not ap-ed unto the day of judgment to be punished,"



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