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mediate place. Paradise, it is said, is no other than the upper and better part of άδης. But to me it is evident, that the paradise of the Scriptures has no connexion with ons at all. It is heaven—the third heaven-where are the throne of God and the Lamb. Of what, I ask, was the earthly paradise-the garden of innocence—where grew the literal tree of life,—the symbol or emblem ? Not of the upper part of ądns, but of heaven, where grows the tree of life above. The Apostle Paul represents himself as having been “ caught up into the third heaven”—“ into paradise," where he “ heard unspeakable words.” 2 Cor. 12: 2, 4. No person, I am sure, could ever have regarded the Apostle, in this short passage, as referring to two distinct visions, and as describing two different places, under the terms, “third heaven,” and “paradise,” unless he had first got his notions of paradise from some foreign source, and then felt it necessary to break in the passage, that it might correspond with his preconceived views. The writer of the Apocalypse, in one place, represents the tree of life as growing in the heavenly city, near to the throne of God and the Lamb. Chap. 22: 2. In another place, he represents this same tree as growing in the midst of the paradise of God. Chap. 2: 7. The conclusion is, that the heavenly city and paradise are one and the same place. Hence, the paradise, which our Saviour promised to the penitent thief, on the very day of his death, was heaven. This is the happy place, to which the glorified spirit of the Saviour went, while absent from the body, and to which all the spirits of the righteous are received, when they depart out of the present world.*

4. The case of Moses and Elias, on the mount of transfiguration, has an important bearing on the question before us. One of these personages appeared there as a disembodied spirit; the other with his glorified body. The latter, we know, when he left the earth, was taken up, by a whirlwind, into heaven.” 2 Kings 2: 11. In all probability, he came from heaven, when he met his Saviour on the mount. Is it not morally certain, that Moses came also from the same place?

opened and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God." And he prayed and said: “ Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” Acts 7: 56, 59. Who can believe that this prayer was rejected; and that Stephen, instead of being received up to heaven, was sent down to ģins, where he remains imprisoned to the present time?

6. The Apostle Paul represents the whole church of God as being, at present, in heaven, or on earth. “Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named.” Eph. 3: 15. I see not how this representation can be reconciled with the idea, that a great part of God's redeemed family—and probably the greater part—are now neither in heaven nor on earth, but in çons, the dark and secluded prison of unbodied souls.

7. We are taught by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews, that in the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, there dwell, not only God, the judge of all, and Jesus, the mediator of the new covenant, and an innumerable company of angels, but also the spirits of just men made perfect. Chap. 12: 21–24. All are represented as dwelling together, in the same holy and happy place.

8. In several passages in the epistles of Paul, the souls of the saints, while absent from the body, are represented as being with Christ in heaven. “ We know that, if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved”-in other words, if the body die we know that we have a building of God, a house not made with hands”-where? “eternal in the heavens.” “We are willing rather to be absent from the body and present with the Lord.” 2 Cor. 5: 1, 8. “I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ, which is far better." Phil. 1: 23. “ Who died for us, that whether we wake or sleep,” i. e. whether we live or die, "we should live together with him." 1 Thess. 5: 10. These passages of Scripture, if there were no other, are decisive. They prove, beyond all reasonable controversy, that the souls of believers, while absent from the body, are with Christ - the risen and glorified Saviour in heaven.

I know it is said, that Christ may be, in some sense, in aans, and that Paul expected to be with him there. And so is Christ, in some sense, with his people on earth; and Paul, on this ground, need have been in no strait betwixt living and dying,

presence of Christ-the glorified God-man and Mediator and not have been in heaven? Could he have gone to that “ building of God”--that "house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens"--and still not have been in heaven? There ought to be no question here.

9. The beloved John, in his visions on the isle of Patmos, saw, in a great many instances, the spirits of the just made perfect in heaven. It was these which sung that new song saying: Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation.” Chap. 5: 9. None but redeemed spirits can ever sing such a song as this. On another occasion, John“ saw a great multitude which no man could number, of all nations, and kindred, and people, and tongues”-of course gathered from the earthstanding before the throne of God, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands." Chap. 7:9. On still another occasion, John saw " the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a hundred and forty four thousand” redeemed spirits; and they sung a new song, which no beings in heaven could sing, except themselves. Chap. 14: 1–3. At another time, John saw in heaven “ the souls of them which had been slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held." Chap. 6: 9. I might quote many other passages from this wonderful book, proving as certainly as that there is any heaven, that the souls of redeemed saints are there.

It may be said, in reply, that the place described above the happy abode of the spirits of the just, where they sing the new song

of redeeming love—is only the better part of qons. To this I answer :

1. If the upper region of Qors is such a place as is here set forth, I have no objection to the thing itself, but only to the bad name by which it is called. For this, surely, is a bad name. It is the name, uniformly, of a bad place. The cold and silent grave is the least gloomy prison to which it is ever applied in the Scriptures. In the New Testament, it is most commonly used to set forth the prison of despair. Why should the blessed abodes of the righteous in the other world be ever designated by such a name?

2. The place described by John and Paul is no part of asrs. It is heaven. If there is any heaven spoken of or promised in


6 God

the Scriptures, it is here. It is “ a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.” It is inhabited by

innumerable company of angels.” It is near the throne of God and the Lamb. "It is expressly and repeatedly called heaven by the Apostle John. In the commencement of his vision, he saw a door opened in heaven. And the vision throughout is a heavenly vision, in which the glorified spirits of the just are represented as mingling with angels, with Jehovah and the Lamb.

But it is time that I turn to the other part of the subject, and show, in few words, that the souls of the wicked at death go immediately to hell—the place prepared for the devil and his angels. It is admitted by the advocates of the intermediate place, that the souls of the wicked, when they leave the body, go immediately into punishment : but the place of their punishment, previous to the resurrection, is not hell; it is Tartarusthe lower and more miserable part of ấons. But it is certain from the Scriptures, that Tartarus is hell—the very prison of the devils—the place prepared for their confinement and punishment. So it is represented in the only verse of the New Testament in which there is any mention of Tartarus. spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell (Tartarus), and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.” 2 Peter 2: 4. Here then is that place, prepared for the devil and his angels, into which, our Saviour has assured us, the wicked of our race shall be plunged, at the close of the judgment. “Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.” Matt. 25: 41. Beyond all question, this place is hell the hell of the New Testament; and if it be still insisted that this is in ons, I admit it. A18ns is hell; at least, as the term is commonly used in the New Testament. In two or three instances, it signifies the grave, but much more frequently, the prison of the devils and of damned souls; in which case it has substantially the same meaning with Tartarus, and Gehenna, and with the strictest propriety is rendered hell.

Whether the righteous and wicked, after the judgment, will go to literally the same places, in which they were situated before, it is not material to inquire. But, both before and after the judgment, the righteous will be in the same place with their glorified Saviour and his holy angels; and this will be heaven; and, both before and after the judgment, the wicked will be in the same place with the devil and his angels; and this will be hell. It may be added, too, that both before and after the judgment, heaven and hell will not be the same place, nor different apartments of the same general region; but will be widely and eternally separated, the one from the other.

I have thus examined, in as few words as possible, and with all the scrutiny and fairness of which I am capable, the question of an intermediate place. And I feel constrained to reject the theory, as one having no real foundation, or countenance, in the Word of God. I regard it as of heathen, and not Christian origin-one better becoming a believer in the mythology of ancient Greece and Rome, than a disciple of the Saviour. I regard the theory, too, as of dangerous influence. Could it be generally received by Christians, it would be followed in a few years, I have no doubt, with prayers for the dead, and with the doctrine of a future probation and restoration,-perhaps, with all the superstitions of purgatory. This is the course which the error took in the ancient church; and there is every reason for supposing that it would take the same again. The believers of God's truth should then beware. Let them learn wisdom from the ages which have gone before them. Let them hold fast the form of sound words which they have received, and not be driven about by every wind of doctrine.



Elements of Mental Philosophy, embracing the two depart.

ments of the Intellect and Sensibilities, in two Vols: A Philosophical and Practical Treatise on the Will. Form

ing a third Volume of a System of Mental Philosophy: Elements of Mental Philosophy abridged, and designed for

Academies and High Schools. By Thomas C. Upham,
Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy in Bowdoin

College. New-York. Harper & Brothers. 1841. THESE works have been the result of the long experience and extensive researches of the author as an instructer in the departments of Mental and Moral Philosophy. His “Elements of Mental Philosophy," as first published, a number of years

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