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reform. On the reorganization of the university in 1832, he was dismissed with a pension. His death, which occurred a few months ago, produced a general sensation of regret throughout Germany: a costly monument is to be erected to his memory by the citizens of Freiburg.
The work before us is justly regarded as one of the ablest historical productions of the present century. Its popularity has been almost without a parallel. More than 100,000 copies, in various forms, have been sold in Germany; and it has been translated into severel European languages. It ought not to be supposed, however, that the General History is merely popular ; a term which too often means attractive but superficial, elegant without penetration or depth. On the contrary, while the narrative is always well sustained, and sometimes eloquent, its philosophy is comprehensive and profound. According to his definition, “the History of the World is a continuous representation of all the principal revolutions of the carth and mankind, by which we may become acquainted with the present and past condition of both and its causes." It holds, therefore, a middle ground between an exhibition which is too ideal and argumentative, and a dry collection of facts. It differs from the History of Mankind, inasmuch as the latter has less of narrative, giving results rather than facts and dwelling mainly on the course of the human race as a whole. It differs from Universal llistory, inasmuch as the latter is a general repository of all the memorable occurrences of all times and places and kinds, while the former selects only the events of the world,—those occurrences which have exerted the greatest influence, mediately and immediately, on the condition of man.
Rotteck adopts the usual division of history into Ancient, Middle and Modern. The first period extends to the great migration of nations, -A. D. 395; the second, to the discovery of the two Indies,—1492 ; the third, to 1831. Each of these intervals is again divided into three shorter periods. The first volume is devoted to Ancient History; the second, to the Middle Ages; the two last, to Modern History. The fourth volume begins with the French Revolution. It is the design of the author, as he travels down from age to age, to present to the reader, not the greatest number and variety of facts, but the most comprehensive and satisfactory view of society as a whole—its changes, its improvements, the lessons of wisdom it imparts and the hopes it inspires. He is peculiarly instructive, therefore, on many subjects which have
received too little attention in most of our general histories.
We are sorry that we cannot close our notice without adverting to one objectionable feature of this valuable work. We have been much pained by the author's want of respect for biblical history. It is a favorite theory of German historians that the province of history embraces only natural events: the supernatural they resign to theologians. This theory appears to have been adopted by Rotteck; in pursuance of which he affects to have nothing to do with the facts of Revelationa But facts so important in the history of the world could not be passed over without notice. They must either be adopted, as historical verities, or discredited. Our author has ventured on the latter alternative. The third chapter of Genesis, he thinks,“ is similar to the box of Pandora, and several other fables of different nations, showing the same tendency;" though “the Mosaic fable is distinguished by more true and significant images.” “The scientific inquirer" "admits Noah by no means to be the second ancestor of mankind, but is contented with the first ancestor, Adam, if he is inclined to admit such a general origin anywhere. He by no means appropriates to history the accessory circumstances related by Moses, of what is called the deluge, which are connected with the description of it, as a divine punishment, but resigns them to theologians. According to such views he necessarily rejects every theory of the population of the earth, which is confined to the sons of Noah." "The population of Egypt and its civilization are more ancient than the deluge.” In the wonders which were wrought at the exodus of the Israelites, “we can often discern a real fact” “which easily took the form of the miracle, sometimes by its peculiar nature, sometimes by the enthusiasm of those upon whom it operated, and, perhaps, also, by a sage policy of the narrator, which was adapted to the time.” In speaking of the legislation of Moses, he says: “It was not the divine Spirit, which is a Spirit of love and justice, that suggested to Moses those inhuman laws against Canaan.” His account of the early spread of Christianity leaves out of view entirely “the mighty power of God." His notice of several religious controversies is not altogether candid and impartial. We regret that we are obliged to mention these faults in a work of such distinguished excellence. In the next edition, we hope the translator, who has generally done his work well, will enter his caveat by appending suitable notes to the objectionable passages.
4.-The Martyr Lamb; or Christ the Representative of his Peo
ple in all Ages. Translated from the German of F.W. Krummacher, D. D. Author of Elijah the Tishbite, etc.
New-York: Robert Carter. 1841. pp. 288. 5.-The Flying Roll ; or Free Grace displayed. By F.W.
Krummacher, D. D. Author of Elijah the Tishbite. New
York : M. W. Dodd. 1841. pp. 296. The popularity of this attractive and spiritual writer is not at all surprising. It is seldom that a voice from Germany finds its way so directly and irresistibly to our hearts. We are constantly importing the multifarious learning of that distant land, but we are able to reckon among our treasures very little religion. The bones are very many and very dry. But Krummacher comes to us, not as a scholar, but as a Christian brother. He speaks 'a language which needs no interpreter, because it is the language of the heart, the world
These volumes are like those which have alredy been published in this country. They will be expected, of course, to bear the impress of the author's peculiar style. They abound in expositions of Scripture, sometimes fanciful, but always interesting and often exceedingly instructive. At the same time, they bring out strongly and boldly his doctrinal sympathies; and exhibit him as a fervent, orthodox and distinguishing preacher. The subjects of the first of the above named volumes are Christ and the first Sinners, Moses' Wish, David and the Man of God, Bethlehem, the Blood of Sprinkling, the New Creature, the Martyr Lamb, the Great Exchange, the Easter Message, the Easter Morning, the Walk towards Emmaus, Easter Peace, the Office of the Holy Spirit, the Christians after the Feast of Pentecost. Among other topics discussed, the author dwells upon the necessity and nature of the atonement, the agency of the Holy Spirit, etc. The subjects of the other volume are the Flying Roll, Who is he that Condemneth ? the Characteristics of a State of Grace, the Abuse of the Doctrine of Free Grace, the True Church, the Ransomed of the Lord, Stephen, Solomon and the Shula
6.-Jacob Wrestling with the Angel. By Rev. G. D. Krumma
cher. Solomon and the Shulamite. By F. W. Krummacher, D. D., Author of Elijah the Tishbite. Translated from the German. New-York: John S. Taylor. 1841.
Of Solomon and the Shulamite we have spoken in the previous notice. The author of " Jacob,” the reader will perceive, is a different individual from the one who has become so extensively known on this side the Atlantic, within a few years. But the writings of each might be easily mistaken for those of the other. We recognize in both the same warm hearted piety, the same extensive acquaintance with the Scriptures; and the same copiousness of thought and illustration. The author of Elijah the Tishbite is more imaginative and fanciful, but the author of Jacob is equally felicitous in unfolding the deep things of the inspired volume. This will be evident to any one who reads the work. It is founded upon that portion of Genesis which describes the wrestling of Jacob with the angel. The various truths taught in the passage, directly and indirectly, are successively considered in eleven short sermons.
7.-Cornelius the Centurion. By F. A. Krummacher, A. M.
Translated from the German, with notes and a biograph-
Still another Krummacher, strongly resembling the two already mentioned in mental bias, doctrinal sympathy and devotional spirit. He was born in Westphalia in 1768. He was formerly a professor of theology ; but he relinquished this station for the more congenial employment of preaching. He now resides in Bremen. “From an early period, he has been intimately acquainted with ancient and modern poetry ; this, with his profound knowledge of the languages and customs of the Eastern world, and his diligent study of the Scriptures, has given that peculiar bent to his mind, which beams through all his writings. “The meditations on Cornelius,” the author observes, were originally preached as sermons at Bremen. They are now divested of that form ; some are enlarged, and some are curtailed. The style is historical, as being suited to the subject and my own views of Scripture. It appears to me that the numerous divine manifestations related in the Old
and New Testaments, may be regarded as one continued history of God in his relation to man. Luther calls it 'the history of all histories,' for it is an account of the stupendous miracles of the divine majesty and grace, from the beginning even unto eternity. The sermon of Peter is the simplest and at the same time, the most comprehensive of all narrations."
8.-Popular Lectures on Geology ; treated in a very comprehen
sive manner. By R. C. von Leonhard, Counsellor of State, and Prof. at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. With illustrative engravings. Translated by J. G. Morris, A. M., and edited by F. Hall, M. D., formerly Prof. of Math. and Nat. Phil. Middlebury College, Vt., and afterwards Prof. of Chem. and Min. Washington College, Ct., Nos. I.-II1. Baltimore: Publica
tion Rooms, 1839-40. pp. 100, 89, 100. The author of these Lectures is favorably known in Europe and to some extent in this country, as a distinguished professor at Heidelberg. His Manual of Geology and Geognosy, and his Treatise on Basaltic Formations have secured for him a high rank in this department of investigation. The present work is intended to be as its name imports-popular ; it is prepared with a particular reference to the wants of those who desire some acquaintance with geology, but who have too little auxiliary knowledge to plunge at once into the technicalities of this science. Ten lectures have been presented to the American public, the subjects of which, we presume, will give some idea of the general plan. They are as follows: Sources of Geological Knowledge, Importance of the Art of Mining in Geological Researches, Description of Mines and Miners ; Sciences auxiliary to Geology,--Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Mineralogy-general Properties of Bodies; '06servations on Light, Heat, Electricity, Galvanism, Magnetism and Thermo-magnetism ; Chemical Phenomena, Elements, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Sulphur, Chloride, Fluorine, Phosphorus; Metals; Air and Water; Combinations of Gases, and with other Elements; Acids, Alkalis, Salts;