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INTRODUCTION.

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The Church of Rome has determined, thaton consecrating the elements of bread and wine, at the administration of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper—the whole substance of the bread is changed into the substance of the body of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. cess, by which this change is effected, is denominated Transubstantiation; and the change is held to be of such a kind, that, under the semblance of bread and wine, our Lord Jesus Christ himself becomes truly and corporeally present—present in his Divine, as well as in his human nature. This Roman Catholic doctrine of the Real Presence,' it is Dr Wiseman's object to establish, on the foundation of Holy Writ.

To avoid all chance of mis-statement, I shall give the declarations of the Council of Trent; which are understood to preserve, in its most authentic form, this distinguishing tenet of the Church of Rome. Dr Wiseman, in conformity

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with that celebrated Synod, has professed his belief that “that, which was originally bread and wine, is, by the consecration, changed into the substance of the body and blood of our Lord, together with his soul and divinity, in other words, his complete and entire person*.' Moreover, the learned writer and preacher, in delivering his London Discourses, appears to have devoted a few of the last to this topic-as “the most important, the most solemn, the most beautiful, the most perfect of all :”—

παν δ' ευ λειήνας, χρυσέην επέθηκε κορώνην. ΗοΜ.

One grand argument, in favour of this doctrine of Transubstantiation, is drawn from the sixth chapter of St John's Gospel: another from the terms employed in instituting the Lord's Supper, as recorded by St Matthew, St Mark, St Luke, and St Paul. To these arguments, Dr Wiseman

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Semper hæc fides in Ecclesiâ Dei fuit, statim post consecrationem, verum Domini nostri corpus, verumque ejus sanguinem, sub panis et vini specie, unà cum ipsius animâ et divinitate existere." Sess. xiii. c. 3. Again, Persuasum semper in Ecclesiâ Dei fuit, idque nunc denud sancta hæc synodus declarat, per consecrationem panis et vini, conversionem fieri totius substantiæ panis in substantiam corporis Christi Domini nostri, et totius substantiæ vini in substantiam sanguinis ejus.” Sess. xiii. c. 4. See also Dr Wiseman's Lectures on the Doctrines, &c. Vol. 11. pp.135, 136. Let me observe that, in future, I shall cite the Lectures delivered in London simply as ‘Discourses'; by which means they will be fully distinguished from the volume of College Lectures... It is singular that, in the doctrine as laid down in the Lectures, no mention should have been made of our Lord's soul and divinity as conjoined with “the presence" after consecration; while that circumstance is distinctly stated in the Discourses.

has devoted eight lectures; the first four, relating to the sixth chapter of St John—the last four, to the terms of Institution. In consequence of this arrangement, the present work will consist of two parts, each part comprising four sections so that no division of the learned author's volume will be dismissed without a separate notice.

The consideration of the sixth chapter of St John involves the following particulars: 1. The structure of the chapter; 2. The change of subject in the latter part of it; 3. Jewish Prejudices, and mode of interpreting our Lord's discourse; 4. Our Lord's answer to the Jews, and his conduct to his Disciples.

The consideration of the terms of Institution leads to the following topics: 1. The mode of interpreting the words of Institution: may they be understood figuratively? 2. The mode of interpreting the words of Institution : must they be understood figuratively? 3. Objections to a literal interpretation; 4. St Paul's doctrine of the Eucharist.

The sixth chapter of St John is almost wholly occupied by an account of the miraculous feeding of five thousand persons, by means of five loaves and two small fishes; our Lord's subsequent discourse; and the effects, as well of the miracle as the discourse, upon the 'minds both of the Jews in general and the disciples in particular...... On the day after that on which the miracle had been wrought, the multitudes appear to have sought Jesus with great anxiety; and having at last found him, “ said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?” The answer to this question introduces the long passage which is the immediate object of our attention, and being desirous that the reader should have an opportunity of referring to it at any moment, I follow Dr Wiseman's example, and give the remainder of the chapter, in the Original and in our Authorized Version.

26 'Απεκρίθη αυτοίς ο Ιησούς 26 Jesus answered them and said, και είπεν, 'Αμήν αμήν λέγω υμίν, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye ζητείτε με ουχ ότι είδετε ση- seek me, not because ye saw the μεία, αλλ' ότι εφάγετε εκ των miracles, but because ye did eat of άρτων και έχορτάσθητε.

the loaves, and were filled. 27 Εργάζεσθε μή την βρώσιν

27 Labour not for the meat which την απολλυμένην, αλλά την βρω- | perisheth, but for that meat which σιν την μένουσαν εις ζωήν αιώνιον,

endureth unto everlasting life, which ήν ο υιός του ανθρώπου υμίν the Son of man shall give unto you: δώσει: τουτον γαρ ο πατήρ for him hath God the Father sealed. εσφράγισεν ο θεός.

28 Είπον ούν προς αυτόν, Τι 28 Then said they unto him, What ποιούμεν, ίνα εργαζώμεθα τα shall we do, that we might work the

works of God ? έργα του θεού ;

29 'Απεκρίθη ο Ιησούς και 29 Jesus answered and said unto είπεν αυτοίς, Toυτό έστι το them, This is the work of God, that έργον του θεού, ίνα πιστεύ- ye believe on him whom he hath σητε εις ον απέστειλεν εκείνος. 30 Είπον ούν αυτω, Τί ούν

30 They said therefore unto him, ποιείς συ σημείον, ίνα ίδωμεν και

What sign shewest thou then, that πιστεύσωμέν σοι; τί εργάζη και

we may see, and believe thee? what

dost thou work ? 31 Οι πατέρες ήμων το μάννα

31 Our fathers did eat manna in έφαγον έν τη ερήμω, καθώς έστι

the desert; as it is written, He gave γεγραμμένον, "Αρτον εκ του

them bread from heaven to eat. ουρανού έδωκεν αυτοίς φαγείν.

sent.

39 Είπεν ουν αυτοίς ο Ιησους, 32 Then Jesus said unto them, 'Αμήν αμήν λέγω υμίν, Ου Μω Verily, verily, I say unto you,

Moses σης δέδωκεν υμίν τον άρτον εκ gave you not that bread from heaven; του ουρανού· αλλ' ο πατήρ μου

but my Father giveth you the true δίδωσιν υμίν τον άρτον εκ του

bread from heaven.. ουρανού τον αληθινόν.

33 Ο γαρ άρτος του θεου 33 For the bread of God is he which εστίν ο καταβαίνων εκ του ουρα- I cometh down from heaven, and giveth νου, και ζωήν διδους τω κόσμω.

life unto the world. 34 Είπον ούν προς αυτόν, 34 Then said they unto him, Lord, Κύριε, πάντοτε δος ημίν τον evermore give us this bread. άρτον τουτον.

35 Είπε δε αυτοίς ο Ιησους, 35 And Jesus said unto them, I 'Εγώ είμι ο άρτος της ζωής και

am the bread of life: he that comερχόμενος πρός με ου μη πεινάση,

eth to me shall never hunger; and και ο πιστεύων εις εμέ ου μη

he that believeth on me shall never

thirst. διψήση πώποτε.

36 'Αλλ' είπον υμίν ότι και 36 But I said unto you, That ye έωράκατέ με, και ου πιστεύετε. also have seen me, and believe not.

37 Πάν ο δίδωσί μοι ο πατήρ, 37 All that the Father giveth me προς εμέ ήξει και τον ερχό- shall come to me; and him that μενον πρός με ου μη εκβάλω cometh to me I will in no wise cast έξω. 38 "Ότι καταβέβηκα εκ του

38 For I came down from heaven, ουρανού, ουχ ίνα ποιω το θέ

not to do mine own will, but the will λημα το εμόν, αλλά το θέλημα of him that sent me. του πέμψαντός με. 39 Τουτο δε εστι το θέλημα

39 And this is the Father's will του πέμψαντός με πατρος, ίνα which hath sent me, that of all which παν δ δέδωκέ μοι, μη απολέσω he hath given me I should lose noεξ αυτού, αλλά αναστήσω αυτο thing, but should raise it up again at εν τη εσχάτη ημέρα.

the last day. 40 Τούτο δε εστι το θέλημα

40 And this is the will of him that του πέμψαντός με, ίνα πας και

sent me, that every one which seeth θεωρων τον υιόν και πιστεύων

the Son, and believeth on him, may εις αυτόν έχη ζωήν αιώνιον, και have everlasting life: and I will raise αναστήσω αυτον εγω τη εσχάτη him up at the last day. ημέρα. 41 Έγόγγυζoν ουν οι Ιουδαίοι

41 The Jews then murmured at περί αυτού, ότι είπεν, Εγώ είμι

him, because he said, I am the bread ο άρτος ο καταβας εκ του ου

which came down from heaven: ρανού:

42 Και έλεγον, Ούχ ούτός 42 And they said, Is not this Jesus, έστιν Ιησούς ο υιός Ιωσήφ, ου

the son of Joseph, whose father and ημείς οίδαμεν τον πατέρα και mother we know ? how is it then την μητέρα ; πως ούν λέγει

out.

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