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of colored people, 116. Letter from B. Lundy to
Free Labor, The Canterbury Affair, 129. Sa-
Glorious News, The Black Law of Connecti-
duct_and_opinions of Thomas Jefferson, 151.
Immediate Emancipation, Fanatics and Incen-
Our own Affairs, New York Anti-Slavery So-
EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY BENJAMIN LUNDY, WASHINGTON, D. C. AT $1.00 PER ANN. IN ADVANCE. "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happinss."-Declaration of Independence, U. S. No. 1. VOL. III. THIRD SERIES.) NOVEMBER, 1832. [WHOLE NUMBER 277. VOL. XIII.
On commencing the Thirteenth Volume of the his editorial career, (the hardships and sufferGENIUS OF UNIVERSAL EMANCIPATION, we haveings attendant he estimates not,) and in taking the mortification of being compelled to apolo- a retrospective view of the events of that pegize, again, for irregularity in the publication.riod, he feels greatly encouraged to persevere în A more particular explanation than has yet his exertions to promote the cause of UNIVERbeen given, of the causes of that irregularity, SAL EMANCIPATION. A wonderful change in is absolutely requisite to enable the numerous public sentiment, relative to this subject, has and respectable patrons of the work to judge been effected within that time, throughout a of the propriety of continuing their support.great portion of this Republic. Of the humble
When the Editor left home, in the summer of 1831, with the view of visiting the middle and southern States of this Union, as well as → Canada and Mexico, he was under the necessity of issuing the work under his own direction,
while on his tour. No competent person could then be found, willing to superintend the business at Washington or Baltimore, in his absence. As might have been expected, and certainly was anticipated, difficulties had to be contended with, in conducting the publication under this arrangement. Yet the hope was
part that he has taken in producing this change, it does not become him to speak; yet he is not inattentive to the various operations of that influence which has wrought so important a moral improvement in the public mind; and he takes this occasion to renew the pledge, which he has repeatedly given, to devote his future labors to the great and holy cause. That cause will as certainly triumph, as that the Sun will rise to-morrow, if its advocates remain firm, and continue in the active discharge of their
entertained, that it could be issued regularly; It is not to be expected that this grand refor and during a part of the time this was done.mation can be accomplished by any single sysWithin a few months past, however, owing to tem of operations. The evil of Slayery is one some necessary delays in travelling through the of immense magnitude, and will require the southern and western States, and sundry dis- combined efforts of all the wise and virtuous in appointments in the mechanical execution of the nation to eradicate it. There is much dithe work, the commencement of the new vol-versity of sentiment among the friends of the ume has been postponed much longer than was cause, respecting the proper mode of proeither intended or expected when the last one ceeding. Hence it is desirable to encourage was completed. every honest effort, until conflicting opinions It is hoped that this statement will sufficient-shall be merged in the knowledge arising from
ly account for the recent delay in the publica- practical experience. Yet the one important tion yet the patrons of the work are again principle must be adhered to-the one great specially reminded, that they will all receive object must be kept constantly in view—namethe full amount of their subscriptions, notwith-ly: Christianity requires, and Justice demands, standing the delay above mentioned. They the prompt advocacy and IMMEDIATE ADOPmust have, at least, TWELVE SHEETS, OF SIX-TION of measures, that shall break the fetters TEEN PAGES EACH, with Title-page and Index, for of the slave, and prepare him for the enjoyment every year's subscription, the price of which of perfect freedom. This must be done, soonis ONE DOLLAR, in advance:-and if they do er or later, whether he remains where he is, or not receive the same within the current year, removes to a distant land. The doctrine of from the date of their subscriptions, they will "expediency," which dooms him to a life of receive it in the year following. Those who unconditional bondage, is the offspring of igbegin with the first number of a volume, will norance, fatuity, or sheer despotism. Reason receive that volume, complete, for a year's sub-teaches, experience ratifies, and all history scription; tho' subscribers may commence at confirms this. The primary object of this work any time they choose, and must have at least has ever been to show, that justice, like charity, twelve numbers for one dollar, as aforesaid. should begin at home-that no dependence can be placed upon a system of foreign operations, alone, in the abolition of slavery. The total failure of the "African Institution," in En
The Editor wishes to assure his friends and patrons that, in summing up the amount of his labors and sacrifices, during the eleven years of
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
gland, and the waning popularity of the "A-
In conclusion, the Editor returns his grateful acknowledgments to his numerous friends and patrons for their steady support. He has unfurled the banner of moral reform on the soil fertilized with the tears of oppression-the land of chains and slavery :—and there it shall wave, while a patriot heart and an UNFETTERED ARM remains to sustain it. He is still cheered in his arduous labors by the mild and persuasive, yet powerful and effective co-operation of his Sister-Editor. And while he promises still to use his utmost endeavors to promote the good cause, he urgently solicits the further patronage of a philanthropic and enlightened public.
TO PATRONS AND CORRESPONDENTS.
of our common country, especially to the oppressed population thereof, and hoping that some good will arise from it, he craves the forbearance and indulgence of his friends and patrons for whatever omissions or delinquencies it may have occasioned.
As soon as time will permit, the favors of correspondents will be duly attended to. Whatever errors may have occurred in the business concerns of the establishment, will be promptly corrected on discovery.
VISIT TO TEXAS.
It was stated, in the Addenda to the last volume of this work, that the Editor had then, very recently, returned to the United States, from a short visit to the Texas country. The object of that tour was to investigate the state of things generally, as far as it might be convenient, with the ultimate view of preparing the way for the future emigration and settlement of colored people, from these States. The time, allowed for the purpose, was by no means sufficient to make every investigation which the importance of the subject would call for ; yet enough was ascertained to furnish the most conclusive evidence of the propriety and great utility of the measure contemplated; and believing that a description of certain portions of the country in question, together with a brief view of the character of its inhabitants, may be interesting to the friends of the cause, some extracts from the Editor's Journal, and the statements of sundry other persons who have also visited and resided in the country, will be inserted in the present and future numbers. The reader is referred to an editorial article in the Addenda, above mentioned, for some remarks on the political state of the nation, &c. &c. The most correct information that can be obtained, on this subject, will be given from time to time.
The Editor's protracted absence from home, and the mode of travelling which he was frequently necessitated to adopt, (he journeyed, latterly, much on foot,) have prevented his attention to many important matters that had a claim upon his notice. Correspondents have, also, for the same reasons, been unavoidably neglected for some length of time. It would || have been too expensive to have forwarded many letters, pamphlets, or papers, by mail, and too burthensome to have carried them along. Believing that his objects, in taking his late tour, were of great importance to the welfare
The writer of this went into the Texas country, (now part of the State of "Coahuila & Texas,") by way of Natchitoches, up the Red River in Louisiana-proceeding thence on the old St. Antonio road, and crossing the Sabine river (the boundary between the Republics of the United States and Mexico) about 50 miles west of that place. He reached the Sabine late in the evening of the 27th of June, and took lodgings with a respectable gentleman of the name of Gaines-a North American by birth-who keeps the Ferry, on the Texas side. The following is extracted from his Journal:
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
and sandy. The bottoms are, of course, more fertile than the uplands; but there is very little, inviting to the farmer or the planter, in its immediate neighborhood. The river, itself, is narrow-tho' its banks are high-and in dry weather it has, comparatively, little water. It is fordable in many places, during the summer and fall seasons.
pine timber entirely. This afternoon, I passed a Methodist Camp Meeting place, where I learn the members of that society often assemble, for divine worship. I also met a wedding partyboth men and women were well dressed, and mounted on good horses. Towards evening, I crossed two more small mill-streams, one of which I was obliged to wade. In the evening I took lodgings with a gentleman originally from Long Island, in the State of New York, who keeps a small store, and farms and plants on a pretty extensive scale. Being detained consid
"In travelling a few miles, westward, we are still presented with sterile, sandy, pine timbered land. We cross two or three small streams, in the bottoms of which the timber is a little more diversified; but the principal growth is Pitcherably, making enquiries, &c., I travelled but Pine. There is some grass over the whole, upland and bottoms, affording tolerable good pasturage for cattle, considerable numbers of which are to be seen feeding on it, as we pass along the road. The land is a little rolling, for the most part; but much of it is too level to turn the water off, as would be desirable, in wet
21 miles to-day. I found good accommodation at this place; but the weather being very warm, and having travelled several days on foot, I was somewhat fatigued; and the change of water, the change of diet, (I had lately used corn bread instead of wheat or rye,) and the effects of the hot sun, altogether, made me also feel a little unwell; and I rested poorly through the night.
"About four or five miles from the Sabine, we "This particular section of the Texas councross a handsome mill-stream. Here is a good try was formerly called the "Neutral Ground." house and farm. The aspect of the country During the Mexican Revolution, the governnow changes very essentially. The land as- ment could pay but little attention to it, on acsumes a reddish appearance, and is much more count of its distant, isolated situation; and the rolling. Some pretty large hills, indeed, are consequence was, that many criminals and lawmet with. On the brows of these, and in the less ruffians took refuge here, who had escaped banks of the creeks, we perceive some rock, from the hands of justice, in the United States deeply impregnated with iron ore. The water and elsewhere. The settlers acknowledge that is pure, and the timber is greatly diversified. a most vicious state of society has, until lately, Very little pine grows here. The prevailing existed; but one of them remarked, that many growth, in the uplands, is hickory and oak of of the vilest had "killed each other off!" and various kinds. In the creek bottoms there are that a better state of things might now be lookmany other species of timber, common to the ed for. The government, likewise, has recentbottom lands in our middle and western States, ly extended, and more strictly enforced its laws with some vines and Spanish moss clinging to within that portion of the republic. Many of and dangling from the limbs of the trees. In the the present settlers have a very respectable apbottoms the timber is very tall and fine; but on pearance; but few of them have obtained titles the uplands it is rather scattering and dwarfish-to their lands, as foreigners have always, for yet an immense range for horses and cattle is afforded, as the whole surface is covered with a most luxuriant and thick coat of grass. Many plants and flowers are to be seen, that are quite different from those in any part of the United States of the North.
the most part, been prohibited, by law, from
to take the fort at Nacogdoches; but I determined to proceed, let the result be what it might. The country has a still better appearance, as we go further westward. 'The prairies are larger and more numerous. The farms look still better than heretofore. The range, for cattle, is exceedingly fine. From twenty to thirty, and even as many as forty, beautiful large fat cows, with young calves, are to be seen, penned up, at the different farm houses, this morning; and yet the settlers have mostly resided but a few years in the country. The facility in raising stock is wonderful. Horses, cattle, and hogs require no feeding, winter nor summer. We now come to a branch of the
"Soon after day-light I resumed my journey. "For about sixteen miles, or thereabouts, Many rumors were circulated of a meditated the country has pretty much the same appear-attempt, on the part of sundry revolutionists, ance as that just described. We meet with a number of fine farms on the road. The settlers are, mostly, from the western and southern parts of the United States, and live and transact business much in the same manner that they do in those States, &c. Large fields of corn present themselves to the view; and, what may seem curious to a northern farmer, some of it is now in tassel, with good roasting ears, while a part is but a few inches high! They have so little winter, in this latitude, (31 1-2 deg. north,) that they commence planting corn in the latter part of January, and finish in July. In no part of America have I seen better corn than in this section of country. Some cotton and wheat is likewise raised here, as well as most or all oth-river Neches, called the Ayesh Bayou, There er vegetable productions of our middle and southern states. In some places the farmers were harvesting oats. The straw was very large, and the grain looked well. The wheat harvest had been over some weeks.
"In the latter part of this day's journey, the country has a still better appearance. Some small prairies present themselves; and the farms are larger and more numerous. We pass some fields of excellent cotton. The land lies most beautifully for cultivation. We now lose the
are many settlers in the vicinity of this stream, some of whom are located a considerable distance from the road. Several mills, for grinding grain and sawing timber, are established on this Bayou. A great variety of excellent timber presents itself in the bottoms. Some cane is, likewise, to be seen occasionally. The land, generally, still preserves a reddish color; and the soil is an intermixture of loam and gravel. In some places a little sand may be seen. The roads are, for the most part, very good. Large
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
waggons, drawn by three or four yoke of oxen, are constantly going on them.
"The weather being very dry and warm, I travelled but seventeen miles to-day. I was detained, however, considerably, in making enquiries respecting the state of the country, &c. There are no regular taverns on the road, and I stopped for the night at a private farm house, where I found respectable people, and good accommodation.
made a deep impression upon the minds of the inhabitants; and, seeing me arrive, with my knapsack on my back, and thinking I was from the country below, many of them came to me as I passed along the street, enquiring 'the news.' But, though I had been something of a newsmonger in my day, I was not then sufficiently acquainted with the 'movements' of those who delight in wars and rumors of wars,' to give them any satisfactory information. I found that all calculated on a little fighting; and, indeed, it was looked for hourly. Some hundreds of Indians, of the various neighboring tribes, were then in the village, armed and equipped for
good an appearance as that last noted. There is more pine timber, and the land is a little sandy in some places; yet I was informed that it produces good corn, &c., where it is cultivated. As I had stopped some length of time with the gentleman whose house I first came to, this morning, (who, it should be mentioned, is a very intelligent and respectable emigrant from Massachusetts,) I did not reach Nacogdoches until near the middle of the day. The rumors of an intended attack, by the revo "I sat out, this morning, at daylight; and af-lutionists from the southern settlements, had ter travelling three miles, crossed a fine stream, called the Atoyac river. This is also a branch of the Neches. The country about here has much the same appearance as that last described. A ferry, and a small store, are kept at this place, by a Spanish creole, (a native Mexican,) who evinced much social kindness and hospitality. On enquiry, I found the prices of dry goods lower than I had expected. Groceries and hardware were very dear. In travelling three miles further, I found another creole. He has a fine farm, well stocked with cattle. There is a considerable number of native Mexicans in this section of the country. Few of them speak the English language; but they are kind to respectable travellers from these states, and to other foreigners. The greater portion of the population is composed of emigrants from various parts of the United States of the North, and the style of living among the whole is very much the same. I found that many of them had migrated from the slaveholding states, and taken their slaves with them. Though the Mexican government has passed laws, by virtue of which slavery will ultimately be abolished in that country, still considerable numbers are yet held in bondage. Their treatment varies but little, if any, from that of the same class of people in the United States of the North generally. Slavery will, however, be totally abolished here, no doubt, in the course of a few years.
"Having been informed, by various persons on the road, that I would not be allowed to pass the fort at Nacogdoches, in consequence of the then unsettled state of the country, I went to the Commander, immediately after I had changed my garb and taken a little refreshment, and made the necessary enquiry. As neither of us understood each other's language, he sent for an interpreter. In the mean time, he very politely handed me a chair, and invited me to partake of a bottle of wine with himself and other officers. When the interpreter came, we entered immediately into conversation. Instead of throwing any obstacles in my way, he gave me to understand that I was at perfect liberty to go further, or tarry in the village, as I should "As I had been somewhat unwell, and the choose. I then took leave of him, promising, at weather was exceedingly warm, I stopped at the his request, to call on him again before my dehouse of the creole gentleman, above mention-parture, and took lodgings at the principal taed, three or four hours. During this period we had a heavy shower of rain. I then proceeded nine miles to the next house, and after taking a little rest, went two and a half miles further, "Nacogdoches is a rather poor looking place, and took lodgings with a gentleman who for- though it has a good deal of trade. Several merly resided in the state of Illinois. He had tribes of Indians reside near it, and bring in cona very kind and interesting family. The coun- siderable quantities of fur and peltry. Five good try through which I travelled this afternoon was mercantile stores, and a few small shops, are not very different from that last described. The kept in the village. They have, also, a variety of land has a rather paler appearance, in general-mechanics; two or more physicians; a Spanish the soil on the prairies and in the bottoms is, in- and English school; a Catholic church, at which deed, quite dark-tho' we see a little pine tim- a minister regularly officiates; and one good ber again, in detached elevations. The prairies tavern, kept by a gentleman of the name of Roare also larger, as we proceed westward; and inberts, from Virginia. The houses, (perhaps fifty many parts thereof are several kinds of very fine grapes, growing on low vines. These grapes are said to make an excellent wine. We cross several handsome mill-streams in this section of the country, the water of which is pure and wholesome. Their beds are gravelly, with some sand and pebble stone.
"July 1st. "I resumed my journey early this morning, and went nine miles, to the village of Nacogdoches. There were but two or three houses on the road, and one of these within half a mile of that place. In going this distance, we pass through a tract of country that has not quite so
vern, where a number of travellers and adventurers from the United States of the North also made their home for a brief period.
or sixty in number, exclusive of those in the occupancy of the military,) are nearly all built of wood, in the old French and Spanish style, with large piazzas. Some of them are pretty good frames, and all have shingled roofs. population is said to amount to about two hundred, exclusive of the garrison and the families of the officers and soldiers. From three to four hundred troops are generally stationed there. The town is incorporated, and has an Ayuntamiento, (board of aldermen,) an Alcalde, (magistrate,) &c. &c. Lawyers are very scarce; but the administration of justice is said to be prompt and effective, by those who have resided