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QUESTIONS ON THE PREPOSITION.
In what particular does a preposition resemble an adverb? Shew by examples what class of words the preposition combines with. Define a preposition, and shew from what peculiarity thereof it derives its name. In what does the efficiency of the term peg, as applied to this class of words, consist ? Illustrate the answer by examples. What characteristic of the preposition causes it to be easily known ? Under what circumstances are the same words said to be sometimes adverbs and sometimes prepositions ? Give a list of such words as this is capable of being said of. Shew that in, on, &c. &c. are capable, in all circumstances, of being classed as prepositions. Give a list of prepositions. What are inseparable prepositions? Give a list thereof. What are compound prepositions ? Give the analysis of the following: instead-of, outside of, round-about, besides. Shew that till, until, since, are not prepositions, but adverbs, by examples. Give a list of such prepositions as may be used in a figurative sense; and give examples of the literal and figurative application of each. What part of speech is except? Give examples. Point out the adverbs and prepositions in the following sentences :
By a series of criminal enterprizes the liberties of Europe have been gradually extinguished.”
“ Where is a ruin to be found so mournful and so complete, as that which the moral aspect of Judah now presents to our view ?”
“ Here finished He, and all that He had made
Open, ye heavens! your living doors ; let in
ON THE CONJUNCTION.
The conjunction, as its name implies, (con=together, and junctus=joined,)is a word used to connect individual words together, and also one proposition to another. In the expression,“Four and eight make twelve,” the words four and eight are connected by the particle and, which is called a conjunction. So also in the expression,“John and James went to London,” and connects not the individuals John and James, but the two propositions into which the foregoing is resolvable, viz., “ John went to London,” and “ James went to London.” Conjunctions, therefore, are used in many cases, to shorten language, and, by forming a connecting link, cause two propositions to appear but one.
Conjunctions are like prepositions, in that they cannot form any of the essential parts of propositions, and are wholly destitute of inflection. They are so far unlike prepositions, as that they never govern a case, whereas the preposition does. It has been said, under the head“ Preposition," that prepositions shew the place where things are ; this is the characteristic of the preposition as distinguished from the conjunction, which, in like manner as the preposition, connects individual words. In the expression, “ The boy
“ and the girl are in the garden,” and and in are connecting particles ; and is the conjunction connecting the two propositions, “ The boy is,” and “the girl is,” without any reference to the locality of either ; in is the preposition connecting boy and girl, as the subject of two distinct propositions, with the word garden, the place where the boy and girl are to be found.
Conjunctions are divided usually into two classes— Copulative and Disjunctive. In the expressions, “ John and James placed the sack in the waggon ;
.5 " You or I must go to town”—and and or are conjunctions, but of different functions; and unites John and James, and shews that the assertion is made equally of both ; or also unites you
and I, but shews that the assertion is not made of both equally; that is, that the two individuals united thereby are not to perform the act expressed by the verb. This is
the characteristic difference between the copulative and disjunctive conjunction. The following are the conjunctions in most ordinary use :
Copulative-And, also, both.
According to the previous explanation of the terms copulative and disjunctive, as applied to conjunctions, the foreoging would appear the only conjunctions in the language. Besides these, however, there are a great many particles so connecting words and propositions in one way or another, as to appear more properly classified under this head than any other. The following are of this kind :--
1. Although, though, still, yet. 2. As, because, for, since. 3. If, unless. 4. Lest. 5. Than. 6. That.
Although and though are equivalent in meaning; so are still and yet. The two former, moreover, are so invariably connected with the two latter, that they are called relative and correlative terms. They are found in two distinct propositions. The former are used when a difficulty is asserted as existing in the way of the performance of the act expressed in the latter clause, thus, " Though the day was unpromising, we yet took a walk into the country.” Hence the two former are called the antecedents, and the two latter the consequents, this being the order in which the particles must follow each other when both are expressed. Sometimes, however, the consequent is suppressed, and then the order of the clauses may be inverted; as, “ We took a walk, though the day was unpromising.”
As, because, for, since : these may be called conjunctions of causation, being used, when conjunctions, to express a cause for some occurrence of which it is asserted that it has taken place.
If, unless : these may be called hypothetical conjunctions, being used to express generally the condition on which something will take place. The latter contains in it a negative; as, “Unless you come, I will not go,”="If you do not come,” &c. &c.
Lest : this is used in the commencement of a clause, when in the preceding one some act is announced as having been performed for the purpose of preventing something taking place, spoken of in the clause commenced
with lest ; as, “ You must remain within doors during rain, lest
catch cold.” Than : this conjunction is used after the comparative degree of an adjective; as, “ You are taller than your brothers.” “ As to the word than," says Latham, “the conjunction of comparison, it is another form of then, the notions of order, sequence, and comparison being allied. This is good, then (or next in order) that is good, is an expression sufficiently similar to This is better than that, to have given rise to it; and in Scotch and certain provincial dialects we actually find than instead of then.” It is hard to quarrel with such respectable authority, yet one cannot help asking, if then and than be convertible terms, where is the necessity for a comparative degree at all? The word than, as then, expressing merely sequence or order, the expression, “ You are tall, then my brother,” is evidently sufficient for the purpose. That :
: on this word as a conjunction, see Observation 3, on the Relative Pronouns.
ON THE INTERJECTION.
An interjection (inter= between, and jectus = thrown,) is a word used to express some sudden desire or emotion of the speaker or writer; as, Alas! Ah! The name interjection appears applied to this class of words from their occupying a kind of parenthetical position in the sentence. Interjections have no immediate connection with any part of a sentence; they make no affirmation, and do not exercise any influence on the construction of a sentence. “They are wholly independent," says Latham, “ of propositions, as much as the hiss of a snake or the groan of a wounded animal ; expressions of which we infer the meaning, but
; expressions as to the meaning whereof we are not informed in the way that we are informed by propositions."
The following is a list of interjections, and combined words used as interjections :
Derive the term conjunction. What is its office ? Give examples of a conjunction used to connect individual words. Also two propositions. Resolve the following into two propositions :-“Draco and Solon endeavoured to restore order at Athens." Of what use are conjunctions ? How far are they like prepositions ? How far unlike ? What is the characteristic of the conjunction as distinguished from the preposition ? Shew the difference as to connecting powers between the preposition and conjunction, from the example furnished in the following sentence—“Carbon is insoluble in water, and infusible by the most intense heat; it combines with oxygen, and produces a gas called carbonic acid.” Subdivide the conjunctions. What is the essential difference between the copulative and disjunctive conjunction ? Mention other conjunctions. Construct sentences in which although, though, still, yet, will be properly applied. Also, if, unless. Shew that as, because, for, since, are sometimes equivalents in meaning, by constructing a sentence in which any one of them may be used for the remainder. When is lest used ? Give an example. What is Latham's theory on the conjunction than after a comparative? What objection may be urged against it? When is that a conjunction ? What sort of words is called interjections ? Derive the term. Why is it applied to this class ? What is the characteristic of the interjection ? Mention the principal interjections.
The following is a specimen of simple parsing, that is, of parsing as far as the classification of words is concerned, without involving their syntactical connection and government:~“Well! exclaimed a young lady, just returned from school, my education is at last finished, indeed it would be strange, if, after five years' hard application, any