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the Akine country, as well as the circumstances which occasioned that division which Major Chisholm commanded to be disjoined from the body under Sir Charles, with the exertions made by him to rejoin upon receiving instructions to that effect, and of the usual favourable mention of those officers who by their conduct have merited that distinction. This document was dictated by Major Chisholm from a sick-bed. The account of the engagement is given in a letter to Major Chisholm, from Captain H. J. Ricketts, who was present in it and escaped, which letter is dated Cape Coast, February 26. It is impossible, in our narrow limits, to insert these documents; but indeed they add little to what was previously known. The mischance appears to have been entirely owing to the unaccountable and criminal disobedience of Mr Brandon, the Ordnance Storekeeper, to the repeated orders of the lamented Governor, respecting the supply of ammunition; in consequence of which, that needful article was exhausted almost immediately after the commencement of the engagement. That this officer is himself among the sufferers, hardly qualifies, in any great degree, the bitterness of the indignation which his intolerable negligence excites against him.
UNITED STATES.-The system of restriction in commerce which England has begun to lay aside, other nations appear to be taking up or confirming. The Ta riff-Bill, which has for some time been in dependence before the Congress of the United States, has been passed into a law. The Tariff goes so much into detail, that we cannot pretend to analyse it; but the general character is that of a protection to native manufactures, and a discouragement to importation. It amounts to this, -that the Americans are willing to pay dearer for American productions than for English. This would be a wise and politic principle, if their manufactures were in so thriving a state as to afford a prospect of outstripping those of foreign nations, but we suspect that it is far from being the case. The American statesmen wish to anticipate the natural growth of manufactures in their country; and the consequence will probably be, that, nationally speaking, they will pay dearer for manufactured articles than if they had continued to receive them from England.
MEXICO.-An Envoy Extraordinary Don Jose Mariano Michelena) from the Congress of Mexico to the Court of St. James's, has arrived in England from
Vera Cruz. He is, it is said, charged with unlimited powers to enter into a treaty of friendship and alliance with Great Britain. The Valorous also brought dispatches from Mr Lionel Harvey, his Majesty's Commissioner sent to that country, to ascertain whether its government was in such a condition of permanency as would warrant our Government in acknowledging it as an independent state. It is not known what are the representations made by Mr Harvey, but from all the information obtained, it appears, that, although for a time longer that country may be divided by factious parties or revolutionary movements, it is for ever separated from the mother country. There is not, nor has been for some time, a single soldier of Old Spain in the country. The Castle of Ulloa is still held by a small Royalist force, but it may be easily subdued, if it were at all a conquest of much moment. The Ambassa. dor is come to this country to give our Government the strongest assurances of the determination of his country to maintain its independent state, of its ability to resist all external enemies, and of desire on the part of the present Government to cultivate the most friendly intimacy with Great Britain.
COLOMBIA. By the way of Jamaica a document of considerable importance has been received from Colombia, namely, the message of the Vice-President Santander, sent to the Colombian Congress on the 6th of April. In this paper we have a general view of the state of the Colombian republic. The Congress is first congratulated on the triumph of the republican arms, and the complete restoration of tranquillity by the estab lishment of independence. The State of Peru and Mexico is then noticed, and the necessity of sending succours to the former country, for the purpose of wholly clearing the South American Continent of the enemy, is pointed out. The most marked gratitude is expressed to the President of the United States for his declaration in favour of the general independence of America, and his intimation that he would consider any attack against it the same as if directed against the United States. The message alludes to the policy of Britain in the following
Executive with the most flattering hopes. I am sorry that I cannot communicate to you what may be the ultimate resolution of the Government of his Britannic Majesty with respect to the republic. A commission from the English Government is now actually in this capital, from whom we have received satisfactory proofs of the interest with which our State inspires the mind of the magnanimous people of England. The security which it has given us against the ru mour that France will assist in the war which Spain intends to begin anew, to reduce us to her obedience, places us in a situation of not fearing such an occurrence. The Executive, as well as the Republic, have highly estimated their de clarations, and I can assure the Congress, that, in the progress of the negociation which may come on the carpet, I will not lose sight of the dignity of the Government, nor of the interests of the Colombian people. If the union of the physical and moral power of the independent States of America, the order and regularity of our association, respect to the law, uniformity of opinion, the progress of learning, and the adherence of the Government to the path prescribed by our fundamental laws, ought to weigh in the political balance of nations, we ought to hope, with entire confidence, that neither Great Britain nor the other Powers will disavow the power and moral force which the republic of Colombia has acquired to put herself upon a level with them. I am determined to take advantage of any favourable opportunity to extend our relations with other powers, whose friendship can be of sufficient in terest and utility to the republic."
The other parts of the message relate to the internal affairs of the Republic, - and the necessary arrangement of its af fairs, greatly deranged by the revolution, and the war consequent on it. The establishing proper seminaries of education seems to be an object in which the Colombian rulers are intent, though at present they rather lack the means of carrying their intentions into effect. Great reforms are meditated also in the administration of justice, the collection of the revenue, and the finance departments of the Republic. To complete this, time will be required, as the new Government has, in many cases, to begin de novo to organize the civil institutions of the country.
PERU. Some time ago, it was believed, that a cessation of hostilities was upon the point of taking place in Peru. The news of the overthrow of the Constutionalists in Spain was expected to
favour this, because the great Generals who support the pretensions of Spain there are Constitutionalists, and it would seem these Chiefs were not disinclined to throw off their allegiance to Spain, and maintain their power in Peru. But before such a negotiation could be carried into effect, Canterac appears to have got intelligence of a squadron coming to assist him from Spain, and there the matter dropped. A scandalous transaction in the meanwhile changed the state of affairs at Lima; a black regiment, consisting of twelve-hundred men, Buenos Ayrean troops in the Peruvian service, had long been neglected in their pay. This regi ment was marched into Callao to garrison the place, and on the 3d of February the men and non-commisioned officers mutinied, secured their officers and the Governor of the Castle, and thus got complete possession of the Fort. The mutineers were headed by a serjeant of their own corps, and their first demand of the Government of Lima was for 100,000 dollars in money, and vessels to convey them to Buenos Ayres. This was refused a negotiation was attempted, but failed; and the insurgents having liberated about ten Spanish officers, a Colonel Casa-Riego took the command, and the Spanish flag was hoisted at the forts on 11th February. All vessels were prohibited from leaving the port, and one or two that escaped during the night were fired at incessantly, until without reach of the batteries. In the meantime, British goods were allowed to be embarked from Callao, on paying a small duty to CasaRiego, though considerable pillage took place, and British vessels remained under the protection of his Majesty's ship Fly in the harbour. The Royalist General Rodil, being at Yea, no great distance from Lima, Casa-Riego sent him a dispatch, informing him of what had taken place, and he having been joined by Gen. Monct, with two thousand men from Jauga, marched on Callao and Lima, and took possession of both on the 27th of February. Previously to this, Admiral Guise, of the Patriot frigate La Prueba, who was blockading Callao, made a gallant attack on the Venganza and another vessel of war in the ports, and in the hands of the insurgents, and he suc ceeded in entirely destroying both. This event is not considered as likely to operate much in favour of the Royalist cause ultimately, for, to retain possession of the castles, they must weaken their main force, and the fate of the country will not be decided by who has possession of Lima, but by a general engagement.
On the 21st or 22d of February Con
gress was dissolved, Torre Tagle deposed, and Bolivar proclaimed Dictator. The Colombian forces in Peru amounted to 950) men. The Peruvians, under La Mar, were rather more than 3000. The total amount of the Spanish forces in Peru is not 13,000 men, and they are widely scattered over that immense country. The head-quarters of La Serna were at Cusco, where he had only 500 men. Canterac was at Tarija with 4500; Valdez at Arequipa with 4000; Olaneta had 2000 under him; and there were at Ica 1600. Such are the details of the last advices from Lima, and so far they are more favourable to the Royalists than to the Patriots.
BUENOS AYRES.-Whatever may be the state of things in Peru, there are some facts communicated from other parts of America, which, taken together, seem to contain materials of gratifying interest. Among these may especially be mentioned the friendly reception of the B.itish consul, Mr Woodbine Parish, by Don B. Rivadivia, minister of Foreign Affairs for the republic. Mr Parish, on the following day, presented Mr Rowcroft,
consul to Peru, who was to go to his des tination over land. One of the first fruits of Mr Parish's establishment at Buenos Ayres has been a regulation for the more easy communications of the packets. The captains are allowed to land the mails without waiting for the visit of the portofficer. The postage is reduced onethird. The consul-general is allowed a box in his office for the receipt of British letters, which he may deliver to the captains without the intervention of the general post-office. The British packets are exempted from port duties. A mail is to be dispatched for Chili three days after the arrival of a packet, and is to convey the dispatches to the public agents of the King of England in Chili and Peru free of expence, the consul-general at Buenos Ayres putting them into a separate bag, and scaling it. On the 1st of April, Don Juan G. de las Heras was elected Governor, by twenty-six votes out of thirty-six. It was said that the Charge des Affaires of Colombia was authorised to negotiate a loan at Buenos Ayres for Peru, of 3 or 500,000 piastres, under the guarantee of General Bolivar.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF LORDS.—April 2.—The Marquis of Lansdowne moved the second reading of the Bill permitting the cele bration of Marriages between Unitarians, by their own Minister, and in their own Chapels. The Archbishop of Canterbury voted for the second reading, with the understanding that the bill should be open to modification in the Committee. He voted for it, because he was willing to concede, whatever was reasonable to the scruples of the Unitarians. The Lord Chancellor opposed the motion, because, if the principle were recognised in this case, indulgence must be extended to all other sectarians, and a beginning would be thus made to the utter subversion of the Established Church. The Earl of Liverpool objected to the Bill in its present shape, because it went to permit marriages, celebrated according to its par ticular forms, where one of the partics might be a Member of the Established Church. The Bishop of Chester detailed at some length the particular passages of the Matrimonial Liturgy, which were said to offend the consciences of the Unitarians; and, in doing so, demonstrated the utter futility of the scruples which were the groundwork of the Bill before the House. He objected to the measure, not only as
diminishing the emoluments of the Estab lished Clergy (to a serious extent in populous towns), but as severing a very en dearing connection between them and the Dissenters among their parishioners. The Earl of Harrowby and Lord Calthorpe defended the Bill. The Bishop of London, in voting that the Bill should go to a Committec, did not pledge himself to give it any farther support. Lord Holland supported the Bill. The House divided on the second reading, which was carried by a majority of 2.
April 5.-The Silk Duties Bill went through the Committee, and was reported without any amendment. Petitions against it were presented by the Lord Chancellor from two silk-weaving districts in London, expressive of the fears of the petitioners, that the value of houses and other property in those places would be greatly deteriorated, in consequence of the injury which the bill is calculated to inflict on the numerous population engaged in the silk manufacture.
6. The Silk Dutics Bill was read a third time and passed.
8.-State of Ireland. The Earl of Darnley, pursuant to notice, moved for the appointment of a Committee, to inquire how far the measures lately adopted
for the relief and benefit of Ireland had succeeded; and also to consider what measures would be necessary to remedy the existing evils in that kingdom. The noble Earl introduced his motion in a long speech, in which, besides the other topics usually employed upon the subject, he confessed the cruelty and tyranny of England, impeached the administration of justice in Ireland, condemned the police bill, complained of the church establishment, urged the necessity of catholic emancipation, and professed his compas sionate respect for the well-disposed but inefficient government in the sister kingdom. The Earl of Liverpool, without disputing the unjust and selfish policy formerly observed towards Ireland, vindicated the present generation of Englishmen from any participation in it, and recited a vast number of generous conces. sions, which, since the commencement of the late King's reign, had been made for the benefit of Ireland. He maintained that the present depression of that kingdom was wholly unconnected with the disqualification of the Catholics; and op posed all the arguments upon that subject, drawn from the analogy of other States, by observing, that in Ireland alone was the religious division of the people accompanied by a parallel division of property, intelligence, and manners. In Ireland, it was notorious that the great bulk of the property, and all the qualifi cations naturally associated with property, belonged to the Protestants. Much of the suffering of Ireland he ascribed to a premature introduction of the English constitution; but for the omission of one part of the English code-the Poor Laws -he avowed his regret. He professed to hope the best results from the extension of Christian education; but begged to remind the House, that in the nature of things this result could not be very speedily felt. In conclusion, he opposed the motion. The Marquis of Lansdowne spoke at considerable length in support of the motion. The Earl of Limerick earnestly deprecated the introduction of poor rates into Ireland. He said the effect of such a measure would be, to make of the Irish peasantry six millions of beggars; because no Irishman, who could live idly, would work. The Marquis of Downshire, the Earl of Carnarvon, and Lord Clifden, supported the motion. The Earls of Carberry, Mayo, and Roden, opposed it; the last, in a speech of some length, gave a most gratifying description of the recent progress of education in Ireland. On a
division, the motion was rejected by a majority of 57 to 17.
9. The presentation of some petitions produced a short conversation upon the suppression of the Freemason lodges in Ireland, effected by the Secret Society Bill of last Session. The opinion of the Lords who spoke, (the Earl of Liverpool and the Marquis of Lansdowne,) seemed to be, that the hardship imposed upon the Freemasons was unavoidable.
12. The Marquis of Lansdowne brought in a Bill to enable the English Roman Catholics to vote for the election of Members of Parliament, and to give them the same right of suffrage as enjoyed by the Catholics of Ireland.
13-Lord Bathurst moved the second reading of a Bill to regulate the administration of justice in Newfoundland. The principal provisions of the measure are the enlargement of the Supreme Court by two additional Judges, the appointment of Circuit Courts, and the restora. tion of the Trial by Jury. The motion was unanimously agreed to.
15. The Bishop of Limerick read a letter of some length from the Archbishop of Dublin, in which his Grace, in allusion to the observations made upon his conduct in the debates upon the Irish Sepul ture Bill, denied, in the most distinct and positive manner, that he had ever given any orders, or advice, or intimation of an opinion, on the subject of the performance of the Catholic funeral ceremonies in Protestant church-yards, up to the time when he was accused of having in terdicted such celebrations, at which time he was in England. The letter went on to say, that the practice lately attempted by the Catholics was wholly an innovation; no such celebration, according to the experience of all the Protestant Clergy in Dublin, having occurred during forty years. In conclusion, the Archbishop's letter explained, that, when consulted by his Clergy, after the matter had been so angrily agitated, his advice had uniformly been, to abstain from every thing like a forcible resistance to the Catholic Clergy, and to rest contented with a protest against the illegal invasion of the rights of the Protestant church. Before he sat down, the Bishop of Limerick pronounced a glowing and well-merited panegyric upon the learning, genius, and Christian temper of the most reverend prelate (Dr Magee.)
The House adjourned to the 28th of April, when it re-assembled. On that and the two following days there was no inportant business before the House.
11. HIGH COURT OF JUSTICIARY. -The Court this day proceeded to the trial of Alexander Guthrie, quarrier, in the parish of Pentcaitland, East Lo thian, accused of the murder of James Newton, who had been in his employment as a labourer. Guthrie pleaded Not Guilty. It appeared from the evidence, that Guthrie and Newton, with four other quarrymen, had gone to the prisoner's house on the evening of Mon. day the 9th of February last, where they' drank whisky till a pretty late hour, when the party broke up, leaving New. ton and Guthrie together in the house. At that time there had been no quarrel betwixt them. Guthrie's mother also left the house, and went with a neighbour, Mrs Gowans, in whose house she stopped all night. In the course of the night, Mrs Guthrie becoming uneasy, requested Mrs Gowans's daughter to go to her son's house, and see what was going on. She went accordingly, and finding the window of the room open, went in by it, and saw a man, whom she supposed to be Guthrie, lying on the bed, and Newton lying on the kitchen floor, with his head cut, and the floor strewed with fragments of broken bot tles, and covered with blood, vomitings, and other filth. Upon receiving this information, Mrs Guthrie, with her neigh. bour, Mrs Gowans, returned to the house. They immediately awoke Guthrie, who seemed astonished and sorry at the situation of Newton, and declared he knew no more of it than the dead in the grave. Newton's wound was washed and dressed, and he was put to bed, in which Guthrie assisted. Newton died two days after. The only circumstance which could attach suspicion to Guthrie, was, that his trowsers were stained with blood about the legs; but this was accounted for by Mrs Gowans, who stated, that while she swept the blood and filth from the floor towards the hearth, Guthrie was sitting by the fire; and that from the state of the floor no one could walk on it without having their shoes soiled with blood. All the witnesses, on their crossexamination, gave Guthrie a good character, and deponed to his bearing no illwill to Newton; but, on the contrary, they had heard him speak frequently in praise of him as a servant. Mr Lloyd, superintendant of police for the county of Haddington, had examined Guthrie's
house, and found the door of the kitchen much shattered, and also the outer window-shutter split, seemingly by a blow from the outside. Mr M'Neill said, that he did not, under these circumstances, feel himself warranted in asking a verdict against the prisoner, and he therefore gave up the case. The Jury returned a verdict of Not Guilty; and Guthrie, after a solemn advice to abstain from the use of spirits, was dismissed from the bar.
The next case was that of Alexander M'Farlane. The indictment charged him with having, on the 16th of February last, stolen from the shop of Richard Allan, grocer in the Potter-row, a kit of butter; and, when apprehended a few hours after, of having, in the Park-Place watch-house, seized a pair of large iron tongs, with which he assaulted James Stirling, grocer in the Potterrow, who had assisted in his apprehension, and struck him a dreadful blow on the head, by which his life was endangered. Farlane pleaded Guilty of the assault, but Not Guilty of the theft, and the Jury having found him Guilty accordingly, he was sentenced to a year's hard labour in Bridewell, and farther till he find security in 500 merks to keep the peace for three years.
Benjamin Ross, shoemaker in the Lawn-market of Edinburgh, who had been out on bail, now appeared at the bar, to answer to a charge of assaulting, striking, and wounding Jean Williams, or Ross, his wife. He pleaded Not Guilty. His wife stated, that he had frequently abused and hurt her; but on the night of the 31st December last, they had some words, and Ross lifted the tongs and struck her on the temple with them, to the effusion of her blood. She went to a neighbour's house, and by his advice returned, and, having washed the blood from her face, went to bed with her husband. Next morning, being unable to rise, she refused when her husband commanded her to do so; and he then struck her with a large ellwand across the legs; and afterwards, when she got up and said, "Benjy, you're surely not going to murder me!" he struck her on the left side of the head, knocked her down, and cut her. As soon as she was able to rise, she went up stairs in her shift to a neighbour's, who wrapped a covering over her, and went for a surgeon. She was afterwards twelve days