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skin or flesh. In the case of the cowpos, it is technically called vaccination, from vacca=a heifer, a cow, the infection for the purpose of vaccination having been originally taken from the cow.

Odos=a way; period, periodical, &c. &c. The word period, from peri=around, and the word in question, is primarily an astronomical term, and applied as a name for that portion of time which a planet takes to revolve in its orbit around the sun; hence, secondarily, it is applied indefinitely to any portion of time, and as a name for that stop which we apply to the end of a sentence which is complete, that is, has gone its round or completed its course.

Oleum=oil. Abolish, from ab=from, and oleum, signifies to annul established usages, probably, in a literal sense, to efface writing, or printing, or stains, by the application of some compound, one of whose ingredients might have been oil.

Orkos=an oath. Exorcise, from ek, ex=from, and orkos, signifies to expel an evil spirit from one possessed by it, in consequence, as it was supposed, of the non-performance by the possessed individual of some religious obligation laid on Through the form of an oath ; hence the word in question signifies to free from the consequence of a nonobservance of such oath.

Oxus=sharp, severe. Paroxysm, from para=beyond, and oxus, signifies an attack of any malady arrived at its height; also the affections of grief, rage, joy, &c. &c.; literally that which is beyond or more than severe.

Pagus=a country village, or district; pagan, paganism. These words originated in early Church history, and were applied to the religion, and its professors, of Polytheism, which, when the Roman empire became Christianised, found an asylum in the country parts, as opposed to the towns and cities, the enlightened understandings of whose inhabitants enabled them to perceive the superiority of the Christian religion.

Palatium=a hill in Rome, where Augustus Cæsar resided. Palace, a name for the residence of a monarch.

Pallas=a name for Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. There was an image of this goddess in ancient Troy, during

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the continuance of which therein it was fated Troy could not be taken by an enemy; hence Palladium, the name given to the image, signifies a bulwark or protection.

Palpo=to touch gently ; palpable, impalpable. A thing is said to be palpable, that is, clear, whose nature or property is capable of being understood even by a slight touch.

Paradisos=a garden enclosed for the purpose of pleasure; a hunting ground of the Persian kings, wherein they enjoyed themselves after the fatigues of business. Paradise, secondarily, a blissful abode.

Pan=all. Panegyric, from this word, and egorara place of public assembly, signifies, literally, an oration delivered publicly in praise of a celebrated character for some distinguished services; hence, secondarily, any sort of commendation.

Phaino=to appear ; phantom, phenomenon, sycophant, &c. &c. The latter word is derived from sukon=a fig, and phaino. The Athenians called a man sukophantes who informed against a person who transgressed the law which regulated the exportation of figs from Athens. The informer in Athens, as everywhere else, was held in contempt; and so the English word sycophant signifies, secondarily, an individual who would do a mean act,hence a person who fawns on a superior for a consideration.

Philos=a lover ; philanthropy, philosophy, &c. &c. The latter word signifies literally "a lover of wisdom," sophia signifying wisdom. The history of the original of this word may be interesting It happened, while Pythagoras was on a visit to Leon, that the latter was exceedingly charmed with the ingenuity and eloquence with which he discoursed on various topics, and asked him in what art he principally excelled ; to which Pythagoras replied, that he did not profess himself master of any art, but that he was a philosopher. Leon, struck with the novelty of the term, asked him who were philosophers. Pythagoras replied that, as in the public games, while some are contending for glory, and others buying and selling in pursuit of gain, there is always a third class of persons who attend merely as spectators ; so in human life, amidst the various characters of men, there is a select number of those who,




despising all other pursuits, assiduously apply themselves to the study of nature and the search after wisdom. “These," added Pythagoras, " are the persons whom I call philosophers.

Posterus=coming after ; posterior, preposterous. This latter word, from pre=before, and the word in question, signifies, literally, having the latter part first; hence, ridiculous, absurd.

Prehendo=to take hold of, to catch, to seize; apprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, comprehension. Comprehend signifies, literally, to lay hold of all parts of a body at the same time; hence, to grasp or hold firmly, from the similarity of the two processes. It is applied secondarily to that act of the mind, and to the understanding, whereby it thoroughly grasps, i. e., understands a subject it studies. It is worthy of observation how many words in the language in like manner as this, from applying primarily in a material, apply secondarily in a mental sense.

Rogo=I ask; interrogate, prorogue, prerogative. By the municipal institutions of Servius Tullius, the votes of a certain tribe, constituted by the first class, outnumbered the votes of all the other tribes in Rome, and so decided an election. From this fact, this tribe always voted first, i.e. was first asked its opinion, and was therefore styled “prerogativa tribus ;” hence the English word prerogative.

Signum=a sign, a mark; signal, sign, resign. The prefix re frequently has a negative force, as in the word reveal, and reverses the signification of the root to which it is attached. Parties entering into an agreement are supposed to attach their sign, that is, signature, to a document in which such agreement is specified; and on releasing themselves from the obligation hereby imposed, they resign, i. e. annul, or destroy, such sign by a counteracting

Stylus=the pen with which the Romans used to write on their waxen tablets ; style, stiletto. The word style, therefore, would signify, literally, the manner of writing ; hence, more generally, the manner of doing anything. This stylus was made of steel, sharp at one end, for the purpose of writing, and flat at the other, for that of erasing the characters impressed on the wax; stiletto, therefore,

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signifies literally, a small dagger, similar in form to the stylus.

Tantalus=a king of Phrygia ; tantalize. Tantalus is represented by the poets as punished in hell with insatiable thirst, and placed up to the chin in a pool of water, which flowed away as soon as he attempted to taste it: hence the word tantalize.

Tornus=a turner's wheel; turn, return; attorney. This last word signifies literally one who takes the tornus, turn or place of another; its application is now, however, restricted to individuals who act as substitutes for others concerned in an action before a court of law.

Tragos=a he-goat; tragedy, tragedian. Tragedy, from the word in question, and ode=a song, is that species of poetic composition which by the ancients was rewarded with a he-goat given to him who excelled therein.

Tropaion=a trunk of a tree maimed of its branches, and fixed by the victors on the spot, where they turned the enemy to flight; hence the word trophy.

Turannos=a person who usurped the regal office without any title thereto; tyrant, tyranny, tyrannise. Such persons made the most of their position, not expecting to hold it long, and treated their subjects cruelly; hence the word tyrannise signifies, literally, to act the tyrannus, that is, to ill-treat.

Umbra=a shadow; umbrageous, umbrage. A man is said to take or receive an umbrage, or offence, at somebody; that is, to be so disposed towards an individual as to indicate the disposition by a shade or gloom on the countenance, as opposed to brightness or cheerfulness.

Utopia=the name of a work written by Sir Thomas More, in which he discusses what a perfect commonwealth should be; hence utopian is an English adjective, signifying imaginary, visionary, &c. &c.

Vallum = a fence, rampart; interval. This word, from inter = between, and vallum, signifies literally the space between two palisades or ramparts; hence, secondarily, the distance between any two objects; and hence, again, it is applied to the distance in time between any two events.

Of the prefixes and postfixes, which enter so largely into, and exercise so much influence in modifying words derived from the classical anguages, it is superfluous to take notice, as they can be found discussed at large in every book, no matter how small, devoted to researches in the field of derivation. The foregoing examples have been given merely to shew in what way words should be traced to their original, and not as in any measure intended to exhaust the subject, which, as a matter of course, is intimately connected with philological grammar.



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. WORDS have been treated of hitherto according to the classes into which they are, for convenience sake, subdivided, and agreeably to their characteristic functions in their individual capacity. To know that house is called a noun, and was built a verb, and large an adjective, and carefully an adverb, however useful such knowledge may be, is, after all, but of secondary importance, and of itself manifestly insufficient to enable a man so to express him. self as to convey an intelligible idea as to what he speaks of.

The aforesaid words may be so arranged as, when spoken or written, not to convey any sense or meaning whatever ; they may also be so spoken by a certain arrangement, as to convey at once to the hearer a definite sense, and thereby the thoughts which are passing in the mind of the speaker. The assemblage of those laws which point out such an order of words as is conducive to the accurate expression of thought, and the collection of such rules as have been laid down by grammarians to the government of words and their mutual dependence on each other, are usually called Syntax, from the Greek prefix sun=together, and tasso=I arrange or set in order.

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