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on which he bestowed his peculiar fa- incarnation, as it is commonly undervour, yet they who toere his non received stood," implying his belief that it was him not. But as many as received him, true in an important sense, though not these he authorized to be sons of God, to in the common gross one. ther that practically believe on his name ; The time when the Word was made toho were born, not of blood, nor of the flesh, I have no doubt, as the period till of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but when our Saviour was invested with a of God. And the Word (viz. of Divine divine commission, and the gospel mesTruth) was made flesh, or became flesh, sage was intrusted to him. This was and tabernacled among us, and we beheld not till the period of his baptism by the glory thereof, the glory truly of the John. Then he was announced as the only-begotten (i. e. best-beloved) of the Son of God; and Christ, in all probaFather, full of grace and truth. John bility, alludes to that event (John v. bare witness concerning him, &c., i. e. 37); “The Father who hath sent me, the only-begotten. Ver. 17. The law hath himself borne witness of me. Have was given by Moses, but grace and truth, you never heard his voice, nor seen his came by Jesus Christ. This term is (Eldos) visible manifestation; and have almost interchangeable with the term
you not his word (aoyoy) remaining aAgra, Word, of which many passages mong you, that whom he hath sent ye might be urged in proof; take our Lord's believe not ?" See a note on this paswords in the prayer, John xvii. 17 :
sage by Mr. Turner, of Wakefield, in “ Sanctify them by thy truth, ò hoyos • Priestley's Harmony, quoted by Principal 6c5 21.78812 851 thy word is truth.” Campbell. Also, Acts xiv. 3, xx. 32.
With regard to the 14th verse, I am scarcely sensible myself of the feeling of
Co-operation. harshness which belongs to every other
LETTER I. interpretation, whether, with the Athana.
To the Editor. sian, we interpret it of the actual incar
SIR, nation of one of the persons of the God. head in the man Jesus, or with some
I PROPOSE to address to you three
letters on the subject of Practical CoUnitarians, of Wisdom becoming flesh, or with Mr. Cappe, translate, Neverthe? operation. In the first, I shall explain less the word was a mortal man. No
In the se
the meaning of the term. thing is more common in the New Tes. cond, ! shall point out how the princi. tament than such phrases as, the word is ples might be acted upon by Unitarian in you ; let the word of Christ dwell in
societies. In the third, I shall endea. you richly; Christians are the temples of
vour to shew why Unitarianism, to be the Holy Spirit; the Father is said to be consistent, should be more favourable to ia Christ; the spirit of truth was to
the success of co-operation, than any dwell with the disciples, and to be in
other religious persuasion.
The merits of the subject depend upon them. “If any one love me," saith Christ,* “ he will observe my word, established in West Street, Brightou,
the success of a Co-operative Society (70) Noyoy mov,) and the Father will
about the month of July, 1827. It conlore him, and we will come to him, and
sists almost entirely of workmen, whose make our abode with him. He that loreth me not, keepeth pot my sayings; pital, upon which they may employ their
object is to accumulate a common cayet the word (o agros) which ye hear, is members to work for the Society as they not mine, but it is (the word) of the would work for an ordinary master. Father who sent me.” Thus,t “the The Society will thus get the profit upon word of God abideth in believers." These their work. The capital of the Society instances seem to me very little to fall
is formed, at first, by a weekly subscripshort of the phrase, the Word (of Divine tion, which is not invested in a Savings' truth) became flesh, or was embodied in Bank, as in the case of Benefit Societies, haman form. Sir Isaac Newton, that but, first, in trade, in purchasing and sagacious Christian, wondered at “ the retailing to the members, or to others,
the common necessaries of life. Thus Joho xiv. 23. + I John ii. 4. the capital has two sources of increase,
" The word of God was communi- the weekly subscription aud the profit cated by human organs.” R. Wright on on the business. The business is mathe Humanity of Christ, p. 15 (ed. naged by an agent, a member of the So1815).
ciety, under the superintendeuce of a Committee. The agent lives in the bers, and to support them entirely in house, and the largest apartment is used sickness : and by the time any of the for the meetings of the members. When members are too old to work, they hope the capital has increased so as to be to be able to maintain them comfortably larger than the shop requires, it is em- at the common expense. Should the ployed in giving work to some of the principles of the Society prove sound, so members, the profit of which goes to the as to produce a capital continually accuSociety. This Society was induced, from mulating, they propose to purchase land particular circumstances, to take a lease of their own, upon which they may of about twenty-eight acres of land, carry improvements to the highest pitch about nine miles from Brighton. Upon their capital admits of, and may engage this land, their capital now enables them in any manufacture which may be found to employ four of their menibers. The most lucrative. land is cultivated partly as a garden and The idea of such a Society was sugnursery. The meo employed upon it are gested originally to one or two persons paid fourteen shillings a week, and are of the working class, whose minds were allowed rent and vegetables ; while the superior to their condition, who had had average wages of the surrounding coun- great experience of men and things, aud try are nine shillings, and of parish la- who were deeply sensible of the degraded bourers, six shillings. Should the ca- condition of the working classes. It is pital of the Society continue to increase evident that the formation and conduct while they pay their men these wages, of such a Society involve in them a great they will be able to increase the number deal of mind and reflection. The memof members employed, till the laud is bers necessarily acquire useful and pracbrought to the highest pitch of cultiva- tical knowledge as they proceed. They tion, or till it becomes more profitable acquire a knowledge of business and of to take up other trades. Should this be the markets, and the discussious at the the case, it is evident that these people weekly meetings are all of a practical, have very greatly and permanently im- improving character. They become daily proved their condition. The principles more sensible of the value of knowledge, upon which this Society rests are, that and of the absolute necessity of it to the labour is the only source of wealth : that prosperity of their Society. Hence they the labourer easily produces more than are all desirous of improving their minds. he cousumes : that in the present con- They employ their leisure hours in readstitution of society, the surplus produce ing and mutual instruction, and some of above the labourer's consumption goes them are tar advanced beyond the com · to the capitalist : that if the labourer mou acquirements of mechanics. The could contrive to be his own capitalist, improvements which have been introhe would get the whole produce of his duced of late years into the methods of labour to himself: that, as an individual, teaching, facilitate their progress, and he can never become a capitalist, on ac- they have proved to the satisfaction of count of the chances and accidents of any reasonable mind, that learning and life : but that a certain number of la. labour are not incompatible. They have bourers, united together, may become published a monthly paper, called the joint capitalists, may be supported by *c Co-operator," price one penny, in their own labour out of their capital which their principles and their hopes of till they have reproduced it, and may success are stated and explained, and the therefore mutually insure each other paper is by no means devoid of merit. against the contingencies of life.
The principles of this Society, supThe first object of this Society is, to ported by the success it has hitherto met insure the common comforts of life to with, seem to offer the fairest chance of all its members. This security is not to improving the condition of the working be confined to a state of health, but is to classes of, perhaps, any plan which has extend to sickness and old age. At pre- hitherto been proposed. They go no sent, on the death of a member, or a farther than these classes themselves for member's wife, a subscriptiou is made all the elements and materials they make hy the other members for the relief of use of. They do not apply to the rich the family. When a member is too ill or the government, but to the labourer to work, or unable to find employment, himself: they point out to him that he some relief is afforded him in the same
possesses the means of his own inde. way. But when the capital is sufficiently pendence, and they shew him the meincreased, they hope to be able to find thod of applying them successfully. Anconstant employment for all their meme other year will afford us a wider field of experience. Sereral other societies have Christians, on the sole conditions of been established upon similar principles, producing unquestionable testimony of and whether they succeed or fail, they the good moral character of the officiwill afford an interesting and instructive ating minister, and not obstructing or experiment for the cousideration of the abusing each other. At this period, an friends of human nature and of human inu was built for the accommodation of bappiness.
travellers, as well as for more local purADELPHOS. poses; aud since then various shops have
been opened, including a smith's shop, Experiment in Monmouthshire for and a medical man established in the bettering the Condition of the Poor.
village. In the year 1824, finding that
even more of success than I had autici. (Continued from p. 58.)
pated promised to attend my experiment, To the Editor.
founded a second Village on another SIR, Woodfeld, Jan. 17, 1829.
part of my property, in the same valley
as the first, three miles distant, and, in Such a practical experience and visi. 1826, a third, in the Rumney Valley, on ble manifestation of some of the bene- the confines of this county, bordering on ficial effects of my village system upon Glamorganshire. Both these last-named the condition of ihe first adventurers, are in some respects on different modifias were exhibited during the third year cations of the self-same principle; they of the experiment, proved pearly deci- ditfer also a little from each other, both sive of its success, or at any rate insured embodying improvements on the first, it a fair trial. What appeared to most as suggested by experience; but of these, persons at first visionary, had began to together with the moral and personal be considered possible ; au opinion of effects already resulting from the attempt uncertainty was exchauged for a couvic. practically to demonstrate that the moral tion of probability; and incredulity it- degradatiou and wretched porerty so comself was silenced, even where not abso- mon to the British labourer of the prelutely convinced. This salutary change sent day, are neither necessury in themof opinion, however, extended only, or selves, por attributable to his own at least chiefly, to those who were to be fault chiefly, I must defer writing at immediately benefited. The practical present, having barely time at command proof that a man who had been accus. to add, that the three experimental viltomed to pay 61. or 71. a year rent for lages contain already upwards of two Fery insufficient accommodation in his thousand inhabitants ; that they are all house, and little or no garden, might, steadily and regularly increasing, though with but little exertion of hand and in different degrees, both in size and head, acquire a comfortable dwelling and prosperity; and that of this amount of sufficiency of garden on such easy and population, Blackwood, the first atadvantageous terms, was irresistible ; but tempted, contains about fourteen hunthe idea of rescuing any considerable dred souls. number of the labouring poor from the
JOHN H. MOGGRIDGE. moral, personal and political degradation into which they had fallen, continued to be treated as visionary, even by many
The True Worshipers. wbo ought to have known better. The necessary impulse had, however, been
To the Editor. given—the trial was certain-and though SIR, difficulties and discouragements were, to If a second appearance in your valu. say the least, unnecessarily and unwor- able Repository should not be deemed thily thrown in the way, many life. unreasonable, as coufined to a single leases were taken, aud so considerable a though very important subject, will you number of houses built or begun, that permit me to thank your correspondents before the end of the fourth year I de. for the liberal spirit' in which they have termined to erect a market house, with met the remarks I ventured to make on a large room over it, for the establish the subject of “ True Worshipers" ? ment of a school, and for the occasioual To E. K. I feel indebted for the detail use of the Village Provident Society. he has given us of the revival of our This room, also, I had registered at the own peaceful and heart-consoling worQuarter Sessions as a chapel, and its use ship at Wareham, and glory in an event, was offered to and accepted by several which all who value our opinious inust different congregations of professing rejoice at.
With respect to our difference of sen. gospel, and, while asserting our own opitiment regarding the use of the term nions with courage, abstain from every " True Worshipers," we are, perhaps, expression which shall give umbrage to not so widely separated as he may ima- our other Christian brethren. If we are, give; my chief objectiou being to the ivdeed, the “ true worshipers,” let us outward parade of the title, not to the strive to deserve the title by the purity inward conviction of its right applica- of our lives and conversations, not by tion in the minds of those who assume taking to ourselves an appellation which, it. He who does not value, and with in the great courts above, may be adproper confideuce appreciate, the justice judged to others as their equal property. of his own opinious, can scarcely be What title that class of individuals said to deserve the fruits which await may possess to it, in whose favour E. K. their cultivation in sincerity. Neither would make his only exception, men, could I respect the character of any “ who, although their creed may be noChristian who did not consider that he minally Trivitarian, yet practically sink followed, to the best of his belief, the the adoration of two of the persons of worship of bis God in truth.
the Trinity," it is not for me to deterBelieving, as I firmly do, that our mine. But with respect to
" Pagan worship is due to Almighty God alone, idolaters," he will not find in my letter I of course embrace a similar persuasion any allusion to them; for although I with E. K., and after many years of pa. may have thoughts of my own upon the tient inquiry and atteutive perusal of the subject, and many lively hopes that the Scriptures, am more and more convinced illustrious philosophers and great aud the longer I live, that the religion of the good men of the ancients, may, with the Unitarian approaches nearer to the living philosophers of the desert like“ truth," as promulgated by our blessed wise, meet the great and good of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, than Christian world in heaven, there is a any other in existence. It is equally my line of distinction between true and false conviction, that the religion of the Uni- worship, which I should be as little distarians is gaining ground-if pot rapidly, posed to break through as E. K. himyet by a sure and steady progress. That self. the oftener our tenets are examined, Yet is there a something to my mind and the more parrowly compared with of awful hazard, if not presumption, in the writings of the New Testament, the the thought, that a very diminutive band, nearer they will be fouud to approach a speck of people, hardly perceptible the religion of our Saviour and his im. amidst the countless multitudes which, mediate followers, and the better enti- in their various turns, have inhabited tled to the designation of “ true wor- this world in their progress to eternityship.” But though steadfastly, and to cyphers, amidst the millions who now my own inexpressible comfort, impressed inhale the breath of Heaven, partake of with these solemn convictions, I cannot the bounty and solicitude of their God, bring myself to the conclusion that we and adore in their various ways the great are ourselves authorized to assume the Creator and Lord of the universe,-1 title outwardly or publicly ; but that it must repeat it, there is somethiug awful will better become us, as humble folin the attempt of any of our small sect lowers of Christ, to wait patiently for to affirm with open voice, that we only the coming of that day when it will be " the true worshipers." awarded to them who have deserved it. Let us rather use our earnest endeaNeither can I think that we have any
to cement a sweet union with right to doubt of their worship being others; to point to a restiug-place which true and equally accepted with our own, shall inclose the whole family of Christ; who, reared in different sentiments of and live in the blessed hope, that our the Deity, yet have His image in their Great Shepherd will seek even those hearts, and the pure lessous of his Son that may have strayed upon the journey, conspicuously impressed upon their ac- and carry in his bosom such as have had tions : or that it is consistent with the the will, but failed in their strength, to character of our body, to imitate, even reach the goal ! remotely, the tendency of almost all To my nameless friend who has so other creeds and sects, to pronounce happily supplied the beautiful illustratheir own opinions « infallible." I tions you have inserted, I beg to return should say, rather let us prove a liberal my acknowledgments, and think I cannot and happy exception to a practice which better repay his kindness than by calling has so ofteu dimmed the light of the to his remembrance the following lines :
Children we are
effects, his liberality seems to have conOf one great Father, in whatever clime verted Christiaulty into a system of abNature or chance bath cast the seeds of stract truths, requiring werely a cold aclife.
quiescence of the judginent, rather than All tongues-all colours : neither after as a divine revelation to be received with death
a soul-pervading conviction of its unShall we be sorted into languages speakably deep importance. Aod tints—white, black, and tawuy, It is, indeed, suspected, that beneath Greek and Goth,
this plausible liberality exists much of Northern, and offspring of hot Africa. the old spirit of time-serving and truckThe All-Father, he in whom we live and ling to expediency; that it is too often and more,
used as a cloak for indifferentism, a deHe, the indifferent Judge of all, regards fence for the timid, aud a convenient Nations and hues and dialects alike. evasion for the irresolute, the latitudinaAccording to their works, shall they be rian, and the sceptic. Had Nathan, in judged,
our day and generation, deuounced in When even-banded justice in the scale plain and unvarnished language the royal Their good and evil weighs. All creeds, adulterer to his face, or had indignant I ween,
virtue characterized the sanctimonious Agree in this, and hold it orthodox. pharisees as hypocrites and whited se
P. S. R. pulchres, it is more than probable that
such ungenerous, uucharitable conduct The True Worshipere.
would have offended “ears polite," and
the praises of gentlemanly courtesy and To the Editor.
liberality been chaunted in full chorus to
the skies. Had our Puritan forefathers SIR,
been educated in such a puerile and We live, 'tis said, io an age of libera- mincing school, the cause of Noncoulity, and many laudatory eucomiums are formity would never have existed. That larished on the comely virtue. Without it does exist is perhaps to be lamented; wishing in the least to disparage the cul- it is so painful to polished and delicate ture of truly candid and liberal senti- minds virtually to condemn so mauy ments, or to circumscribe their influence “ true worshipers,” by presuming to in society, yet I believe, that as extremes assemble for the worship of God other are generally injurious, so extremne libe- than under the patronage of an esta. rality, though viewed with indulgence, blished hierarchy, or, at any rate, bemay be pushed so far as to be productive ueath the auspicious sauction of some of very pernicious effects, especially when venerable creed, a mouument of ances. connected with religion. Thus it appears tral wisdom. evident to me that much of the professed I, for one, protest against that spuri. liberality of the present day is of very ous liberality which destroys the impormischievous tendency, inasmuch as it tance of religious truth, as fonnded on undermines the foundation of all motives private judgment; which forces that to a sincere pursuit of truth ; because, judgment to subserve to the dictum of whatever be the result of anxious inquiry others, and hides in obscurity principles and painful research, the opinions con- which may peradventure be obnoxious to sequently formed are of comparatively the venal atteudauts on courts and palittle importance; its influence tends to laces. the removal of all distinction between If I conceive aright, true liberality has right and wrong, and, by destroying the nothing to do with opinions, but simply boundaries, to the confounding of truth with those who hold them. Its legitiwith error.
mate direction is to men's inotives, not Nor do there appear to exist more their conclusions. A Christian may, ardent votaries of this fashionable idol pay ought, to witness a good profession, than are to be found amongst the Unita- and manfully combat in defence of what riaps. Whilst other sects manifest their he believes to be the truth of God and sense of the value of religious truth by of his Christ. Believing that the pure their strenuous and reiterated exertions and holy system of Jesus is debased by aud unremitting zeal in support of what worldly corruptions, he ought to dethey deem the cause of Christ, the cold nounce then; to doctrines by him deemand formal Unitarian is too courteous to ed wrong or fallacious, be is bound to impugn, and too liberal to object, to the allow no quarter; with error he dare faith professed by others, however widely uot effect a compromise ; and this without it may differ from his own. From its sacrificing his charity as a Christian, or