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Fiat Justitia Ruat Cœlum.
"To the law and to the testimony," or Questions || and feet was I to the lame. I was a father to the on Slavery answered by the Scriptures; and pre- poor: and the cause which I knew not I searched sumed to be worthy of particular consideration on out. And I brake the jaws of the wicked, and the National Fast Day. By Lucy Townsend.plucked the spoil out of his teeth."
London: Hamilton, Adams, & Co.
To the patriot king, who by issuing his royal mandate for the liberation of all the enslaved Negroes who were held to be the property of the British Crown, has evinced his righteous purpose to rule with "justice and judgment" throughout the wide extent of his dominions, the following pages, in which the question of Colonial Slavery is brought to the decision of God's revealed truth. are, with all humility, inscribed by His Majesty's most dutiful and most obedient subject and servant, L. T.
QUESTIONS ON SLAVERY. Question. Are all mankind derived from one common Parent? or were there different species from the beginning?
Answer. "God that made the world, and all things therein"-hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the
his fellow man?
Q. Did Moses say nothing on this subject?
"Ye shall not respect persons in Judgment, but you shall hear the small as well as the great; you shall not be afraid of the face of man, for the Judgment is God's." Deut. i. 17. Read, at length, Deut. x. 17, 19. Deut. xvi. 18, 20. Deut. xxxiii. 20, 21.
Q. But may it not be inferred from these last texts, that it is only the Rulers of Nations, who are bound to notice oppression and cruelty, with
a view to their removal?
A. "Hear the word of the Lord, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto our God, ye people of Gomorrah. Learn to do well; seek judgment; for the widow." Isaiah, i. 10-17. And again, relieve the oppressed; judge the fatherless: plead also shall cry himself, but shall not be heard." "Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor, he Prov. xxi. 13. And again, as if to leave us without excuse, the Word of God declares, that "The
righteous considereth the cause of the poor: but the wicked regardeth not to know it" Prov.
Q. In what does the inspired Prophet, JereA. After the fall, and also after the flood, God said to Noah, and through him to all mankind-miah, tell us to glory? And in what does God de"Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his
blood be shed: for in the image of God made he
man." Gen. ix. 6.
Q. Amidst the general sinfulness of mankind before the Flood, was there any particular wicked ness on account of which God said he would destroy them with the waters of the deluge?
A. God says "The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them," i. e. through the "Giants," or "oppressors," as Latimer translated the word; "and behold, I will destroy them with the Earth." Gen. vi. 13.
Q. What is the rule laid down in the Scriptures for the future punishment of injustice?
A. Our Lord has himself assured us-"that
with what measure we meet, it shall be measured to us again." Matt. vii. 2.
Q. Where do the Scriptures speak of Justice and Judgment being exercised under the Patriarchal Religion, before the Mosaic Law was given to the Children of Israel?
A. "Thus saith the Lord, let not the wise man
glory in his wisdom; neither let the mighty man glory in his might; let not the rich man glory in his riches. But let him that glorieth, glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which exercise loving kindness, judgment, and righteousness, in the earth: for in these things I delight, saith the Lord." Jer. ix. 23, 24.
Q. What is the conduct which God requires us to observe towards our fellow creatures, and towards himself?
A. "What doth the Lord require of thee, but
to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?" Micah. vi. 8.
Q. If we do not, as a Nation, or as individuals, regard these things, but rather support injustice and oppression, what must we expect?
A. "They are waxen fat, they shine; yea, they overpass the deeds of the wicked: they judge not the cause, the cause of the fatherless, yet they A. In the book of Job (which Dr. Mason Good prosper; and the right of the needy do they not judge. Shall I not visit for these things? saith the has proved to be the oldest book ever written,) we read (chap. xxix. 11-17) "When the ear heard Lord: shall not my soul be avenged on such a na"And I will come me, then it blessed me; because I delivered the||tion as this?" Jer. v. 28, 29. near to him to Judgment; and I will be a swift poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him. The blessing of him that witness against the sorcerers, and against the was ready to perish came upon me: and I caused adulterers, and against false swearers, and against the widow's heart to sing for joy. I put on righ-widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the teousness, and it clothed me: my judgment was as a robe and a diadem.† I was eyes to the blind,
* Latimer translated the word thus, before West India Slavery was known; long before Protestant Christians had become oppressors, or bought and sold their fellow-man.
stranger from his right, and fear not me, saith the
Lord of hosts." Malachi. iii. 5.
Q. Do the Scriptures of the New Testament speak to the same effect?
A. "Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue, and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment, and the love of God: these ought + Is it possible that slave-holders, even if "they ye to have done, and not to leave the other ungive all their goods to feed the poor," can have done." Luke xi. 42. "Behold, the hire of the Justice and Judgment for their "robe and diadem," laborers who have reaped down your fields, which when the most of them condemn unoffending In.is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries fants to perpetual Slavery from the moment of of them which have reaped are entered into the their birth, and do not release even their Chris- ears of the Lord of Sabbaoth." James v. 4, tianized Bondsmen from captivity?
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cœlum.
Philanthropic and Literary.
PRINCIPALLY CONDUCTED BY A LADY.
THE PRODUCTIONS OF SLAVERY.
It appears to us that too many persons satisfy themselves in the use of the productions of slave labor, by reasoning upon the subject incorrectly. They look abroad and observe the greater portion of the community contentedly drawing the means of their comforts and luxuries from the unrewarded labor of the slave, and instead of asking themselves, Is this right? they only inquire, What good will it effect for me to do otherwise?—and persuading themselves that they can do nothing effectual towards abolishing slavery, they are sa. tisfied to reap what benefit they may from its continuance. They will acknowledge that it may be the duty of some persons to abstain from all these productions, because they believe those to whom they allude, are clearly impressed with a sense of its being such. But for themselves they maintain a contrary practice is entirely innocent. This we conceive to be making opposition to slavery rather a matter of religious opinion, than a practical duty, equally binding on every one. We readily admit the necessity of abstinence from the produce of slave labor, to have been sealed upon the minds of many persons as a religious duty. But is it reasonable to suppose that such only are called upon to bear this testimony against slavery?—that the voice of reason and truth is not to be attended to,|| because a course of conduct which we have al
ample should exert any influence over others, why was the command laid upon him to offer them? Let not then our sisters, as an excuse for their supineness on a subject of such immense impor tance, persuade themselves that until they can see what effects their exertions will produce, they have no concern in the wretchedness of their fellow creatures, and may innocently support the oppressor in his wickedness. Let them ask themselves with a desire to be convinced of the truth, what moral right have we to the productions of slavery? They are the spoils of oppression, and wrong, and violence, can we guiltlessly partake of them?
THE PROSPECT OF EMANCIPATION.
The accounts from Great Britain respecting the abolition of slavery are most encouraging. The monster must fall ere long, and when it does, American oppression also will tremble to the centre of its strong holds. Our country must quail under the shame of her vileness, when no longer countenanced in her infamy by the example of her no less guilty sister nation. Eight hundred thousand of our fellow creatures, will in the course of a few years pass from the condition of slaves to that of freemen. It is a most joyful thought. The scourge will no more mangle their limbs, their human forms shall no longer be made as merchandize, the holiest ties of nature shall no more be wantonly torn asunder at the command of a tyrant. Their minds poisoned no longer by the pestilential atmosphere of slavery, shall awaken into a renewed life, and be permitted to worship Him who created them. It is not without an added glow of pleasure, that we remember how much
our own sex have contributed to the creation of
this delightful prospect. And while we reflect on what has been done by females in another land, our hearts glow with renewed hope, that here, also, ere long, one sentiment only, on this momentous subject, will animate almost all female bosoms.— There is much yet to be done. We may look forward to brighter scenes, but as yet slavery still reigns with all its unabated horrors. There must be yet no limitation-there must be an increase of exertion. The horrible traffic in human flesh is still conti
ways unthinkingly pursued, may give us no pain? Conscience does not always speak unsolicited, and prejudice and selfishness may too often stifle the wish to hear her dictates. If some persons have been especially called upon to be an example of self-denial in this matter, was it not to awaken the attention of others, and point out a means for ridding the nation of its great sin? Can those of the sect of Woolman, who venerate his virtues and his memory, and believe him to have been called of God to declare the words of truth among his breth-nued; the scourge is red with human blood; the ren, suppose that the duty of so lawfully abstaining from the polluted fruits of slavery, was so forcibly enjoined upon him for no good purpose? If to participate in the harvest of oppression, is innocent for others, why was it not so to him? As an individual, his abstinence could have no more effect THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE. upon the system, than that of any other one person; therefore the plea of its uselessness, if suffi We have yet heard of the formation of no fecient for the excuse of others, must, we should male society in America, for the diffusion of knowsuppose, have been sufficient for him also. And ledge on the subject of slavery, by means of the if it was not intended that his precepts and ex-printing press. We again recommend the sub
rice-ground and the sugar plantation, are drenched with the tears of helpless and wretched women. Can there be needed any stronger incentive to unceasing and unwearied exertions in this cause?
Fiat Justitia Ruat Colum.
ject to the attention of our friends. Light and knowledge upon this subject must produce corresponding conviction and exertion; and a small expenditure in this way might be attended with important advantages.
Of the London Female Anti-Slavery Society. Below we give our readers some extracts from the last Report we have recieved of the London Female Anti-Slavery Society. Of this Association the late admirable and lamented Hannah || Kilham was a member,-a woman of whom we seldom think without increasing respect and affection for her character. We should suppose from the appearance of this Report that a majority of its members, brobably, were "Friends," if it is not composed wholly of such; and we are glad to find the females of that society not behind their sisters, in devotion to the important work of emancipation.
"Three years," saith the Report, “have now elapsed since the formation of this society—a period in which, if we have accomplished little, we have had an opportunity of learning much. When we first approached the question of emancipation, doubt and perplexity seemed to beset the subject; now we can see little but hope in such a prospect. We had thought that the slaves needed preparation for freedom; we are now convinced that no preparation is to be expected for them in the house of bondage; they learn there the sins of servility, not the lessons of liberty. But, assuredly, if human beings have submitted to endure slavery, there is cause to trust, that under the protection of judicious laws, adapted to the peculiarities of the case, they might immediately be trusted to sustain freedom. We can find no fact on the records of history to shake this persuasion. Insubordination has arisen, not from the granting of liberty, but from the withholding of it, or attempting to snatch the precious boon from men exulting in the recent possession of freedom. If justice be speedily conceded, we anticipate with delight, that safety, confidence and peace, will succeed to insecurity, distrust, and commotion."
the stronger our efforts become for the extinction of slavery, the more we shall feel that we have only done what it was our duty to do, towards clearing our own consciences of a participation in this national crime. The further the subject is investigated, the heavier will be felt to be the sin of slavery; and the more our Christian zeal is raised, the more shall we desire that meekness and love may rule in our breasts: and whilst we plead for this righteous cause, that our consistent deportment may recommend the case of the captive to opposers, until all opposition be done away; and throughout the widely extended dominions of Britain no mortal shall dare to enthrall the body or soul of his fellow creature,-shall presume to restrain the incense of thanksgiving and praise to that beneficent Being, who "has made of one blood all the nations of men," and to that merciful Saviour who "gave himself a propitiation for the sins of the whole world."
For the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
THE ELM TREE TREATY.`
The exile brethern of the peaceful Penn,
There was no proud display of wealth and power,
And yet, as one by one, from age to youth,
The haughty bearing of their brows grew tame,
English colonial slavery is a mass of monstrous evils, that throws widely around the shades of its confounding darkness; obscuring the moral perceptions of the master, not less than it bruta- No solemn forms were used; no oaths were said, lizes the slave. Let us, therefore, steadily perse-To be annulled, midst blood, and guilt, and shame; vere in our efforts to diffuse information on this But while the streams their endless waters sped, painful, but truly important subject: there never The light of peace should still its radiance o'er was greater need that we should watch for occathem shed. sions to exercise all the influence we possess; and we have no excuse for becoming weary, enjoying as we do the encouraging persuasions that our efforts have not been altogether unavailing. They have been small in comparison with the magnitude of the object, but they have sometimes excited a lasting sympathy, where the wrongs of Africa had been but slightly contemplated; they have roused to exertions, when supineness was creeping over the imperfectly awakened feelings; and they have rewarded the exertions of our brethern, with the cheering language of encouragement in their more conspicuous services. Whilst
Yet even here the fettered slave hath trod,
The scourge was flung away, the chain was bro-
And lifting up an eye with joy elate,
After the broad exposure of the complicated wickedness of slavery, we cannot but regard the cousumption of its produce as a wilful aiding and abetting of that complicated wickedness; we cannot but regard the exhibition of that produce for sale, in this enlightened and christian country as a mark of barbarism, a reproach and stigma upon the national character. We have no moral right to the productions of slavery; they are, in the very worst sense, stolen goods, and the receiver or purchaser, knowing them to be stolen, is as guilty as the thief. ELIZABETH HEYRICK.
From an English Anti-Slavery Card. THE CAPTIVE LION. Shall BRITAIN'S SPIRIT lie in thrall, And her own laws insulted see? Rise! British females! one and all, And set the CAPTIVE LION free! Beats there, on earth, one female breast, To cottage or to throne consigned, By virtue's sacred power imprestTrue to the HONOUR OF HER KIND. Who views her sable sisters' woeDegraded, fettered, scourged and bought; Yes!-levelled with the beasts below
Nor fires, indignant at the thought? Rise!-one and all!-in firm array!— With heart and hand and head and knee; Awake! and watch! and thrive and pray, And set the CAPTIVE LION free!
The following is an extract of a letter, from a lady in the District of Columbia, to the editor, received a few weeks since. Would that we had a few more as courageous, public-spirited philanthropists as this worthy lady has frequently proven herself to be. This is not the first time that she has stepped between the oppressive tyrant and
his victim, and rescued the sufferer from the iron gripe of his merciless clutches. Such conduct merits, and will receive, in addition to the approbation of a clear conscience, the united plaudits of the wise and the good, whatever may be the usages and regulations of the country in which a person's lot may be cast.
a gentleman to advance the balance. The poor slave was on the boat-the last bell had rungwhen the gentleman came up, paid the money, and had him brought ashore. His wife was standing on the wharf, as one that was crazed. When he found he was to return to his family, he was so overcome with gratitude, that his wife had to lead him home, like a young child."
Constitution of the Free Produce Society of Chester County, Pa.
The practice of slavery is derogatory to the character and inconsistent with the fundamental doctrines of the republican institutions-it is alike repugnant to the principles of justice and sound policy, and to the precepts of morality and religion.
Yet unhappily for our country, this monster of iniquity has acquired such magnitude that it threatens to produce the most deplorable calamities in addition to the evils already experienced. To avert those calamities and alleviate those evils should be a leading object with the patriot and philanthropist. Knowledge is power-the most efficient power which intellectual beings have a right to exercise upon each other.
To acquire and judiciously to apply this power to the extinction of slavery, requires extensive inquiry and close investigation into the nature and circumstances of the slave system.
We the subscribers have therefore associated under the title of "The Clarkson Anti-Slavery Association," for the purpose of promoting useful knowledge on the subject of slavery, and to use our influence for the extinction thereof.
To effect which, we have adopted the following constitution, viz.—
Article 1st. The objects of the association shall be to promote a knowledge of the nature and circumstances of slavery-to ascertain its history— trace its influence on individuals and communities, and to examine the different schemes for its abolition by inviting correspondence-by encouraging lectures and discussions, both written and verbal at its meetings, and by promoting the publication and distribution of such original and selected matter as shall be considered worthy thereof.
Article 2. All persons shall be eligible for membership, without distinction of sex or color. Each member shall pay an annual contribution of fifty cents, which shall become due on the day of the election of officers.
Article 3. The association shall meet quarterly on the seventh-day preceding the third second-day in the second, fifth, eighth, and. eleventh months; the second of which shall be the annual meeting for electing officers.
Article 4. The officers of the association shall be a president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, and acting committee-all of which shall be
elected after the first election at the annual meetceded by another election. ing in each year and continue in office till super
Article 5. The duties of the president, and in his absence, of the vice president shall be to preciation. serve order and sign all public acts of the asso
"I have been much engaged, since you left us, in assisting our oppressed brethren. I have been Article 6. The secretary shall keep regular misuccessful in several cases. One I was truly for-nutes of the proceedings of the association-furtunate in. It was a very worthy man, who was nish the acting committee with attested copies sold from his wife and five children. They had when they shall require him to do so and give been married twenty-one years. We raised part such notice of the times of meeting as they shall of the money to ransom him, and prevailed upon direct.
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
Article 7. The treasurer shall keep a fair account of his receipts and expenditures as such-pay all orders of the presiding officers drawn on behalf of the association so far as he has funds in his hands, and submit a statement of his accounts to the annual meeting. And at the expiration of his office, deliver up to his successor all monies and effects appertaining thereto.
Article 8. The acting committee shall consist of five members, and represent the association during its recess generally-correspond with other societies and individuals on its behalf-authorize || the secretary to call special meetings when necessary-procure lectures, &c. to be delivered at the meetings-examine communications made to the association, and to direct and superintend their publication when that shall be thought proper, provided, that when such publications will incur expense they shall first obtain the sanction of the body.
They shall keep minutes of their proceedings and lay them before the annual meeting. Three of the committee shall be a quorum, provided they all concur.
Article 9. The names of candidates for membership shall be proposed to a general meeting and there approved before they are admitted as mcm- | bers. And any member may be expelled for acting inconsistent with his duty as such, provided he shall have had three months notice of charges prefered against him, and an opportunity of making his defence before a special committee.
Article 10. All questions shall be decided by a majority of the members present, except the expulsion of members, which shall require two-thirds. Article 11. No alteration shall be made in this constitution until approved by two successive meetings of the association-but any general meeting may make such bye-laws, rules and regulations as may appear necessary, not inconsist. ent with this instrument, nor contrary to the laws
of the commonwealth.
The Christian Watchman, in an article on the subject of slavery in the British Colonies, and the horrible cruelties inflicted on the eight hundred thousand human beings now held in bondage in those Colonies, remarks:
is of more interest? What, in its discussion, is calculated to excite more heat of passion? What in its results, is more likely to effect the livelihood and well being of a large portion of our people? We look forward with intense, with almost fearful, apprehension to the discussion of this subject. It is fraught with imminent consequences to the peace of the country.-Newburyport Herald.
Melancholy Death of a Slave.-A stout, good looking black fellow, took passage, at Baltimore, in the steam boat Kentucky, for Philadelphia.— Before the boat reached Chesapeake city, it was discovered that he belonged to a gentleman of Maryland, and was endeavoring to make his escape from the bonds of slavery. An effort was made by the captain to place him in confinement, but the slave with one bound sprang into the water, and swam vigorously towards the shore. A boat was lowered in pursuit, but before it reached him he sank, and rose no more.--Phila. Gazette.
A foreigner who should struggle through the task of reading the fourth of July toasts, which now occupy so much space in our newspapers, would pronounce us to be addicted as much as any monarchial people, to man worship. How general and extravagant the homage to men in office, and those likely to be popular candidates for high stations! How general and lavish the use, besides, of such terms and professions as serve to obtain place or political influence! Nine-tenths of the toasts refer to party idols, "rising suns," partyinterests, and personal objects. The Anniversary is not a main or direct subject, but an occasion for that reference.-National Gazette.
To convince any man against his will is hard, but to please him against his will is justly pronounced by Dryden, to be above the reach of human abilities. Interest and passion will hold out long against the closest siege of diagrams and syllogisms, but they are absolutely impregnable to imagery and sentiment; and will forever bid defiance to the most powerful strains of Virgil or Homer, though they may in time give way to the batteries of Euclid or Archimedes.
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It may be said, that the two millions of slaves in our own United States are not thus abused. But if they are not, where is the guarantee that they GENIUS OF UNIVERSAL EMANCIPATION. may not be? They are recognized as property, and may be sold as horses are sold, and husband and wife separated. What can be done? The Colonization Society is instituted for the transportation of free colored people; and if slaves are occasion ally removed by that Society, their number is small. Judge Testis, who is a friend of the American Colonization Society, says respecting slavery, that "it is not expected to remove so great an evil as two millions of slaves suddenly: if it can be accomplished in a century, it will be as Subscribers who do not particularly specify the much as the most sanguine of its friends ought to time they wish to receive the work, or notify the expect!" Will the God of justice and righteous-editor (through the medium of a post-master, or ness endure this enormity another hundred years, in some other way,) of a desire to discontinue it after all the light which he has given us of its before the expiration of the current year, will be wickedness? considered as engaged for the next succeeding one, and their bills will be forwarded accordingly.
What subject, now agitating the public mind of this country, is of greater magnitude and importance, than the subject of negro slavery? What
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