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and this thus far links them morally with that deed. It was not a common murder that Cain committed : it was righteous blood” that was shed by the unrighteous. Neither was Cain's the only instance. Stephen's indictment was, “ Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted ? and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the. Just One.” (Acts vii. 52.)

The catalogue ends here with Zacharias, son of Barachias, who was slain between the temple and the altar. Who was this Zacharias? There would have been no difficulty had the words “son of Barachias” been wanting here as they are in Luke's Gospel ; but they are here, and the difficulty must be considered.

Zechariah i. 1, says that the word of the Lord came unto " Zechariah, the son of Berechiah," but we have no record of the martyrdom of this prophet. He greatly helped on the building of the second temple (Ezra vi. 14), but we have no record of his death.

On the other hand we have the martyrdom of Zechariah in 2 Chronicles xxiv. 20, 21, and exactly answering in detail to our gospel : “they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones, at the commandment of the king, in the court of the house of the Lord.But he was the son of Jehoiada the priest, and not of Barachias. Now, although the death of Zechariah the

prophet is not recorded in the Old Testament, of course he may have been a martyr, and may have been put to death in the temple.

Or Zechariah, whose death is recorded, may have been grandson of a Barachias, and son of Jehoiada. We have an instance of the naming the grandfather for the father in Zechariah the prophet. In


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Zechariah i. 1, as we have seen, he is called “the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet ;" but in Ezra vi. 14, the same Zechariah is described as “the son of Iddo."

Further than this we are not able to carry itthe meaning however is plain : from the first martyr to the last—all were to culminate upon the rebellious house of Israel. “All these things shall

“ come upon this generation."

Then follows the memorable lament of our Lord over Jerusalem : notwithstanding their iniquity, often would He have gathered their children as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, but they would not. He would, but they would not. Now their house is about to be left unto them desolate, and they shall not see Him again until they shall say, "Blessed is he that cometh in the

6 name of Jehovah.” Thus He graciously closes by referring to that time when their eyes shall be opened to see beauty in the One they were about to crucify, and they shall hail His return with blessing Him in the name of Jehovah.


I cannot help thinking that Sunday-school teachers would do well to consider what is called “The art of questioning.” It is a great fault when questioning does not test the scholars in some way, for when it does not do this, it has a bad negative effect in leading them to suppose they know a great deal more than they do.

Teachers sometimes fall into the habit of putting questions to the scholars in a way that requires

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merely a “yes or a “no” for the answer: and besides this, the form of the question will often tell the scholars which of the two answers is expected. So that a boy or girl may be paying the least possible attention to a lesson, and yet be able to answer such questions at the close, and pass off as knowing the lesson, when in reality he may know next to nothing

This may be easily proved to the teacher by one better qualified putting a few questions to the class. I remember a superintendent once, on going his rounds shortly before closing time, came to a class and found the teacher and scholars sitting “at ease;" the lesson had been given and apparently learnt, and all were waiting for the closing beli. But the superintendent took his seat, and asked a few questions, which should have convinced both teacher and scholars how superficial had been the instruction really acquired.

Again, such questions ought not to be put which have answers plainly before the scholars' eyes, and which they can read and repeat without a thought. Thus, suppose the lesson was Mark iii, 31–35. The verses are read round, and the teacher asks, “Who came to Christ?” “ His brethren and His mother."

“Where did they stand?"_" Without."

" Who told Christ His mother and brethren were there?”—“The multitude."

" What was Christ's answer ?. mother or my brethren?"

“ Whom did He point out as His mother and His brethren ?"_" Those who sat about Him."

" What did He say of those who do the will of God?"_“The same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.”

66 Who is my


Here one half of a sentence forms the question, and the other half the answer; and these answers almost any scholar could give without being at all exercised as to their meaning.

I am reminded of the philosopher Socrates, who excelled in asking questions, not so much to puzzle people, as to convince them that they were not so wise as they thought they were. Thus, one of his pupils, named Meno, once addressed him :

Why, Socrates, you remind me of that broad sea-fish, called the torpedo, which produces a numbness in the person who approaches and touches it. For in truth I seem benumbed, both in mind and mouth, and I know not what to reply to you, and yet I have often spoken on this subject with great fluency and success."

In reply, Socrates called Meno's attendant, a young slave-boy, and began to question him : “My boy, do you know what figure this is ?” (drawing a square upon the ground with a stick.) “Oh, yes. It is a square."

“What do you notice about these lines ?” (tracing them).

That all four are equal ?” “ Could there be another space like this, only larger or less ?"

Certainly.” “Suppose this line (pointing to one of the sides) is two feet long, how many feet will there be in the whole?"

66 Twice two--four.”

" Will it be possible to have another space twice that size?" 6. Yes."

many square feet will it contain ?" “Eight.”

66 How


66 Then how long will the side of such a space be ?"

“ It is plain, Socrates, that it will be twice the length.'

Socrates appealed to Meno, to notice that he was not directly teaching the boy, but questioning him. And Meno acknowledged that though the boy thought he knew, he really did not. Socrates proceeds:

My boy, you say that from a line of four feet long there will be produced a space of eight square feet; is it so ?”

“Yes, Socrates, I think so."

“Let us try, then.” (He prolongs the line to four feet.)

66 Is this the line you mean ?”
“ Certainly.” (He completes the square.)
“How large is the whole space become ?"
“Why, it is four times as large.”
" And how many feet does it contain ?"
66 Sixteen.

“How many ought double the square to con tain ?"

“ Eight."

After a few more questions, the boy suggests the length of each side should be three feet: but when worked out, finds that that is also incorrect, and is obliged to confess he does not know how long the side should be.

Socrates then pointed out that the boy did not really know at first any more than at last, though he thought he did. And since he was now convinced of his ignorance he would be likely to inquire and search for himself.

Now this well illustrates how the true mode of questioning compels the scholars to think. Of

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