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of over 2100, 500 in excess of the attendance at any previous summer school.

The statewide mandatory primary for the nomination of party candidates was held on August 1. Mr. J. C. Walton, Mayor of Oklahoma City, was nominated by the Democratic party for the office of Governor. He was opposed by R. H. Wilson, state superintendent of public instruction, and Thomas H. Owen, former member of the Criminal Court of Appeals and of the Supreme Court of the State.

John Fields, who has been prominent in agricultural affairs and is now editor of the Oklahoma Farm Journal, and George Healey, a farmer and stockman of Beaver, are seeking the Republican gubernatorial nomination.

Considerable interest is added to the Democratic contests by the entry of candidates for all nominations bearing the endorsement of the Farmer-Labor Reconstruction League, an organization which is advocating a rather extended program of state ownership and control of industry similar to that proposed by the Non-partisan League in the northern states.

Announcement is made that A. K. Christian, formerly of the University of Texas, will come to the University of Oklahoma this fall as assistant professor of European His. tory.

EDITED BY M. W. GRAHAM, JR.

University of Texas HYDE, CHARLES CHENEY. International Law as Inter

preted and Applied in the United States. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1922. Pp. lix, 832;

xxvii, 925. An increasing interest in and appreciation of the significance of the subject of international law are indicated by the appearance of new periodicals devoted to this field, by the publication of numerous articles in the law reviews, by the addition or expansion of courses in the law school curricula, and, by the appearance of carefully prepared treatises or monographs and of a new type of textbook. It is to the last of these—the preparation of a textbook and reference work that Professor Hyde has devoted years of research and laborious efforts. The result is a series of volumes which are a notable credit to American legal scholarship.

Students and teachers of international law as well as practicing lawyers in this field have been fortunate in having the comprehensive and authoritative digests of Wheaton and Moore. And in recent years, brief texts or resumés have served as guides to these works and other materials available, but from the standpoint of the law teacher or practitioner there was no reliable guide to the larger treatises, to diplomatic practice and to the accumulated experiences of years in the settlement of international controversies. It is this gap that has been filled by the publication of Professor Hyde's volumes.

The rules governing international relations where such rules have been formulated into law and the international practices which are in process of developing into rules have been rendered more accessible by the publication of these volumes. In their publication a standard has been set which will improve the teaching of this subject and raise the tenor of international practice so far as such practice is slowly being crystallized into law.

The author attempts to give not merely evidence of existing rules of international law but also offers well considered suggestions as to what practices are taking the form of law, or what the law should be. There is throughout a recognition of moral obligations which serve as “a solid reason for the claim that practice should shape itself accordingly and evolve a rule of law.” The footnotes are filled not alone with numerous citations but in addition with a resumé of important cases and with a wealth of illustrative extracts and authoritative opinions. Certain subjects as treaty-making and enforcement, the settlement of claims, the practice with respect to passports, and the rights and duties of consuls, are treated in such form as to furnish special contributions to the existing literature in the field.

Though there are few things in the two volumes which seem to be open to criticism, several questions involving perhaps differences in point of view and approach were suggested in the course of the reading of the work. In the first place it is doubtful whether sufficient attention has been given to the features of the German Kriegsbrauch im Land Kriege and to the provisions of other war manuals as well as to war practice which in effect involved the negation of all rules relating to war and neutrality. Again is it not possible that too much emphasis has been given to the Hague Conventions and the rules formulated therein with correspondingly too little attention to the process of making rules of war and neutrality, as well as to the development of the necessary steps in their enforcement? Finally, though this treatise is one of the first to approach the subject from the more strictly legal point of view, has the demarcation between the legal and political phases of the subject been made as clear and well-defined as possible? These and similar queries arise as the volumes are read by one interested in the teaching of international law as law. Probably the undeveloped state of the law in this field renders such a separation impracticable in a general work. University of Texas.

CHARLES GROVE HAINES.

BUCK, ARTHUR E. Budget Making. (New York: D. Ap

pleton & Co., 1921. Pp. 234.)

The writer of Budget Making is a staff member of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research and of the National Institute of Public Administration. The book is one of a series which these organizations expect to coöperate in producing.

While it is concerned mainly with state budgets, municipal budgets are also referred to. It contains a valuable summary of the practices of the various states in budget making and also of the present statutory requirements of the states in this connection. The author favors the concentration of the budget making responsibility in the hands of the governor. He is not unmindful of the need of a trained staff in the preparation of budget material. He thinks there should be some capable man on the regular staff and that in addition provision should be made by which the governor could employ additional experts to assist in the preparation of the budget. While the book does not give an accounting treatment of the set up and administration of the budget, it has some good accounting analysis on the basis of the classification of items. The author rejects the functional basis of the classification of the items except in so far as this may coincide with a classification on the basis of the administrative units. After the classification is set up on the basis of administrative units the sub-classification under these units should be on the basis of objects, “objects" being used to designate the commodities and services required by the administrative unit. To this general basis he adds the "character” basis under which he sets up the following classes: current expenses and fixed charges, acquisition of property and redemption of debt.

A valuable set of forms is described showing classifications of data on other bases than those already referred to.

There is also good discussion of the form of the appropriation bill and its treatment by the Legislature. He thinks that the appropriation bill for each organization should carry a total for current expenses, a total for fixed charges, and a total for additions to property. However, each of these totals are to be supported by schedules showing the detail according to the main heads of the object classification. (Sup. 147). The following four conditions are to be finally attached to the appropriation bill:

1. The date when and the period for which appropriations are to be available should be specified. Likewise the organization units responsible for the expenditures of the appropriations should be specified. All appropriations should be specified. All appropriations should be available only for the payment of liabilities incurred during the fiscal period for which such appropriations are made and, at the end of this time, any unexpended and unencumbered balances should revert to the treasury. This, of course, will depend upon the constitutional and legal provisions surrounding the government.

2. It should be provided that transfers may be made within the schedules supporting the lump-sum appropriations for current expenses to the various organization units. The schedules should indicate the initial distribution of these appropriations among the different classes of objects (services, commodities, and obligations). Each lump-sum appropriation should be paid out in accordance with the schedule that relates to it, unless and until such schedule is amended. The chief executive should make transfers in the appropriations for current expenses of his own office, and perhaps the legislative body should do the same thing. All other transfers should be made upon a request from the head of the organization unit, which should be approved by the budget-making authority and a copy of it transmitted to the auditor or comptroller before becoming effective. The auditor or comptroller should be required to pay out of the appropriation, or whatever balance may remain, in accordance with the amended schedule. Finally, it should be provided that all transfers and changes in the schedules, made or approved by the budget-making authority, should be reported in the next budget.

3. It should be provided that no person shall be employed whose compensation is to be paid out of the amounts set aside for "personal services" in the schedules under the lump-sum appropriation for current expenses, except in conformity with the standardized list of positions, salaries, and grades as adopted by the budget-making authority or the civil service commission.

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