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buildings of note that do not belong to the university. The county-gaol is the gatehouse of an ancient castle, built by William I. Here are 14 parish churches, 3 dissenting meeting-houses, and a synagogue. The trade consists chiefly in oil, iron, and corn. The university is supposed to have been founded during the heptarchy. It contains 13 colleges, and 4 halls that have equal privileges with the colleges: the colleges are Peterhouse, Corpus Christi or Benet, Gonville and Caius, King's, Queen's, Jesus, Christ, St. John, Magdalen, Trinity, Emanuel, Sidney, Sussex, and Downing: the halls are Clare, Pembroke, Trinity, and Catherine. Of the colleges, Peterhouse is the most ancient, being founded in 1257. King's college is the noblest foundation in Europe, and the chapel one of the finest pieces of Gothic architecture in the world. The library, chapel, &c. of Trinity college justly place it in the first rank. The other structures belonging to the university are the senate-house, which, with St. Mary's church, the schools, the university library, and other buildings, form a noble square. Here is also a botanical garden, and a general hospital, called Addenbrooke, from the name of the founder. In a field 2 m NE of the town, and under the jurisdiction of the university, is held an annual fair, called Stourbridge or Sturbich Fair, which commences on the 7th of September, and continues a fortnight; sends 4 members to parliament, 2 for the university, and 2 for the borough; P. 20,917. Polling-place.

CAMBRIDGE, 4 in North America, United States:-1st, a town, state Vermont, Franklin county; P. 1613.-2nd, county town, state Massachusetts, Middlesex county, on the Charles, 3 m wNw Boston. It contains a university, court-house, jail, government arsenal, and 4 churches; P. 6071.-3rd, a town, state New-York, Washington county, 35 m NE Albany; P. 2319.-4th, a town, state Maryland, on the E shore-district, Dorchester county; P. all in 1830.

CAMBRIDGE, a county of England, bounded on the Nw by Lincolnshire, NE by Norfolk, E by Suffolk, s by Essex and Hertfordshire, and w by the counties of Huntingdon, Bedford, and Northampton; 50 m long by 25, contains 549,120 acres. It is divided into 15 hundreds, and 161 parishes; has a city, a university, and 8 market towns; returns 3 county and 4 borough M.P., and has 4 polling-places. The principal rivers are the Ouse, Nen, and Cam. The s and E parts are pleasant and healthy; but the northern part, called the Isle of Ely, is low and fenny, from the confluence of many rivers. All the waters of the middle part of England, which do not flow into the Thames or the Trent, run into these fens; and, in the latter part of

the year they are sometimes overflowed by water, or appear covered with fogs; see BEDFORD LEVEL; P. 89,346 in 1801, and 143,955 in 1831.

CAMBRILLA, or CAMBRILLES, a town of Spain, province Cataluna, surrounded by a wall, and seated near the sea, 14 m w by s Tarragona.

CAMBDEN, 6 in North America, United States:-1st, a county, state Georgia, coast of Georgia, county town Jeffersonton, separated 2nd, a county, state North Carolina; P. 6347. from Florida by the St. Mary; P. 4578.

3rd, a town, state Maine, Waldo county; P. 2200.-4th, a town, state New-York, Oneida county; P. 1945.- 5th, a town, state Ohio, Guernsey county; P. 518.6th, a town, state South Carolina, Kershaw district; P. all in 1830.

CAMDEN-HAVEN, Australasia, on the east coast of New-South-Wales, county Ayr. It is large, and well sheltered: Lg. 152.45 E, Lt. 31.44 s.

CAMELFORD, a borough in England, county Cornwall, governed by a mayor, with a market on Friday. It is seated on the Camel, 15 m w Launceston, and 227 w by s London; P. 1359.

CAMENETZ-PODOLSKOY, a city of Russia, capital of government Podolia: a bishop's see, seated on a rock, at the foot of which runs the Smotritza, which falls into the Dnestr, 1913 m ssw St. Petersbourg, 895 m sw Moscow; it is well, though not regularly, built; many of the houses are of brick: the public buildings deserving notice are the convents, and inonasteries, the Jesuits' college, Russian archbishop's palace, and more particularly the Roman Catholic cathedral called Fara, near which, on an ancient Turkish minaret, is a statue of the Virgin Mary standing on a crescent: 2 archbishops reside here, 1 Greek, and 1 Roman Catholic.

CAMENKA, Russia, government Saratof, a German colony on the Volga.

CAMENNOY-OSTROV, a small island of Russia, in the Neva, at St. Petersburg, with an imperial palace, a small Gothic church, and many beautiful country houses.

CAMICHINE, a town of Russia, government Saratof, chief of district; seated on the Volga, at its junction with the Camichénk, 115 m Saratof. Near it is a fort built by an English officer in the Russian service, colonel Thomas Bailly. It has 5 churches; P. 2800: Lg. 46.25 E, Lt. 50.30 N.

CAMERINO, a town of Italy, in the marquisate of Ancona, and an archbishop's see. It is seated on a mountain, 37 m sw Ancona.

CAMMIN, a seaport of Prussia, province Pommern, once a bishop's see, which was secularized; but still it has a fine cathedral and a chapter. Its commerce is very exten

sive, and it has a great trade in beer. It stands on the Diwenow, or E mouth of the Oder, opposite the isle of Wollin, 40 m N Stettin: Lg. 14.52 E, Lt. 53.53 N.

CAMINHA, a town of Portugal, province Entre-Douro-e-Minho, with a fort; seated at the mouth of the Minho, 12 m N Viana.

CAMPAGNA-DI-ROMA, anciently LATIUM, province Italy, in the Ecclesiastical State,extending 60 m SE along the Mediterra nean to the frontiers of Naples. Formerly the best peopled and best cultivated spot in the world: few villages, little cultivation, and scarcely any inhabitants (except in the capi tal and its neighbourhood) are now to be seen; nothing, in short, but the scattered ruins of temples and tombs, which present the idea of a country depopulated by pestilence. Rome is the capital.

CAMPBELTOWN, a borough and seaport of Scotland, county Argyle, on a bay toward the s extremity of the peninsula of Cantyre. It has a considerable trade in coal and whiskey, beside being the general rendezvous of the fishing vessels that annually visit the w coast. It is 65 m ssw Inverary; P. 9472: Lg. 5.32 w, Lt. 55.26 N.

CAMPDEN, a corporate town of England, county Gloucester, with a market on Wednesday, 22 m NE Gloucester, and 90 wNW London; P. 2038. Polling-place.

CAMPEACHY, a town of North America, Mexico, in Yucatan, on the w coast of the bay-of-Campeachy, defended by strong forts. The port is large, but shallow; the chief exports are logwood, cotton, cloth, and wax. It was taken by the English in 1659, by the buccaneers in 1678, and by the freebooters of St. Domingo in 1685. It is 98 m sw Merida: Lg. 90.34 w, Lt. 19.30 N.

CAMPEN, OF KAMPEN, a town of Holland, province Over-Yssel, with a citadel, and a port almost choaked up. The river Yssel is here crossed by a wooden bridge 723 feet long. It is seated on the Yssel, 2 m from its mouth in the Zuyder-zee, and 8 WNW Zwoll.

CAMPERDON, a town of Spain, province Cataluna, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 45 m N Barcelona.

CAMPO-BASSO, a town of Italy, Naples, county Molise. In 1805 it suffered greatly by an earthquake, and most of the inhabitants were destroyed. It has a considerable trade in articles of cutlery, and is 12 m s Molise.

CAMPO-FORMIO, a town of Italy, in Friuli,where a treaty of peace was concluded between the Austrians and French in 1797.

It is 2 m sw Udina.

CAMPO-MAYOR, a fortified town of Portugal, in Alentejo. It surrendered to the French in 1811. It is 14 m N by E Elvas.

CAMPSIE, a village of Scotland, on the s confines of the county Stirling, 9 m x Glasgow. It has some extensive print-fields, and other manufactures; P. 5109.

CANAAN, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, in Lichfield county, situated on the Housatonic, 30 m Nw Hartford.

CANAAN, a town of North America, United States, state Maine, Lincoln county, seated on the Kennebeck, 60 m N Wiscasset.

America, formerly called the province of CANADA, an extensive country in North of Quebec: but since 1791 divided into 2 provinces, called Upper and Lower-Canada.

CANADA, LOWER, lies between 45 and 52 N Lt., 63 and 81 w Lg. It is bounded on the N by the territory of the Hudson's-bay company, or East Maine; E by the gulf-of St.-Lawrence, and part of the Labrador coast; s by New Brunswick and the United States; and w by Upper-Canada, from which it is separated principally by the Ottawa river, and a line drawn from the head of the river in lake Temiscaming, due N to Hudson's-bay. It is divided into the districts of Montreal, Three Rivers, Quebec, and Gaspe, which were subdivided by a proclamation of the government, in 1792, into the following 21 counties, namely, Bedford, Buckingham, Cornwallis, Devon, Dorchester, Effingham, Gaspe, Hampshire, Hertford, Huntingdon, Kent, Leinster, Montreal, St. Maurice, Northumberland, Orleans, Quebec, Richelien, Surrey, Warwick, and York. The minor divisions are, 1st, the Seigniories, or the original grants of the French government under the feudal system, which were again partitioned out into parishes by the French government; 2nd, the townships or grants of land made by the English government since the year 1796, in free and common soccage. The climate of Canada partakes of the general predominance of cold, which is peculiar to the continent of North America. Although it lies in the same latitude as France, its surface is covered with accumulated snows for nearly one-half the year, and vegetation is suspended for the During same period by continued frost.

the winter the thermometer has been known to sink to 45 degrees below 0, but this is very rare, the usual extreme cold is from 25 to 30 degrees below 0, which only happens once or twice in a season, and which never continues above 48 hours. The medium of cold in winter is from 25 below freezing to 15 below 0. The climate, however, is congenial to health in an eminent degree. The cloudless sky and pure dry air of winter, make the cold both pleasant and healthy. In summer, the climate is liable to the opposite extreme of heat, the thermometer

rising to 96, and even 100 degrees. This excessive heat seldom lasts longer than two or three days, and the medium summer heat is from 75 to 80 degrees. No general description will convey an adequate idea of the soil of Lower-Canada. The parts of the St. Lawrence, a triangular district, included between the northern boundaries of the United States, the St. Lawrence, and the Chaudiere, consists of excellent land, laid out in townships, and in many parts settled and cultivated, and bids fair to become the most flourishing part of the province; from the Chaudiere to the sources of the St. John, the land is much broken, and of an indifferent quality; from the sources of the St. John to the gulf-of-St.-Lawrence, the country has been but partially explored, but has every appearance of sterility. On the N side of the St. Lawrence, a ridge of heights commences at the eastern extremity of the province, and runs along the margin of the river, from 64 to 71 w Lg.: it then leaves the river, and taking a sw direction, strikes the Ottawa river, about 36 leagues above its confluence with the St. Lawrence, inclosing within it and the two rivers, a beautiful country, well watered and level. On the N side of the ridge just described lies the remaining part of Lower-Canada, which has been so little explored, that it is only known to be covered with immense forests. The population of Lower-Canada has rapidly increased within a few years. In 1759, when it was conquered from the French, it was estimated at 70,000; in 1775, it had only increased to 90,000; but in 1814, a capitation showed no less than 335,000, of whom 275,000 were descendants of the original French settlers, and the remainder English, Scotch, Irish, Americans, &c. The government is administered by a governor, lieutenant-governor, executive council, and a legislative council, who are appointed by the king; and a house of assembly, who are representatives of the people The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic; of this persuasion there is a bishop of Quebec, a coadjutor, with the title of bishop of Slade, 9 vicars-general, and about 200 curates and missionaries, spread over the different districts. The revenues of the Catholic clergy are derived in part from grants made of land to them under the ancient regime. The spiritual concerns of the Protestants are under the guidance of the lord bishop of Quebec, 9 rectors, and a competent number of other clergymen, who are supported in part by annual stipends from the government, and the appropriation of one-seventh of all granted lands.

CANADA, UPPER, is bounded on the N by the territory of the Hudson's-bay company; NE and E by Lower-Canada; SE and s by the United States; on the w and NW no limits have been assigned to it. It is divided into 8 districts, viz. the Eastern,

Johnstown, Midland, Newcastle, Home, Niagara, London, Gore, Ottawa, Bathurst, and Western. These are again subdivided into 23 counties, and 159 townships. The townships contain in all 9,694,400 acres, of which 3,000,000 are granted in free and common soccage, 2,769,828 are reserved for the crown and clergy, and 3,924,572 still remain to be granted. These townships are laid out along the banks of the St. Lawrence, lake Ontario, lake Erie, lake St. Clair, and lake Huron, and extend back for a distance varying from 40 to 50 miles. The soil throughout is scarcely excelled by any portion of North America. In the rear of the townships are large tracts of land, stretching far to the north, covered with immense forests, and little known except to the Indians; but it has been ascertained that there are many large tracts of rich soil. The climate is salubrious. The winters are shorter and milder than in Lower-Canada. The spring opens usually from 6 weeks to 2 months earlier than at Quebec. Of the 3,000,000 acres granted to settlers, the quantity under tillage in 1815 was estimated at 290,000, dispersed over the different districts. The most populous and improved part of the colony is along the banks of the St. Lawrence, and the eastern part of lake-Ontario. The government of Upper-Canada is administered by a lieutenant-governor (who is almost always a military officer), a legislative council, an executive council, and a house of assembly. The legislative council consists of not less than 7 members, of which the chief justice of the province is president, and wherein the bishop of Quebec has a seat; the members are appointed by mandamus from the king, and hold their seats, under certain restrictions, for life. The executive council is composed of 6 members; the chief justice is president, and the bishop of Quebec likewise has a seat in it. The house of assembly is composed of 25 members, who are returned from the 23 counties; the duration of the assembly is limited to 4 years. The civil and criminal law is administered by a chief justice, and 2 puisne judges, There is a court of king's bench, common pleas, and a court of appeal. The expense of the civil list is defrayed by Great-Britain. For the defence of the two Canadas, a regular military establishment is maintained by the British government, which was estimated in 1815 at from 27,000 to 30,000 men. The river St. Lawrence is the only channel by which the commodities of these two provinces have hitherto found their way to the ocean. The principal exports consist of oak and pine timber, deals, masts, and bowsprits, spars of all denominations, staves, pot and pearl ashes, peltry, wheat, flour, biscuit, Indian corn, pulse, salted provi sions, fish and other miscellaneous articles, which employ generally about 150,000 tons

of shipping. In return for these are imported wines, rum, sugar, molasses, coffee, tobacco, salt, coals, and manufactured produce from Great Britain. The commerce of Canada has been progressively increasing since it became a British province. In 1769, the annual value of its exports amounted to £.163,105, and it employed 70 vessels. In 1797 the exports amounted in value to £.491,419, and the imports to £.338,214. In 1808 the exports were £.1,156,060, and the imports £.610,000; P. 10,000 in 1783; 95,000 in 1814; and 235,865 in 1831. York is the capital.

CANADEY, a long village of Russia, government Simbirsk; P. 902.

CANAGA-ISLAND, in the North Pacific, one of the Aleutian Archipelagos, or Foxislands; it has a volcano, hot springs, and sulphur; P. 30.

CANAJOHARY, a town of North America, United States, state New-York, Montgomery county, on a creek of the same name, on Mohawk river, 25 m NE Cooperstown, and 56 wNw Albany.

CANAL, DUKE of BRIDGEWATER, in England, the first grand work of the kind in the kingdom, begun in 1758. It commences at Worsley, 7 m from Manchester, where, at the foot of a mountain composed of coal, a basin is cut, which serves as a reservoir to the navigation. The canal runs under a hill from this basin, about 1300 yards, to the coal works. At Barton-bridge, 3 m from the basin, is an aqueduct, which, for upwards of 200 yards, conveys the canal across a valley and the river Irwell; it has 3 arches over the river, and the middle one will admit the largest barges to pass with masts and sails standing. At Longford bridge the canal turns to the right, and crossing the Mersey, passes near Altringham, Dunham, Grapenhall, Kaulton, into the tide-way of the Mersey, at RuncornGap, where barges can come into the canal from Liverpool, at low water. This naviga tion is more than 29 m in length, and it is now extended 7 m further, from Worsley to Leigh.

CANAL, CALEDONIAN, in Scotland, a great inland navigation that forms a junction between loch-Linne and the Moray-frith. The length is 66 m from loch-Eil near Fort-William to the tide water of the Moray-frith, a little above Inverness; but as its almost direct line includes the loches Lochy, Oich, and Ness, the channels to cut were about 28 m. These channels are 120 feet wide at top, 50 at bottom, and, 20 deep; and they require 25 locks, which admit the passage of the largest merchant vessels, or thirty-two gun frigates. Loch-Oich is the summit level of the canal; and at the end of loch-Lochy is a safe and commodious harbour for ships. The two seas being thus

joined, vessels from Ireland and the w coast of England going to Norway and Russia, can avoid the tedious and dangerous navigation round the N of Scotland.


CANAL, GRAND, or IMPERIAL, of Asia, China, a stupendous work, which extends from N to s upward of 400 m from the river Eu-ho, a little N of Tong-tchang, in Changtong, to Hanch-tchou, in Tche-kiang. It cuts at right angles several rivers from the the smaller streams of which terminating in it, afford a constant supply of water; the 3 great rivers, the Eu-ho to the N, the Hohano about the middle, and the Kian-ku toward the s, intersecting the canal, carry the superfluous water to the sea. In accommodating the general level of the canal to the several levels of the feeding streams, it was necessary, in many place, to cut to the depth of 60 or 70 feet below the surface; and in others to raise mounds of earth upon lakes, swamps, and marshy grounds, of great length and magnitude. These gigantic embankments are carried through lakes of several miles in diameter, between which the water is kept to a height considerably above that of the lake; and in such situations this enormous aqueduct sometimes glides along at the rate of two miles an hour. Few parts of it are level: in some places it has little or no current; in others it sets to the N and s alternately at the rate of one or two miles an hour. The balancing of the level is effected by flood-gates thrown across at certain distances to elevate or depress the height of the water a few inches, as appears necessary, and by sluices on the sides of the embank. ments, through which the superfluous water is let out into the lakes and swamps. flood-gates are simply planks sliding in grooves that are cut into the sides of two stone piers, which in these places contract the canal to the width of about 30 feet; and at each is a guard-house, with soldiers to draw up and let down the planks as occasion requires. From the Hohan-ho to the Kianku the country abounds in lakes and marshy ground: and the canal is carried in some parts 20 feet above the level of the country, 200 feet in width. There is not a lock, nor, except the flood-gates, a single interruption to the whole navigation.


CANAL, GRAND-JUNCTION, in England, a work that joins several other canals in the centre of the country, which thence form a communication between the Thames, Severn, Mersey, and Trent, and, consequently, an inland navigation to the four principal seaports, London, Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull. This canal commences at Braunston, on the w borders of Northamptonshire, passes by Daventry to Stoney Stratford in Buckinghamshire, thence on the confines of Bedfordshire, w of Leighton Buzzard, to Tring, Berkhamsted, and Rickmansworth, in Hertfordshire, and through Middlesex by

Uxbridge to Brentford, where it enters the Thames by that river 12 m above London. It is upward of 20 m in length. See PAD


CANAL, GRAND-TRUNK, in England, a work that forms a communication between the Mersey and Trent, and, in course, between the Irish-sea and the German-ocean. Its length is 92 m from the duke of Bridgewater canal, at Preston-on-the-Hill, in Cheshire, to Wildon in Derbyshire, where it communicates with the Trent. The canal is carried over the river Dove, by an aqueduct of 23 arches, and over the Trent by another of arches. At Preston-onthe-Hill it passes underground 1241 yards; at Barton and in the neighbourhood it has 2 subterraneous passages; and at Harecastle-hill, in Staffordshire, is conveyed under ground 2880 yards. From the neighbourhood of Stafford a branch is made from this canal to run near Wolverhampton, and to join the Severn near Bewdley; from this again other branches cross Warwickshire to Braunston, where commences the GrandJunction canal to the Thames at Brentford.

CANAL, GREAT, in Scotland, a work that forms a junction between the Forth and Clyde. Its length is 35 m from the influx of the Carran at Grangemouth to the junction with the Clyde, 6 m above Dumbarton. In the course of this navigation the vessels are raised to the height of 141 feet above the level of the sea, and passing afterward upon the summit of the country for 18 m, they then descend into the river Clyde, and thence have free access to the Atlantic-ocean. This canal is carried over 36 rivers and rivulets, and two great roads, by 38 aqueducts of hewn stone. In some places it passes through mossy ground, and in others through solid rock. The road from Edinburgh to Glasgow passes under it near Falkirk, and over it, by means of a drawbridge, 6 m from Glasgow. In the course of this inland navigation are many striking scenes, particularly the romantic situation of the stupendous aqueduct of 4 arches over the Kelvin, near Glasgow, 420 feet in length, carrying a great artificial river over a natural one, where vessels of 90 tons sail at the height of 65 feet above the bed of the river below. This communication between the German and Atlantic oceans, in the commerce of Great-Britain and Ireland, to Norway, Sweden, and the Baltic, shortens the nautical distance in some instances 600, and in others 800 miles.

CANAL-ROYAL, or CANAL-OF-LangueDOC, in France. From the port of Cette, in the Mediterranean, it crosses the lake of Thau, and, below Toulouse, is conveyed by three sluices into the Garronne, forming an inland communication between the Mediterranean and Atlantic. At St. Fereol, near Revel, between two rocky hills, is a

grand basin, above 1000 feet in diameter, into which the rivulet Laudot is received, and hence three large cocks of cast brass open and discharge the water, which then goes under the name of the Laudot, and continues its course to the canal called Ri

gole de la Plaine. Thence it is conveyed to another reservoir near Naurouse, out of which it is conveyed by sluices, both to the Mediterranean and Atlantic, as the canal requires it, this being the highest point between the two seas. Near Beziers are 8 sluices, which form a regular and grand cascade, 936 feet long and 66 feet high, by which vessels cross the Orbe, and continue their voyage on the canal. Above it, between Beziers and Capestan, is the MalPas, a tunnel, where the canal is conveyed, for the length of 720 feet, under a mountain. At Agde is a round sluice, with three openings, three different depths of the water meeting here. The canal has 37 aqueducts, and its length from Toulouse to Cette is 160 m.

CANANDAIGUA, a county town of North America, in the United States, state NewYork, north district, Ontario county, on the N end of a lake of the same name, at its outlet into Canandaigua-creek, which runs E into the Seneca. The lake is 24 m long and 2 broad. The town stands on a pleasant rise from the lake, 86 m E Buffalo, and 132 w Utica; P. 5162 in 1830.

CANANORE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Malabar, defended by a fortress, with other modern works. It is the head-quarters of the Biby, or female sovereign of the Nairs, and has several very good houses and a flourishing trade. It stands on a small bay, one of the best on the coast, 50 m NNW Calicut: Lg. 75.27 E, Lt. 11.52 N.

CANARA, a province of Asia, on the west coast of Southern Hindostan, 180 m long by 30 to 80, bounded on the N by Bejapoor, E by Balagaut and Mysore, s by Malabar, and w by the sea. It produces abundance of rice, betel, and cocoa-nuts, cardamums, coir, pepper, ginger, nutmegs, ghee, tobacco, teak, sandal-wood, and iron. No horses, sheep, goats, nor asses, are bred; buffaloes and oxen are yoked to the plough, and few carts are used. This province was ceded to the British in 1799. The principal port is Mangalore.

CANARIA, or GRAND-CANARY, Africa, the principal of the Canary-islands, which gives name to the whole, and is the seat of government. It is 40 m long and 20 broad, the middle part so mountainous that one side is sometimes stormy, while the other is quite calm. The air is temperate, the water plentiful and good, and it has abun dance of herbs and delicious fruits. Here are two wheat harvests, in February and May, and the corn makes bread as white as snow. A great quantity of sugar is made

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