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ASANGARO, a town of South America, in Charcas, to the N of the lake Titicaca. It is situated near the lake, 180 m Nw Paz. ASCALON, or SCALONA, an ancient seaport of Asia, Turkey, in Syria, 320 furlongs w Jerusalem, now an inconsiderable place.

ASCENSION, a barren island of Africa, in the Atlantic-ocean, 600 m Nw St. Helena. It is 10 m long by 6, and has a safe harbour, where the East India ships formerly touched to procure turtles, which are here plentiful and large: Lg. 14.28 w, Lt. 8.8 s.

ASCHAFFENBURG, a post town of Germany, in Bavaria, province Unter-Mayn, on the Mayn, 5 German m by road SE Frankfurt, post road to Würzburg. George II passed the night preceding the battle of Dettingen, in 1743, at this place.

ASCHERSLEBEN, a post town of Prussia, province Sachsen, between the Eine and Wipper, 23 m by road SE Halberstadt. It was formerly a Hanse-town; has manufactures of frieze and flannel; and contains 4 churches, and 1 Lutheran and 1 Calvinist school.

ASCOLI, a town of Italy, marquisite Ancona, with 2 citadels; seated on a hill by the Tronto, 80 m NE Rome.


ASHANTEE, a kingdom of Africa, in the interior of Guinea, N of the Gold coast. Its general appearance is beautiful, many parts resembling a gentleman's park; deer, hares, partridges, wild ducks, pigeons, &c. abound; sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry, are plentiful; but beeves and horses are scarce. It is also very rich in gold, and populous. The natives are well made, but are a barbarous and deceitful people, more inclined to be warlike than commercial. They have no written language; but are famous for making long speeches in debating on any subject. The king is a very powerful chief; he has upwards of 200,000 warriors, has full power over the lives and liberty of all who offend him, and his authority extends over several neighbouring states. The capital is Coomassie.

ASHBORNE, a town of England, county Derby, between the Dove and Compton, 13 m NW Derby, and 139 NNW London. It has a market on Saturday, and is famous for cheese; P. 4884. Polling-place.

ASHBURNHAM, a town of North America, in the United States, state Massachusetts, County Worcester, 30 m N Worcester, and 54 NW Boston; P. 1403 in 1830.

ASHBURTON, a borough of England, County Devon, situated among hills (remarkable for tin and copper), near the Dart, 19 m sw Exeter, and 191 w by s London. It has a market on Tuesday for

wool and yarn, and on Saturday for provisions, and returns 1 M.P. It is one of the 4 stannary towns; and has a considerable manufacture of serges; P. 4165. Lg. 3.50 w, Lt. 50.30 N.

ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH, a town of England, county Leicester, 115 m NNW London, and 17 NW Leicester, with a market on Saturday. It had a castle with a very high tower, some ruins of which remain. Here are manufactures of stockings and hats, and a considerable trade in malt: a canal from the town communicates with the Coventry canal; P. 4727. Polling-place.

land, county Kent, governed by a mayor, ASHFORD, or ESHFоORD, a town of Engwith a market on Tuesday. It is seated on the Ash, near its conflux with the Stour, 14 m sw Canterbury, and 55 SE London: the church is large, and was formerly collegiate; P. 2809. Polling-place.

ASHMUNEIN, a town of Africa, in Egypt, built on the ruins of a city, supposed to be the ancient Hermopolis, on the left bank of the Nile, 140 m ssw Cairo.

ASHRAF, or ESHREF, a town of Asia, Persia, in Mazanderan, the favourite resiis now in a ruinous state: it is situated near dence of the great Shah Abbas, whose palace a bay of the Caspian sea, 40 m E by N Sari. ASHTON-IN-MAKERSFIELD, a village of England, county Lancaster, 4 m s Wigan: it has considerable manufactures of cotton and hardware; P. 5912.

ASHTON-UNDER-LINE, a village of England, county Lancaster, seated on a high bank by the river Tame, 7 m E Manchester. It has a large church, a manufacture of cotton, an iron foundry, extensive collieries, and a canal from Manchester, which is here joined by the Huddersfield and Peak-Forest canals: returns one M.P.; P. of parish 33,597.

ASHWELL, a village of England, county Hertford, 4 m N Baldock : it was formerly a borough ; and near its fine church are the remains of a Roman camp, which occupies 12 acres of land, enclosed by a deep ditch: many sepulchral urns have been dug up in the neighbourhood; P. 1072.

ASIA, one of the five grand divisions of the world; bounded on the N by the Frozenocean, E by the Pacific-ocean, s by the Indian-ocean, and w by the Red-sea, the MeVolga, the Ural mountains, and the river diterranean, the Black-sea, the Don, the

Cara; it extends 6050 m from the Dardanelles on the w, to the E shore of Tartary; and 5380 m from the most southern part of Malacca to the most northern cape of Novaia-Zemlia; being superior in extent, as well as in many other respects, to Africa and Europe. This portion of the globe has been the scene of the most im

portant transactions recorded in the Holy Scriptures. In early times this vast extent of territory was successively governed by the Assyrians, Medes, Persians, and Greeks, but the regions of India and China were little known to Alexander, or the conquerors of the ancient world. On the decline of these empires, great part of Asia submitted to the Romans; and afterward, in the middle ages, the Saracens founded in Asia, Africa, and Europe, a more extensive empire than that of the Romans when in its height of power: the Saracen greatness ended with the death of Tamerlane; and the Turks, conquerors on every side, took possession of the middle regions of Asia, which they still enjoy. The principal countries in this continent are, Siberia, Tartary, China, Tibet, Hindostan, Persia, Arabia, and Turkey. The various particulars of government, religion, soil, climate, and productions, may be found under the names of their respective countries.

ASIA-MINOR, a name anciently given to the western part of Asiatic Turkey, lying between the Black-sea and Mediterranean; it now forms the provinces of Natolia and Caramania.

ASINARA, an island in the Mediterranean, on the NW coast of Sardinia, 17 m N by w Sassari, 10 m long by 2 broad: here are numbers of land and sea turtle, and tunny fish. On its E side is Porto Trabuco, with good anchorage: Lg. 8.24 E, Lt. 41.6 N.

ASKERN, a village of England, county West-York, 8 m N Doncaster; it is situated at the foot of a hill, near a pool that covers about seven acres, and frequented for its medicinal waters, which are efficacious in rheumatic and scorbutic diseases; P. 256. ASKEYTON, a borough of Ireland, county Limerick, on the Deel, near its conflux with the Shannon, 18 m wsw Limerick; noted for its castle, and for one of the most perfect abbeys in the country.

ASKRIGG, a town of England, county North-York, with a market on Thursday; seated near the Ure, 18 m wsw Richmond, and 246 N London; P. 737. Polling-place. ASNA, see ESNE.

ASOLA, a town of Italy, in Bresciano,

30 m SE Brescia.

ASOLO, a town of Italy, in Trevisiano, surrounded by walls, with a spacious citadel on a hill, 17 m Nw Treviso.

ASOPH, AZOF, or SEA-OF-ZABAK, anciently the Palus-Mæotis, lying N of the Black-sea, with which it communicates by the strait of Taman, or Jenikala; it extends 240 m from sw to NE, and is 60 broad, and contains many banks which cause

strong and irregular currents, and render its navigation intricate.

ASOPH, or AzoF, a fortified town of Asia, Russia, government Ecatherinoslaw; formerly the capital of a large tract of territory, ceded by the Turks in 1774: the town is seated in a swampy district, upon a high ridge, on the s bank of the Don, 20 m from its entrance into the sea of Azof: the fort is in ruins, and the town is become of very little commercial importance, as the river will now scarcely admit the smallest vessel; 363 m s Ecatherinoslaw: Lg. 39.12 E, Lt. 46.58 N.

ASPATRIA, a village and parish of England, county Cumberland, situate near the coast of the Solway-Frith, 7 m NE Maryport; P. 761. Polling-place.

ASPEREN, a town of Holland, province South-Holland, seated on the Linghe, 13 m s Utrecht, and 25 m E Rotterdam; famous for a long siege that it held out against the Geldrians in 1517.

ASPERN, a small town of Austria, on the Danube, below Vienna; famous for the defeat of Napoleon by the Austrians under the Archduke Charles, May 21st and 22nd, 1809.

ASSAM, a province of Asia, bounded on the N by Bootan and Tibet, E by a country unknown, s by Cassay, and sw and w by Bengal: the river Bralimapootra divides it into two longitudinal parts; the northern, which is the richest, being called Uttercul, and the southern Dachincul; it contains above 60 other rivers, which admit of a commercial intercourse at all seasons, and it is intersected by several remarkable military causeways, which must have been made with great labour. Among the products are many kinds of valuable fruit, with silk, musk, pepper, tobacco, beetle, sugar cane, and ginger: the open parts are marked with population and tillage; the woods abound with elephants: here are no horses, asses, nor camels, but they are sometimes brought from other countries; the mountains are inhabited by a savage tribe called Nanacs, who go naked, and eat dogs, mice, locusts, and any thing they can find. The other inhabitants of Assam are base and unprincipled, have no fixed religion, nor any rule but their inclination; they eat all flesh but human, and even animals that die a natural death; and are enterprising, savage, vindictive, and fond of war. The affinity of the Assamese to the Hindoos is sufficiently ascertained by their language, for the Bengalee is generally spoken in Assam. Ghergong is the capital.

ASSANCALE, a town of Asia, Turkish Armenia, 22 m E Erzerum; its hot-baths are much frequented.

ASSARPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan,

in Cutch, at the most eastern mouth of the Indus, 38 m w Bhooj.

ASSENS, a seaport of Denmark, island of Funen, 17 m sw Odensee; it is the common passage from the duchy of Sleswick to Copenhagan: Lg. 10.2 E, Lt. 55.17 N.

ASSISI, a town of Italy, duchy Spoleto, on the side of a hill, 22 m Nw Spoleto; it has a magnificent church, and many convents with valuable paintings; is the birthplace of St. Francis, who died in 1226, and of the celebrated dramatic poet Metastasio, who died in 1782.

ASSODNAGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, Bejapoor, 68 m SE Poona, 82 Nw Bejapoor.

Assos, a seaport of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia, on a bay of the Archipelago, 12 m SE Troas: Lg. 26.36 E, Lt. 39.22 N.

ASSUMPTION, a city of South America, Brazil, capital of the province of Parana, and a bishop's see, seated in a fertile district on the river Paraguay; it has a hospital, several convents, and a seminary that was a jesuitical college, but there are no fine edifices, and the greater part of the houses are built of earth: the chief trade is in hides, honey, sugar, tobacco, and Paraguay tea: Lg. 59.35 w, Lt. 24.47 s.

ASTABUT, a town of Asia, Persian Armenia, 3 m from the river Aras, and 32 SE Naksivan.

ASTERABAD, a city of Asia, Persia, in Mazanderan, capital of a country, at the SE part of the Caspian sea, 60 m E by N Sari; it is governed by a Persian prince, and a great part of the royal treasure is said to be deposited here: it stands near the mouth of the Aster, which forms a bay convenient for trade: Lg. 54.0 E, Lt. 36.48 N.

ASTI, a city of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, with a citadel, seated on the Tanaro, 24 m E Turin; beside the cathedral, it contains upward of 30 other churches, and is the birthplace of the celebrated dramatic poet Alfieri: Lg. 8.17 E, Lt. 44.56 N.

ASTORGA, a fortified city of Spain, province Leon, seated in a plain, on the river Tueria, 25 m sw Leon, the see of a bishop: in 1812, the French, then in possession of the city, were besieged by the Spaniards, to whom they surrendered: Lg. 6.25 w, Lt. 42.33 N.

ASTRABAD, a town of Asia, Persia, in Chorasan, on the borders of Balk, 70 m ENE Herat.

ASTRAKHIAN, a government of Asia, Russia, bounded on the N by Saratof, E by Orenburg, and the step of the Caissak-Kirguiss, s by the Caspian-sea, and w by the country of the Cosaques of the Don: it is divided into four districts, each named after its chief town,-1st, Astrakhan; 2nd, Crasnoi-iar; 3rd, Enotaevsk; 4th, Tchernoi-iar:

there are many salt lakes, and the surface is flat, and soil generally barren: it produces very little corn and no timber, but abundance of mulberry, tobacco, vines, and licorice; cattle is plentiful; it exports wine, raisins, grapes, fish, caviar, isinglas, cattle, tallow, and leather: the principal rivers are, the Wolga, Gachoume, Oural, and the three Ouzenes, which latter fall into a lake: the inhabitants are Russians, Tartars of Boukaria, of Guillan, and of the Noguis; Armenians, Persians, and Calmouks; P. 62,000.

ASTRAKHAN, a city of Asia, Russia, capital of the government of Astrakhan, one of the most important of the empire, at the mouth of the Wolga, in the Caspian-sea, on a small island called Zaietchy-bougor, 818 m SE Moscow; an archbishop's see: its peculiarly favourable position renders it the entrepot between the south of Asia and Russia, and its commerce is extensive; neither well nor regularly built, the streets are badly paved and muddy, and has but few handsome buildings; there are 2 convents, 25 Russian churches, 2 Armenian, 1 Lutheran, and 1 Roman Catholic chapel, and several mosques; here are a Russian and an Armenian archbishop's palace, a navy establishment and a dockyard, a seminary, a gymnasium, 22 silk manufactories, 57 of cotton goods, 18 for dyeing, several tanneries, &c.; the water melons are highly esteemed; P. about 20,000: Lg. 48.22 E, Lt. 46.21 N.

ASTURIAS, a province of Spain, 120 m long by 45, bounded on the E by Biscay, s by Old Castile and Leon, w by Galicia, and N by the Atlantic: it is divided into two parts, Asturias d'Oviedo and Asturias de Santillana, so named from their chief towns: this province is full of mountains and forests; its wine and horses are excellent, and it has mines of gold, lapis lazuli, and vermillion. The eldest son of the king of Spain is styled prince of Asturias.


ATACAMA, a town of South America, capital of the province of Charcas, which lies between the Andes and the Ocean, and between Peru and Chili. The province is in some parts very fruitful, but intermixed with deserts, particularly toward the south, where there is an immense untenanted tract to the frontiers of Chili. The seacoast is remarkable for the fish called tollo, which is an article of great trade with the inland provinces. The town is situated in a barren plain, surrounded by mountains, 60 m from Lt. 21.20 s. the ocean and 250 m sw Plata: Lg. 69.30 w,


ATALAYA, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, with a fort on an eminence, 5 m s Tomar.

ATCHINSK, a town of Asia, Russia, in

Siberia, government Tobolsk, 1298 m ssE Tobolsk, on the Tchoulim, which hence flows N to the Oby: Lg. 90.0 E, Lt. 56.22 N.

ATER, or ATARA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, province Agra, on the river Chumbul, 50 m SE Agra.

ATESCH-JAH, ATESCHGAN, or ATASH KUDDA, Asia, "The place of Fire," on the peninsula Abscharon, in the Caspian-sea, about a mile in diameter, from the centre of which a strong yellowish flame is emitted in dry weather.

ATH, a fortified town of Belgium, province Haynau, on the Dender, 12 m NW Mons: : it has been often taken.

ATHABOLI, a town of Europe, Turkey,

in Romania, on the coast of the Black-sea, 70 m NE Adrianople.

ATHERSTONE, a town of England, County Warwick, 10 m N Coventry, and 107 Nw London. It has a market on Tuesdays, and manufactures hats, ribands, and shalloons. Richard III held a council with his nobles here the night before the battle of Bosworth; P. 3870.

ATHLONE, a borough of Ireland, partly in county West Meath and partly in Roscommon, 55 m w Dublin. It stands on both sides of the Shannon, over which is a long bridge, that is the grand pass between the provinces of Leinster and Connaught; on the w bank of the river are extensive barracks, with all the surrounding eminences strongly fortified, so that it forms an important military station nearly in the centre of the island. The town, with its castle, was consumed by fire in the fanatic rebellion of 1641; but it is now an opulent

ATHBOY, a borough of Ireland, county place, and carries on a considerable inland Meath, 34 m Nw Dublin.

ATHELNEY, an island of England, county Somerset, at the conflux of the Thone and Parret, memorable for having afforded shelter to king Alfred: here he collected some of his retainers, on which account he called it Æthelingay, or the Isle of Nobles; and hence he made frequent sallies upon the Danes.

ATHENRY, a borough of Ireland, county Galway: here are the ruins of a strong castle and a noble monastery, part of which last was taken down to erect the present barracks: it is 13 m E Galway.

ATHENS, ATINIAI, or SETINES, a celebrated city of Europe, kingdom of Greece, capital of ancient Attica, Livadia, department Attica-and-Botia, situated near the gulf of Ægia, 60 m E Corinth. After many revolutions, the Turks finally wrested it from the Venetians, in 1688. It is the see of a Greek archbishop, and has a large citadel on the summit of a lofty rock. There are numerous magnificent ruins, which testify its former grandeur; and the temple of Theseus, built 480 years before Christ, is at this day the most perfect ancient edifice in the world. Three-fourths of the inhabitants were of the Greek church; the remainder were Turks. The chief articles of trade are silk, wax, wool, honey, and oil: Lg. 23.43 E, Lt. 37.58 N.

ATHENS, a town of North America, United States, state Georgia, capital of Clark county, on the Oconee, 66 m N by w Milledgeville. It is the seat of Franklin college; P. 1100 in 1830.

ATHENS, a town of North America, United States, state Ohio, capital of the county of Athens, situated on an elevation within a large bend of the Hockhocking, 73 m SE Columbus. It is the seat of the Ohio university; P. 729 in 1830,

trade. It returns 1 M.P.; P. 12,107: Lg. 7.50 w, Lt. 53.20 N.

ATHOS, or MONTE-SANTO, a high mountain of Turkey, in Macedonia, on a peninsula at the s entrance of the gulf of Contessa, 70 m SE Salonika; it is inhabited by Greek monks, who have 22 monasteries, 7 of which are fortified; and cultivate olives and vines: Lg. 24.20 E, Lt. 40.8 N.

ATHY, a borough of Ireland, county Kildare, on the Barrow, 12 m s Kildare, and 19 sw Naas, where the assizes are held alternately with Naas. Part of the ancient castle is now a prison. Two miles to the Nw are some remains of the city of Reban; P. 3418.

ATLANTIC, or ATLANTIC-OCEAN, takes its name from mount Atlas in Africa, and extends between the w continents of Africa and Europe, and the E continent of America. Its least breadth, from Guinea in Africa to Brazil in South America, is 2300 m. On one side of the equator it is called the North Atlantic-ocean; and on the other the South Atlantic-ocean.

ATLAS, a chain of high mountains in Africa, extending upward of 2000 m along the s of Barbary, from the coast of the Atlantic to the border of Egypt. Another chain, called the Little Atlas, extends from the strait of Gibraltar to Bona in the state of Algiers. These mountains have different names, according to the various countries they pass through, and the plains and valleys by which they are intersected. They are inhabited almost in every place except where the extreme cold will not permit.

ATLISCO, a town of North America, in Mexico, seated on an extensive plain, 20 m wsw Puebla.

ATOOI, one of the Sandwich islands, in the Pacific-ocean. It is 30 m long, and contains a great portion of gently rising land.

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ATTORE, a strong fortified town of Asia, Hindostan, in the Carnatic, which defends a pass of the Gauts. It is 60 m N Trichinopoly, and 80 wsw Pondicherry.

AUBAGNE, a town of France, department Bouches-du-Rhone, celebrated for its wines, 12 m E Marseilles.

AUBE, a department of France, containing the sw part of the old province of Champagne. It is surrounded by the departments of Marne, Haute-Marne, Coted'Or, Yonne, and Seine-et-Marne. It takes its name from a river, which passing by Bar-sur-Aube and Arcis, joins the Seine above Nogent. Troyes is the capital: area, 2400 square m; P. 230,688.

AUBENAS, a town of France, department Ardeche, with manufactures of woollen cloths, silks, and red cottons. It stands on the Ardeche, at the foot of the Cevennes, 135 leagues SSE Paris; P. 5000.

AUBIGNY, a town of France, department Cher, with a castle; seated in a fine plain, 23 m N Bourges.

AUBONNE, a town of Switzerland, canton Vaud, with a castle, seated on the Aubonne, 10 m w Lausanne.

AUBORN, a town of England, county Wilts, with a market on Tuesday; seated on a branch of the Kennet, 8 m NE Marlborough, and 75 w London. It is the scene of Goldsmith's poem of the Deserted Village; P. 356.


AUBUSSON, a town of France, department Creuse, with a manufacture of silk and tapestry; seated on the river Creuse, 37 m ENE Limoges; P. 6000.

AUÇAGUREL, Africa, the capital of the kingdom of Adel, scated on an eminence

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AUDE, a department of France, containing the s part of the old province of Languedoc. The E end borders on the Mediter

ranean, and other parts are bounded by the departments of Pyrenees-Orientales, Arriege, Haute-Garonne, Tarn, and Herault. It receives its name from a river, which rises in the Pyrenees, and flowing by Quillan, Alert, Limoux, and Carcassone, enters a bay of the Mediterranean, near Narbonne. Carcassone is the capital: area, 2550 square m; P. 253,194.

AUDIERNE, a town of France, department Finisterre, seated on a bay of the same name, with a good haven for coasters, 18 m w Quimper.

AUGILA, Africa, a territory of Sahara, lying to the s of Barca, between Fezzan and Egypt. It abounds in dates; and many of the inhabitants engage in the caravan trade. The capital is of the same name, 220 m w Siwah, and 540 E by N Mourzouk: Lg. 23.40 E, Lt. 29.33 N.


AUGSBURG, a fortified city of Bavaria, province Donau, lately a bishop's see. has a variety of manufactures; and is one of the principal trading towns in Bavaria. The cathedral, town-house, and other public buildings, are magnificent. In the bishop's palace the Lutherans presented their confession of faith to emperor Charles V in 1550; hence called the confession of Augsburgh. The city was taken by the French in 1703, and again in 1796. It is seated between the Werdach and Lech, 40 m NW München: Lg. 10.55 E, Lt. 48.17 N.

AUGUSTA, or AGOSTA, a seaport of Sicily, in Val-di-Noto, with a fine harbour, defended by a citadel and forts. The town, rebuilt since the earthquake in 1693, covers a low island, joined to Sicily, on the N by a long causeway. The principal article of export is salt. It is 20 m SSE Catania.

AUGUSTA, a town of North America, United States, state Georgia, capital of Richmond county. It is seated in a fine plain, on the right bank of the Savana, 90 m from Milledgeville, and 100 NNW Savannah. It has the advantage of a central trade bethe upper and lower countries; P. 6696 in 1830: Lg. 81.54 w, Lt. 33.28 N.


AUGUSTOW, a town of Russia, province

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