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rise more upright at the front and towards the middle more gradual, and along the top nearly flat, the height at the back not being more than from three and a half or four feet, unless the house is very lofty; in this way the trees will bear exceedingly well, and the fruit become very fine, and also during the time of ripening, the fruit is easily prevented from falling to the ground by placing a net underneath. The house thus planted may be forced by fire heat in the usual way, with flues if preferred; but in this case I should decidedly prefer hot water, both for convenience and appearance, as the pipe with returns may be ranged along the centre under the frame-work, and will scarcely be perceptible to the casual observer, and also along near the front glasses, where if a frame is made between the foot-path and the sashes for the forwarding of flowers, French beans, strawberries, or what might be required, the pipes would be also nearly concealed underneath. If vines are introduced, they may be planted either inside the house or on the outside, and admitted through an aperture made for the purpose; also many
useful things may be raised under the centre frame, such as small salads, early rhubarb for tarts, tarragon, mint, &c.
When the centre of the house is left open for forcing generally, many sorts of fruits may be forced therein, either in pots plunged in the earth, or established trees in a bearing state turned out of the pots and planted immediately without disturbing the balls; to effect this the more easily, let the earth in the pots become rather dry, and they will come out of the pots with little trouble, and without injury to the balls.
Let me here remark, that it is by no means a good method to force trees the first year after planting, particularly when removed from nurseries without balls, therefore in all new-planted houses it is desirable for the future welfare of the trees to let them remain open and fully exposed till the following season, and then only a small quantity of fruit should be allowed to remain on each tree, particulary if the trees had not received more than two years training when planted.
NARROW GLASS-HOUSES FOR FORCING, PRINCI
PALLY BY FIRE-HEAT OR HOT WATER.
Par. 30.-Glass houses of narrow dimensions for forcing fruit trees principally, are sometimes erected (for forcing with hot water or fire heat) against a south wall eight or ten feet high or more, width about five or six feet, and length of any extent that may be required, the whole enclosed with glass moveable sashes (in proper sloping frames) made to slide up and down as occasion may require, from a low front wall about eighteen inches high, to the top of the back wall; the pipes for hot water or flues for fire-heat, may be ranged along near the front, or down the middle, or along the back part near the wall, the pipes should be raised a little from the ground, and if heated by flues, they should also be raised on low arches, that by being detached from the ground, the house will receive the benefit of the whole of the heat: the trees may be trained to the wall; but if the flues or pipes are carried along the back close to the wall, it will be necessary to have a trellis
ten or twelve inches from the flues; or the trees may be planted next the front, and trained up parallel with the glass to wire work, properly arranged for the occasion, about eight or ten inches from the glass, by this latter method the sun has great influence in forwarding the fruit and bringing it to early perfection.
These kinds of glass slips for fruit forcing, may be of long dimensions, and so contrived that part of the trees may be forced one year, and part another, by having the frames and sashes of equal size, so that they may be removed from one division to another, and by giving the trees one or two years' respite, occasionally, exposing them fully to the open air, will greatly renovate their constitution, and strengthen them for future forcing.
FORCING FRAMES FOR FORCING FRUIT-TREES BY BARK-BED HEAT ALONE.
Par. 31. In large forcing establishments, besides the foregoing plans for forcing peaches, nectarines, &c., a kind of forcing frames are constructed, wholly of woodwork at the back, front,
and ends, made of strong deal boards five or six feet high in the back by two feet in the front, both ends corresponding; in width about eight feet, and the length for one tree ten feet, and so on for two or more trees, at ten feet apart, each frame to have three lights, or sloping glass sashes, with rafters across the frame for them to slide on, and in the back a pannel made to slide, for
The tan-pit below may be formed either of brick-work or post and planking about three feet deep, the trees are planted in the font, outside, on a raised border, the stem of the tree inclining to the frame, and a piece cut out of the frame to let in the stem, the head admitted within, and trained up about eight or ten inches under the glasses; the bark bed to be renewed at the commencement of each forcing season; and by this plan also, peaches and nectarines will come to good perfection early, but I may observe, it is not very convenient, neither is it very generally adopted.